In elementary algebra, the **quadratic formula** is a formula that provides the solution(s) to a quadratic equation. There are other ways of solving a quadratic equation instead of using the quadratic formula, such as factoring (direct factoring, grouping, AC method), completing the square, graphing and others.^{ [1] }

- Equivalent formulations
- Muller's method
- Formulations based on alternative parametrizations
- Derivations of the formula
- By using the 'completing the square' technique
- By substitution
- By using algebraic identities
- By Lagrange resolvents
- Historical development
- Significant uses
- Geometric significance
- Dimensional analysis
- See also
- References

Given a general quadratic equation of the form

with *x* representing an unknown, *a*, *b* and *c* representing constants with *a* ≠ 0, the quadratic formula is:

where the plus-minus symbol "±" indicates that the quadratic equation has two solutions.^{ [2] } Written separately, they become:

Each of these two solutions is also called a root (or zero) of the quadratic equation. Geometrically, these roots represent the *x*-values at which *any* parabola, explicitly given as *y* = *ax*^{2} + *bx* + *c*, crosses the *x*-axis.^{ [3] }

As well as being a formula that yields the zeros of any parabola, the quadratic formula can also be used to identify the axis of symmetry of the parabola,^{ [4] } and the number of real zeros the quadratic equation contains.^{ [5] }

The quadratic formula may also be written as

which may be simplified to

The expression inside the square root is called the discriminant.

This version of the formula makes it easy to find the roots when using a calculator.

The version above is also convenient when complex roots are involved, in which case the expression outside the square root is the real part and the square root expression is the imaginary part:

A lesser known quadratic formula, which is used in Muller's method and which can be found from Vieta's formulas, provides the same roots via the equation:

The standard parametrization of the quadratic equation is

Some sources, particularly older ones, use alternative parameterizations of the quadratic equation such as

- , where ,
^{ [6] }

or

- , where .
^{ [7] }

These alternative parametrizations result in slightly different forms for the solution, but which are otherwise equivalent to the standard parametrization.

Many different methods to derive the quadratic formula are available in the literature. The standard one is a simple application of the completing the square technique.^{ [8] }^{ [9] }^{ [10] }^{ [11] } Alternative methods are sometimes simpler than completing the square, and may offer interesting insight into other areas of mathematics.

Divide the quadratic equation by , which is allowed because is non-zero:

Subtract *c*/*a* from both sides of the equation, yielding:

The quadratic equation is now in a form to which the method of completing the square is applicable. In fact, by adding a constant to both sides of the equation such that the left hand side becomes a complete square, the quadratic equation becomes:

which produces:

Accordingly, after rearranging the terms on the right hand side to have a common denominator, we obtain:

The square has thus been completed. Taking the square root of both sides yields the following equation:

In which case, isolating the would give the quadratic formula:

There are many alternatives of this derivation with minor differences, mostly concerning the manipulation of .

The majority of algebra texts published over the last several decades teach completing the square using the sequence presented earlier:

- Divide each side by to make the polynomial monic.
- Rearrange.
- Add to both sides to complete the square.
- Rearrange the terms in the right side to have a common denominator.
- Take the square root of both sides.
- Isolate
*.*

Completing the square can also be accomplished by a sometimes shorter and simpler sequence:^{ [12] }

- Multiply each side by
*,* - Rearrange.
- Add
*to both sides to complete the square.* - Take the square root of both sides.
- Isolate
*.*

In which case, the quadratic formula can also be derived as follows:

This derivation of the quadratic formula is ancient and was known in India at least as far back as 1025.^{ [13] } Compared with the derivation in standard usage, this alternate derivation avoids fractions and squared fractions until the last step and hence does not require a rearrangement after step 3 to obtain a common denominator in the right side.^{ [12] }

Similar to Method 1, divide each side by * to make left-hand-side polynomial monic (i.e., the coefficient of ** becomes **1*).

