Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery (25 April 1621 – 16 October 1679), styled Lord Broghill from 1628 to 1660, was an Anglo-Irish soldier and politician who sat in the House of Commons of England at various times between 1654 and 1679. Boyle fought in the Irish Confederate Wars (part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms) and subsequently became known for his antagonism towards Irish Catholics and their political aspirations. He was also a noted playwright and writer on 17th century warfare.
Boyle was the third surviving son of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork and his second wife, Catherine Fenton, daughter of Sir Geoffrey Fenton of Dublin. He was named after his parents' first son who had died at age nine. He was created Baron of Broghill in the Peerage of Ireland on 28 February 1628, a few months before his 7th birthday.Boyle was educated at Trinity College, Dublin in 1630 and at Gray's Inn in 1636. From 1636 to 1639 he travelled abroad in France, Switzerland and Italy and then took part in the Bishops Wars against the Scots on returning home.
Boyle returned to Ireland on the outbreak of the rebellion in 1641 and fought with his brothers against the Irish rebels at the battle of Liscarroll in September 1642. Boyle and the English in Ireland were left vulnerable by the outbreak of the English Civil War. Although initially under the command of the Royalist Marquis of Ormonde (later James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde), Lord Broghill consented to serve under the parliamentary commissioners in Cork against the Irish Confederates. Boyle fought with the Parliamentarians until the execution of the king, when he retired altogether from public affairs and took up his residence at Marston in Somerset.
Subsequently, he originated a scheme to bring about the Restoration. On his way abroad to consult with King Charles II, he was unexpectedly visited by Oliver Cromwell in London. Cromwell informed him that his plans were well known to the council and warned against persisting in them. Cromwell offered him a command in Ireland against the rebels that entailed no obligation except faithful service. It was accepted.
Boyle's assistance in Ireland proved invaluable during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. Appointed master of the ordnance, he soon assembled a body of infantry and horse, driving the rebels into Kilkenny, where they surrendered; he induced the Royalist garrison of Cork (English troops with whom he had served earlier in the wars) to defect back to the Parliamentarian side. On 10 May 1650 he completely defeated at Macroom a force of Irish advancing to the relief of Cork. On Cromwell's departure for Scotland, Boyle cooperated with Henry Ireton, whom he joined at the siege of Limerick. In 1651 he defeated an Irish force marching to Limerick's relief under Lord Muskerry at the battle of Knocknaclashy, the final battle of the Irish Confederate Wars, thus effecting the capture of the town.
By this time Broghill had become a fast friend and follower of Cromwell, whose stern measures in Ireland and support of the English and Protestants were welcomed after the policy of concession to the Irish initiated by Charles I. He was returned as member for the county of Cork in 1654 to the First Protectorate Parliament and in 1656 to the Second Protectorate Parliamentand also in the latter assembly for Edinburgh, for which he elected to sit. He served this year as Lord President of the Council in Scotland, where he won much popularity. He lodged in Edinburgh at Old Moray House. When he returned to England he was included in the inner cabinet of Cromwell's council, and nominated in 1657 as a member of the new House of Lords. He was one of those most in favour of Cromwell's assumption of the royal title, and proposed a union between the Protector's daughter Frances and Charles II.
On Oliver Cromwell's death, Boyle gave his support to Richard Cromwell; but as he saw no possibility of maintaining the government, he left for Ireland, where by resuming command in Munster he secured the island for Charles, anticipating Monk's overtures by inviting the King to land at Cork.In 1660, he was elected MP for Arundel in the Convention Parliament, although he was busily engaged in Ireland at the time of the election. On 5 September 1660 he was created Earl of Orrery. The same year he was appointed one of the three Lord Justices (Ireland) and drew up the Act of Settlement 1662. In 1661, he was re-elected MP for Arundel in the Cavalier Parliament. He founded the town of Charleville, County Cork, near his estate at Broghill. However, his mansion house in Broghill was burned down by Irish forces before the end of the century.
He continued to exercise his office as lord-president of Munster till 1668, when he resigned it on account of disputes with the duke of Ormonde, the lord-lieutenant. On 25 November, he was impeached by the House of Commons for "raising of money by his own authority upon his majesty's subjects," but the prorogation of parliament by the king interrupted the proceedings, which were not afterwards renewed. In 1673 he was appointed Custos Rotulorum of County Limerick, which position he held until his death.
