Two figures in a plane are perspective from a point O if the lines joining corresponding points of the figures all meet at O. Dually, the figures are said to be perspective from a line if the points of intersection of corresponding lines all lie on one line. The proper setting for this concept is in projective geometry where there will be no special cases due to parallel lines since all lines meet. Although stated here for figures in a plane, the concept is easily extended to higher dimensions.
The line which goes through the points where the figure's corresponding sides intersect is known as the axis of perspectivity, perspective axis, homology axis, or archaically, perspectrix. The figures are said to be perspective from this axis. The point at which the lines joining the corresponding vertices of the perspective figures intersect is called the center of perspectivity, perspective center, homology center, pole, or archaically perspector. The figures are said to be perspective from this center.
If each of the perspective figures consists of all the points on a line (a range) then transformation of the points of one range to the other is called a central perspectivity. A dual transformation, taking all the lines through a point (a pencil) to another pencil by means of an axis of perspectivity is called an axial perspectivity.
An important special case occurs when the figures are triangles. Two triangles that are perspective from a point are called a central couple and two triangles that are perspective from a line are called an axial couple.
Karl von Staudt introduced the notation to indicate that triangles ABC and abc are perspective.
Desargues' theorem states that, a central couple of triangles is axial. The converse statement, an axial couple of triangles is central, is equivalent (either can be used to prove the other). Desargues' theorem can be proved in the real projective plane, and with suitable modifications for special cases, in the Euclidean plane. Projective planes in which this result can be proved are called Desarguesian planes.
There are ten points associated with these two kinds of perspective: six on the two triangles, three on the axis of perspectivity, and one at the center of perspectivity. Dually, there are also ten lines associated with two perspective triangles: three sides of the triangles, three lines through the center of perspectivity, and the axis of perspectivity. These ten points and ten lines form an instance of the Desargues configuration.
If two triangles are a central couple in at least two different ways (with two different associations of corresponding vertices, and two different centers of perspectivity) then they are perspective in three ways. This is one of the equivalent forms of Pappus's (hexagon) theorem.When this happens, the nine associated points (six triangle vertices and three centers) and nine associated lines (three through each perspective center) form an instance of the Pappus configuration.
The Reye configuration is formed by four quadruply perspective tetrahedra in an analogous way to the Pappus configuration.
Elliptic geometry is an example of a geometry in which Euclid's parallel postulate does not hold. Instead, as in spherical geometry, there are no parallel lines since any two lines must intersect. However, unlike in spherical geometry, two lines are usually assumed to intersect at a single point. Because of this, the elliptic geometry described in this article is sometimes referred to as single elliptic geometry whereas spherical geometry is sometimes referred to as double elliptic geometry.
Projective geometry is a topic in mathematics. It is the study of geometric properties that are invariant with respect to projective transformations. This means that, compared to elementary geometry, projective geometry has a different setting, projective space, and a selective set of basic geometric concepts. The basic intuitions are that projective space has more points than Euclidean space, for a given dimension, and that geometric transformations are permitted that transform the extra points to Euclidean points, and vice versa.
In mathematics, affine geometry is what remains of Euclidean geometry when not using the metric notions of distance and angle.
In projective geometry, Desargues's theorem, named after Girard Desargues, states:
In finite geometry, the Fano plane is the finite projective plane of order 2. It is the finite projective plane with the smallest possible number of points and lines: 7 points and 7 lines, with 3 points on every line and 3 lines through every point. The standard notation for this plane, as a member of a family of projective spaces, is PG(2, 2) where PG stands for "projective geometry", the first parameter is the geometric dimension and the second parameter is the order.
In geometry, a striking feature of projective planes is the symmetry of the roles played by points and lines in the definitions and theorems, and (plane) duality is the formalization of this concept. There are two approaches to the subject of duality, one through language and the other a more functional approach through special mappings. These are completely equivalent and either treatment has as its starting point the axiomatic version of the geometries under consideration. In the functional approach there is a map between related geometries that is called a duality. Such a map can be constructed in many ways. The concept of plane duality readily extends to space duality and beyond that to duality in any finite-dimensional projective geometry.
In projective geometry, Pascal's theorem states that if six arbitrary points are chosen on a conic and joined by line segments in any order to form a hexagon, then the three pairs of opposite sides of the hexagon meet at three points which lie on a straight line, called the Pascal line of the hexagon. It is named after Blaise Pascal.
In mathematics, an abstract system consisting of two types of objects and a single relationship between these types of objects is called an incidence structure. Consider the points and lines of the Euclidean plane as the two types of objects and ignore all the properties of this geometry except for the relation of which points are on which lines for all points and lines. What is left is the incidence structure of the Euclidean plane.
In combinatorial mathematics, a Levi graph or incidence graph is a bipartite graph associated with an incidence structure. From a collection of points and lines in an incidence geometry or a projective configuration, we form a graph with one vertex per point, one vertex per line, and an edge for every incidence between a point and a line. They are named for Friedrich Wilhelm Levi, who wrote about them in 1942.
In mathematics, Pappus's hexagon theorem states that
In mathematics, incidence geometry is the study of incidence structures. A geometric structure such as the Euclidean plane is a complicated object that involves concepts such as length, angles, continuity, betweenness, and incidence. An incidence structure is what is obtained when all other concepts are removed and all that remains is the data about which points lie on which lines. Even with this severe limitation, theorems can be proved and interesting facts emerge concerning this structure. Such fundamental results remain valid when additional concepts are added to form a richer geometry. It sometimes happens that authors blur the distinction between a study and the objects of that study, so it is not surprising to find that some authors refer to incidence structures as incidence geometries.
In geometry, the Pappus configuration is a configuration of nine points and nine lines in the Euclidean plane, with three points per line and three lines through each point.
In mathematics, specifically in incidence geometry and especially in projective geometry, a complete quadrangle is a system of geometric objects consisting of any four points in a plane, no three of which are on a common line, and of the six lines connecting the six pairs of points. Dually, a complete quadrilateral is a system of four lines, no three of which pass through the same point, and the six points of intersection of these lines. The complete quadrangle was called a tetrastigm by Lachlan (1893), and the complete quadrilateral was called a tetragram; those terms are occasionally still used.
In geometry, collinearity of a set of points is the property of their lying on a single line. A set of points with this property is said to be collinear. In greater generality, the term has been used for aligned objects, that is, things being "in a line" or "in a row".
In mathematics, specifically projective geometry, a configuration in the plane consists of a finite set of points, and a finite arrangement of lines, such that each point is incident to the same number of lines and each line is incident to the same number of points.
In geometry, the Desargues configuration is a configuration of ten points and ten lines, with three points per line and three lines per point. It is named after Girard Desargues, and closely related to Desargues' theorem, which proves the existence of the configuration.
In geometry and in its applications to drawing, a perspectivity is the formation of an image in a picture plane of a scene viewed from a fixed point.
In mathematics, the Reye configuration, introduced by Theodor Reye (1882), is a configuration of 12 points and 16 lines. Each point of the configuration belongs to four lines, and each line contains three points. Therefore, in the notation of configurations, the Reye configuration is written as 124163.
In geometry, trilinear polarity is a certain correspondence between the points in the plane of a triangle not lying on the sides of the triangle and lines in the plane of the triangle not passing through the vertices of the triangle. "Although it is called a polarity, it is not really a polarity at all, for poles of concurrent lines are not collinear lines." It was Poncelet (1788–1867), a French engineer and mathematician, who introduced the idea of the trilinear polar of a point in 1865.