Write the equation in a more compact and easier-to-handle format:

where * and **.*

Complete the square by adding * to the first two terms and subtracting it from the third term:*

Rearrange the left side into a difference of two squares:

and factor it:

which implies that either

or

Each of these two equations is linear and can be solved for *, obtaining:*

or

By re-expressing * and ** back into ** and **, respectively, the quadratic formula can then be obtained.*^{[ citation needed ]}

Another technique is solution by substitution.^{ [14] } In this technique, we substitute * into the quadratic to get:*

Expanding the result and then collecting the powers of * produces:*

We have not yet imposed a second condition on * and **, so we now choose ** so that the middle term vanishes. That is, ** or **. Subtracting the constant term from both sides of the equation (to move it to the right hand side) and then dividing by ** gives:*

Substituting for * gives:*

Therefore,

By re-expressing * in terms of ** using the formula ** , the usual quadratic formula can then be obtained:*

The following method was used by many historical mathematicians:^{ [15] }

Let the roots of the standard quadratic equation be *r*_{1} and *r*_{2}. The derivation starts by recalling the identity:

Taking the square root on both sides, we get:

Since the coefficient *a* ≠ 0, we can divide the standard equation by *a* to obtain a quadratic polynomial having the same roots. Namely,

From this we can see that the sum of the roots of the standard quadratic equation is given by −*b*/*a*, and the product of those roots is given by *c*/*a*. Hence the identity can be rewritten as:

Now,

Since *r*_{2} = −*r*_{1} − *b*/*a*, if we take

then we obtain

and if we instead take

then we calculate that

Combining these results by using the standard shorthand ±, we have that the solutions of the quadratic equation are given by:

An alternative way of deriving the quadratic formula is via the method of Lagrange resolvents,^{ [16] } which is an early part of Galois theory.^{ [17] } This method can be generalized to give the roots of cubic polynomials and quartic polynomials, and leads to Galois theory, which allows one to understand the solution of algebraic equations of any degree in terms of the symmetry group of their roots, the Galois group.

This approach focuses on the *roots* more than on rearranging the original equation. Given a monic quadratic polynomial

assume that it factors as

Expanding yields

where *p* = −(*α* + *β*) and *q* = *αβ*.

Since the order of multiplication does not matter, one can switch *α* and *β* and the values of *p* and *q* will not change: one can say that *p* and *q* are symmetric polynomials in *α* and *β*. In fact, they are the elementary symmetric polynomials – any symmetric polynomial in *α* and *β* can be expressed in terms of *α* + *β* and *αβ* The Galois theory approach to analyzing and solving polynomials is: given the coefficients of a polynomial, which are symmetric functions in the roots, can one "break the symmetry" and recover the roots? Thus solving a polynomial of degree *n* is related to the ways of rearranging ("permuting") *n* terms, which is called the symmetric group on *n* letters, and denoted *S _{n}*. For the quadratic polynomial, the only way to rearrange two terms is to swap them ("transpose" them), and thus solving a quadratic polynomial is simple.

To find the roots *α* and *β*, consider their sum and difference:

These are called the *Lagrange resolvents* of the polynomial; notice that one of these depends on the order of the roots, which is the key point. One can recover the roots from the resolvents by inverting the above equations:

Thus, solving for the resolvents gives the original roots.

Now *r*_{1} = *α* + *β* is a symmetric function in *α* and *β*, so it can be expressed in terms of *p* and *q*, and in fact *r*_{1} = −*p* as noted above. But *r*_{2} = *α* − *β* is not symmetric, since switching *α* and *β* yields −*r*_{2} = *β* − *α* (formally, this is termed a group action of the symmetric group of the roots). Since *r*_{2} is not symmetric, it cannot be expressed in terms of the coefficients *p* and *q*, as these are symmetric in the roots and thus so is any polynomial expression involving them. Changing the order of the roots only changes *r*_{2} by a factor of −1, and thus the square *r*_{2}^{2} = (*α* − *β*)^{2} is symmetric in the roots, and thus expressible in terms of *p* and *q*. Using the equation

yields

and thus

If one takes the positive root, breaking symmetry, one obtains:

and thus

Thus the roots are

which is the quadratic formula. Substituting *p* = *b*/*a*, *q* = *c*/*a* yields the usual form for when a quadratic is not monic. The resolvents can be recognized as *r*_{1}/2 = −*p*/2 = −*b*/2*a* being the vertex, and *r*_{2}^{2} = *p*^{2} − 4*q* is the discriminant (of a monic polynomial).