In addition to Lord Orrery's achievements as a statesman and administrator, he gained some reputation as a writer and a dramatist. He was the author of:
There are some poems, of little interest, including verses:
Plays in verse, of some literary but less dramatic merit:
A collected edition was published in 1737, to which was added the fourth earl's comedy As you find it. The General is also attributed to him.
Boyle was a brother of Robert Boyle.
Boyle married Lady Margaret Howard, 3rd daughter of Theophilus, 2nd Earl of Suffolk, whose charms were celebrated by Suckling in his poem "The Bride". By her he had besides five daughters, two sons, of whom the eldest, Roger (1646 –1681/1682), succeeded as 2nd earl of Orrery. His daughter, Elizabeth, married Folliott Wingfield, 1st Viscount Powerscourt. Two other children, Henry and Margaret, married children of Murrough O'Brien, 1st Earl of Inchiquin; Henry was the father of Henry Boyle, 1st Earl of Shannon.
Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, also known as the Great Earl of Cork, was an English-born politician who served as Lord Treasurer of the Kingdom of Ireland.
Earl of the County of Cork, usually shortened to Earl of Cork, is a title in the Peerage of Ireland, held in conjunction with the Earldom of Orrery since 1753. It was created in 1620 for the Anglo-Irish politician Richard Boyle, 1st Baron Boyle. He had already been created Lord Boyle, Baron of Youghal, in the County of Cork, in 1616, and was made Viscount of Dungarvan, in the County of Waterford, at the same time he was given the earldom. These titles are also in the Peerage of Ireland.
Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Burlington, 2nd Earl of Cork was an Anglo-Irish nobleman who served as Lord High Treasurer of Ireland and was a Cavalier.
Earl of Orrery is a title in the Peerage of Ireland that has been united with the earldom of Cork since 1753. It was created in 1660 for the soldier, statesman and dramatist Roger Boyle, 1st Baron Boyle, third but eldest surviving son of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork. He had already been created Lord Boyle, Baron of Broghill, in the Peerage of Ireland in 1628. He was succeeded by his son, the second Earl. He represented County Cork in the Irish House of Commons and served as Vice-President of Munster. On his death the titles passed to his eldest son, the third Earl. He represented East Grinstead in the English House of Commons. He was succeeded by his younger brother, the fourth Earl. He was a Lieutenant-General in the Army and a prominent diplomat. In 1711 he was created Baron Boyle of Marston, in the County of Somerset, in the Peerage of Great Britain. His son, the fifth Earl, succeeded his third cousin as fifth Earl of Cork in 1753. See the latter title for further history of the peerages.
Earl of Shannon is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created in 1756 for the prominent Irish politician Henry Boyle, who served as Speaker of the Irish House of Commons and as Chancellor of the Irish Exchequer. The earldom is named after Shannon Park in County Cork.
The Irish Confederate Wars, also called the Eleven Years' War, took place in Ireland between 1641 and 1653. It was the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms – a series of civil wars in the kingdoms of Ireland, England and Scotland. The war in Ireland began with a rebellion in 1641 by Irish Catholics, who tried to seize control of the English administration in Ireland to force concessions for Catholics. This developed into an ethnic conflict between Gaelic Irish and old English Catholics on one side, and English and Scottish Protestant colonists on the other. Catholic leaders formed the Irish Catholic Confederation in 1642, which controlled most of Ireland and was loosely aligned with the Royalists. The Confederates and Royalists fought against the English Parliamentarians and Scottish Covenanters. In 1649, a Parliamentarian army led by Oliver Cromwell invaded Ireland and by 1653 had conquered the island.
Charleville is a town in north County Cork, Ireland. It lies in the Golden Vale, on a tributary of the River Maigue, near the border with County Limerick. Charleville is on the N20 road and is the second-largest town between Limerick and Cork. The Roman Catholic parish of Charleville is within the Diocese of Cloyne. Significant industries in the town include Kerry Co-Op and the construction and services sectors.