A similar but more complicated method works for cubic equations, where one has three resolvents and a quadratic equation (the "resolving polynomial") relating *r*_{2} and *r*_{3}, which one can solve by the quadratic equation, and similarly for a quartic equation (degree 4), whose resolving polynomial is a cubic, which can in turn be solved.^{ [16] } The same method for a quintic equation yields a polynomial of degree 24, which does not simplify the problem, and, in fact, solutions to quintic equations in general cannot be expressed using only roots.

The earliest methods for solving quadratic equations were geometric. Babylonian cuneiform tablets contain problems reducible to solving quadratic equations.^{ [18] } The Egyptian Berlin Papyrus, dating back to the Middle Kingdom (2050 BC to 1650 BC), contains the solution to a two-term quadratic equation.^{ [19] }

The Greek mathematician Euclid (circa 300 BC) used geometric methods to solve quadratic equations in Book 2 of his * Elements *, an influential mathematical treatise.^{ [20] } Rules for quadratic equations appear in the Chinese * The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art * circa 200 BC.^{ [21] }^{ [22] } In his work * Arithmetica *, the Greek mathematician Diophantus (circa 250 AD) solved quadratic equations with a method more recognizably algebraic than the geometric algebra of Euclid.^{ [20] } His solution gives only one root, even when both roots are positive.^{ [23] }

The Indian mathematician Brahmagupta (597–668 AD) explicitly described the quadratic formula in his treatise * Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta * published in 628 AD,^{ [24] } but written in words instead of symbols.^{ [25] } His solution of the quadratic equation *ax*^{2} + *bx* = *c* was as follows: "To the absolute number multiplied by four times the [coefficient of the] square, add the square of the [coefficient of the] middle term; the square root of the same, less the [coefficient of the] middle term, being divided by twice the [coefficient of the] square is the value."^{ [26] } This is equivalent to:

The 9th-century Persian mathematician Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī solved quadratic equations algebraically.^{ [27] } The quadratic formula covering all cases was first obtained by Simon Stevin in 1594.^{ [28] } In 1637 René Descartes published * La Géométrie * containing special cases of the quadratic formula in the form we know today.^{ [29] }

In terms of coordinate geometry, a parabola is a curve whose (*x*, *y*)-coordinates are described by a second-degree polynomial, i.e. any equation of the form:

where *p* represents the polynomial of degree 2 and *a*_{0}, *a*_{1}, and *a*_{2} ≠ 0 are constant coefficients whose subscripts correspond to their respective term's degree. The geometrical interpretation of the quadratic formula is that it defines the points on the *x*-axis where the parabola will cross the axis. Additionally, if the quadratic formula was looked at as two terms,

the axis of symmetry appears as the line *x* = −*b*/2*a*. The other term, √*b*^{2} − 4*ac*/2*a*, gives the distance the zeros are away from the axis of symmetry, where the plus sign represents the distance to the right, and the minus sign represents the distance to the left.

If this distance term were to decrease to zero, the value of the axis of symmetry would be the *x* value of the only zero, that is, there is only one possible solution to the quadratic equation. Algebraically, this means that √*b*^{2} − 4*ac* = 0, or simply *b*^{2} − 4*ac* = 0 (where the left-hand side is referred to as the *discriminant*). This is one of three cases, where the discriminant indicates how many zeros the parabola will have. If the discriminant is positive, the distance would be non-zero, and there will be two solutions. However, there is also the case where the discriminant is less than zero, and this indicates the distance will be *imaginary* – or some multiple of the complex unit *i*, where *i* = √−1 – and the parabola's zeros will be complex numbers. The complex roots will be complex conjugates, where the real part of the complex roots will be the value of the axis of symmetry. There will be no real values of *x* where the parabola crosses the *x*-axis.