The battle of Knocknaclashy, took place in County Cork in southern Ireland in 1651. In it, an Irish Confederate force led by Donagh MacCarthy, Viscount Muskerry was defeated by an English Parliamentarian force under Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery. It was the final pitched battle of the Irish Confederate Wars and one of the last of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
The Lord Justice of Ireland was an ancient senior position in the governance of Ireland, held by a number of important personages, such as the Earl of Kildare.
Richard Townesend was a soldier and politician in England. He was born in 1618 or 1619. Much research has been undertaken by various members of the Townsend family to trace Richard's origins but nothing is known about him before 1643 when he was appointed to command a company, as a Captain, in Colonel Ceely's Regiment, which had been raised to garrison Lyme Regis. Richard was engaged in several skirmishes, most notably on 3 March 1643 when he surprised and routed 150 Royalist cavalry at Bridport. Later, he was present during the defence of Lyme Regis 20 April – 13 June 1644 where he distinguished himself and was promoted to Major. In 1645 he assumed command of Colonel Ceely's Regt when Colonel Ceely was returned to Parliament as Member of Parliament (MP) for Bridport.
The Black Prince is a Restoration era stage play, a historical tragedy written by Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery. It premiered on stage in 1667 and was first published in 1669. The play relied on influences from contemporaneous French theatre, and contributed to the evolution of the subgenre of heroic drama; yet it also looked back to the Caroline era to assimilate masque-like dramatic effects.
The post of Lord President of Munster was the most important office in the English government of the Irish province of Munster from its introduction in the Elizabethan era for a century, to 1672, a period including the Desmond Rebellions in Munster, the Nine Years' War, and the Irish Rebellion of 1641. The Lord President was subject to the chief governor, but had full authority within the province, extending to civil, criminal and church legal matters, the imposition of martial law, official appointments, and command of military forces. Some appointments to military governor of Munster were not accompanied by the status of President. The width of his powers led to frequent clashes with the longer established courts, and in 1622 he was warned sharply not to "intermeddle" with cases which were properly the business of those courts. He was assisted by a Council whose members included the Chief Justice of Munster, another justice and the Attorney General for the Province. By 1620 his council was permanently based in Limerick.
Murrough MacDermod O'Brien, 6th Baron Inchiquin, 1st Baron O'Brien of Burren, 1st Earl of Inchiquin, was known as Murchadh na dTóiteán in reference to extensive burnings of the Irish who would not convert to Anglicanism.
Michael Boyle, the younger was a Church of Ireland bishop who served as Archbishop of Dublin from 1663 to 1679 and Archbishop of Armagh from 1679 to his death. He also served as Lord Chancellor of Ireland, the last time a bishop was appointed to that office.
There were six early Barons Inchiquin in Ireland between 1543 and 1654. The title was granted to Murrough O'Brien, the brother of Conor O'Brien, King of Thomond, when he surrendered his Irish royalty to King Henry VIII in 1543. His descendants held the title until 1654, when Murrough O'Brien, 6th Baron Inchiquin was created Earl of Inchiquin.
The Restoration of the monarchy began in 1660. The Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1649–60) resulted from the Wars of the Three Kingdoms but collapsed in 1659. Politicians such as General Monck tried to ensure a peaceful transition of government from the "Commonwealth" republic back to monarchy. From 1 May 1660 the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under King Charles II. The term Restoration may apply both to the actual event by which the monarchy was restored, and to the period immediately before and after the event.
Roger Boyle, 2nd Earl of Orrery, styled Lord Broghill between 1660 and 1679, was an Irish peer and Member of Parliament.
Arthur Jones, 2nd Viscount Ranelagh was an Irish peer and politician who sat in both the Irish House of Commons and the English House of Commons.
Richard Power, 1st Earl of Tyrone (1630–1690) was an Irish Jacobite nobleman.
John King, 1st Baron Kingston was an Anglo-Irish soldier during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms who served the Commonwealth government during the Interregnum and government of Charles II after the Restoration.
|Parliament of England|
| Member of Parliament for Arundel |
with The Viscount Falkland 1660
Sir John Trevor 1660–1661
The Lord Aungier of Longford 1661–1679
1660 – 1679
|Peerage of Ireland|
|New title|| Baron Boyle of Broghill |
| Earl of Orrery |