If the constants *a*, *b*, and/or *c* are not unitless, then the units of *x* must be equal to the units of *b*/*a*, due to the requirement that *ax*^{2} and *bx* agree on their units. Furthermore, by the same logic, the units of *c* must be equal to the units of *b*^{2}/*a*, which can be verified without solving for *x*. This can be a powerful tool for verifying that a quadratic expression of physical quantities has been set up correctly, prior to solving this.

In mathematics, a **complex number** is a number that can be expressed in the form *a* + *bi*, where a and b are real numbers, and i is a symbol called the imaginary unit, and satisfying the equation *i*^{2} = −1. Because no "real" number satisfies this equation, i was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number *a* + *bi*, a is called the **real part** and b is called the **imaginary part**. The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols or **C**. Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world.

In algebra, a **quadratic equation** is any equation that can be rearranged in standard form as

In mathematics, the **discriminant** of a polynomial is a quantity that depends on the coefficients and determines various properties of the roots. It is generally defined as a polynomial function of the coefficients of the original polynomial. The discriminant is widely used in polynomial factoring, number theory, and algebraic geometry. It is often denoted by the symbol .

In mathematics, **factorization** or **factoring** consists of writing a number or another mathematical object as a product of several *factors*, usually smaller or simpler objects of the same kind. For example, 3 × 5 is a factorization of the integer 15, and (*x* – 2)(*x* + 2) is a factorization of the polynomial *x*^{2} – 4.

In algebra, a **cubic equation** in one variable is an equation of the form

In algebra, a **quadratic function**, a **quadratic polynomial**, a **polynomial of degree 2**, or simply a **quadratic**, is a polynomial function with one or more variables in which the highest-degree term is of the second degree.

In mathematics, a **quartic equation** is one which can be expressed as a quartic function equaling zero. The general form of a quartic equation is

In algebra, a **quintic function** is a function of the form

In elementary algebra, **completing the square** is a technique for converting a quadratic polynomial of the form

In mathematics, a **quadratic irrational number** is an irrational number that is the solution to some quadratic equation with rational coefficients which is irreducible over the rational numbers. Since fractions in the coefficients of a quadratic equation can be cleared by multiplying both sides by their common denominator, a quadratic irrational is an irrational root of some quadratic equation whose coefficients are integers. The quadratic irrational numbers, a subset of the complex numbers, are algebraic numbers of degree 2, and can therefore be expressed as

In algebra, a **quartic function** is a function of the form

In mathematics, the **classical orthogonal polynomials** are the most widely used orthogonal polynomials: the Hermite polynomials, Laguerre polynomials, Jacobi polynomials.

In mathematics, an **algebraic equation** or **polynomial equation** is an equation of the form

In mathematics, the **field trace** is a particular function defined with respect to a finite field extension *L*/*K*, which is a *K*-linear map from *L* onto *K*.

This article describes periodic points of some complex quadratic maps. A **map** is a formula for computing a value of a variable based on its own previous value or values; a quadratic map is one that involves the previous value raised to the powers one and two; and a **complex** map is one in which the variable and the parameters are complex numbers. A periodic point of a map is a value of the variable that occurs repeatedly after intervals of a fixed length.

In mathematics, an **algebraic function** is a function that can be defined as the root of a polynomial equation. Quite often algebraic functions are algebraic expressions using a finite number of terms, involving only the algebraic operations addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and raising to a fractional power. Examples of such functions are:

In mathematics, **Eisenstein integers**, occasionally also known as **Eulerian integers**, are complex numbers of the form

In algebra, a **nested radical** is a radical expression that contains (nests) another radical expression. Examples include

In algebra, * casus irreducibilis* is one of the cases that may arise in attempting to solve polynomials of degree 3 or higher with integer coefficients, to obtain roots that are expressed with radicals. It shows that many algebraic numbers are real-valued but cannot be expressed in radicals without introducing complex numbers. The most notable occurrence of

In algebra, a **resolvent cubic** is one of several distinct, although related, cubic polynomials defined from a monic polynomial of degree four:

- ↑ "Quadratic Factorisation: The Complete Guide".
*Math Vault*. 2016-03-13. Retrieved 2019-11-10. - ↑ Sterling, Mary Jane (2010),
*Algebra I For Dummies*, Wiley Publishing, p. 219, ISBN 978-0-470-55964-2 - ↑ "Understanding the quadratic formula".
*Khan Academy*. Retrieved 2019-11-10. - ↑ "Axis of Symmetry of a Parabola. How to find axis from equation or from a graph. To find the axis of symmetry ..."
*www.mathwarehouse.com*. Retrieved 2019-11-10. - ↑ "Discriminant review".
*Khan Academy*. Retrieved 2019-11-10. - ↑ Kahan, Willian (November 20, 2004),
*On the Cost of Floating-Point Computation Without Extra-Precise Arithmetic*(PDF), retrieved 2012-12-25 - ↑ "Quadratic Formula",
*Proof Wiki*, retrieved 2016-10-08 - ↑ Rich, Barnett; Schmidt, Philip (2004),
*Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of Elementary Algebra*, The McGraw–Hill Companies, ISBN 0-07-141083-X , Chapter 13 §4.4, p. 291 - ↑ Li, Xuhui.
*An Investigation of Secondary School Algebra Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Algebraic Equation Solving*, p. 56 (ProQuest, 2007): "The quadratic formula is the most general method for solving quadratic equations and is derived from another general method: completing the square." - ↑ Rockswold, Gary.
*College algebra and trigonometry and precalculus*, p. 178 (Addison Wesley, 2002). - ↑ Beckenbach, Edwin et al.
*Modern college algebra and trigonometry*, p. 81 (Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1986). - 1 2 Hoehn, Larry (1975). "A More Elegant Method of Deriving the Quadratic Formula".
*The Mathematics Teacher*.**68**(5): 442–443. doi:10.5951/MT.68.5.0442. - ↑ Smith, David E. (1958).
*History of Mathematics, Vol. II*. Dover Publications. p. 446. ISBN 0486204308. - ↑ Joseph J. Rotman. (2010). Advanced modern algebra (Vol. 114). American Mathematical Soc. Section 1.1
- ↑ Debnath, Lokenath (2009). "The legacy of Leonhard Euler – a tricentennial tribute".
*International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology*.**40**(3): 353–388. doi:10.1080/00207390802642237. S2CID 123048345. - 1 2 Clark, A. (1984).
*Elements of abstract algebra*. Courier Corporation. p. 146. - ↑ Prasolov, Viktor; Solovyev, Yuri (1997),
*Elliptic functions and elliptic integrals*, AMS Bookstore, ISBN 978-0-8218-0587-9 , §6.2, p. 134 - ↑ Irving, Ron (2013).
*Beyond the Quadratic Formula*. MAA. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-88385-783-0. - ↑
*The Cambridge Ancient History Part 2 Early History of the Middle East*. Cambridge University Press. 1971. p. 530. ISBN 978-0-521-07791-0. - 1 2 Irving, Ron (2013).
*Beyond the Quadratic Formula*. MAA. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-88385-783-0. - ↑ Aitken, Wayne. "A Chinese Classic: The Nine Chapters" (PDF). Mathematics Department, California State University. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
- ↑ Smith, David Eugene (1958).
*History of Mathematics*. Courier Dover Publications. p. 380. ISBN 978-0-486-20430-7. - ↑ Smith, David Eugene (1958).
*History of Mathematics*. Courier Dover Publications. p. 134. ISBN 0-486-20429-4. - ↑ Bradley, Michael.
*The Birth of Mathematics: Ancient Times to 1300*, p. 86 (Infobase Publishing 2006). - ↑ Mackenzie, Dana.
*The Universe in Zero Words: The Story of Mathematics as Told through Equations*, p. 61 (Princeton University Press, 2012). - ↑ Stillwell, John (2004).
*Mathematics and Its History (2nd ed.)*. Springer. p. 87. ISBN 0-387-95336-1. - ↑ Irving, Ron (2013).
*Beyond the Quadratic Formula*. MAA. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-88385-783-0. - ↑ Struik, D. J.; Stevin, Simon (1958),
*The Principal Works of Simon Stevin, Mathematics*(PDF),**II–B**, C. V. Swets & Zeitlinger, p. 470 - ↑ Rene Descartes.
*The Geometry*.

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