Convict transport Scarborough by Frank Allen
|Owner:||John, George, & Thomas Hopper|
|Builder:||Fowler & Heward, Scarborough, North Yorkshire|
|Tons burthen:||41091⁄94, or 411, or 412, or 428 or 429 (bm)|
|Beam:||29 feet 10 inches (9.1 m)|
|Depth of hold:||12 feet 5 1⁄2 inches (3.8 m)|
|Sail plan:||Ship rig|
Scarborough was a double-decked, three-masted, ship-rigged, copper-sheathed, barque that participated in the First Fleet, assigned to transport convicts for the European colonisation of Australia in 1788. Also, the British East India company (EIC) chartered Scarborough to take a cargo of tea back to Britain after her two voyages transporting convicts. She spent much of her career as a West Indiaman, trading between London and the West Indies, but did perform a third voyage in 1801–02 to Bengal for the EIC. In January 1805 she repelled a French privateer of superior force in a single-ship action, before foundering in April.
Copper sheathing is the practice of protecting the under-water hull of a ship or boat from the corrosive effects of salt water and biofouling through the use of copper plates affixed to the outside of the hull. It was pioneered and developed by the Royal Navy during the 18th century. In antiquity, ancient Greeks used lead plates to protect the under-water hull.
A barque, barc, or bark is a type of sailing vessel with three or more masts having the fore- and mainmasts rigged square and only the mizzen rigged fore and aft. Sometimes, the mizzen is only partly fore-and-aft rigged, bearing a square-rigged sail above.
The First Fleet was the 11 ships that departed from Portsmouth, England, on 13 May 1787 to found the penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia. The Fleet consisted of two Royal Navy vessels, three store ships and six convict transports, carrying between 1,000 and 1,500 convicts, marines, seamen, civil officers and free people, and a large quantity of stores. From England, the Fleet sailed southwest to Rio de Janeiro, then east to Cape Town and via the Great Southern Ocean to Botany Bay, arriving over the period of 18 to 20 January 1788, taking 250 to 252 days from departure to final arrival.
Scarborough spent her first four years transporting timber from the Baltic and North America.She first enters Lloyd's Register in 1783. Her entry gives her burthen as 600 tons (bm), her master as "Scorbdle", her owner as T. Hooper, and her trade as "London Transport". The next year J. Marshall replaced Scorbdale as master.
Lloyd's Register Group Limited (LR) is a technical and business services organisation and a maritime classification society, wholly owned by the Lloyd’s Register Foundation, a UK charity dedicated to research and education in science and engineering. The organisation dates to 1760. Its stated aims are to enhance the safety of life, property, and the environment, by helping its clients to ensure the quality construction and operation of critical infrastructure.
In 1787 south London shipbroker William Richards chartered Scarborough for the First Fleet voyage at a rate of 12 shillings per ton (bm) per month. He selected her after first consulting with Royal Marine officers Watkin Tench and David Collins.Both marine officers would sail with the Fleet to Australia, Tench as a captain of marines and Collins as judge-advocate for the new colony. She was the second-largest transport selected for the Fleet after Alexander.
Shipbroking is a financial service, which forms part of the global shipping industry. Shipbrokers are specialist intermediaries/negotiators between shipowners and charterers who use ships to transport cargo, or between buyers and sellers of vessels.
The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in Austria (schilling), the United States, and in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and other British Commonwealth countries. Currently the shilling is used as a currency in four east African countries: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Somalia. It is also the proposed currency that the east African community plans to introduce . The word shilling comes from old English "Scilling", a monetary term meaning twentieth of a pound, and from the Proto-Germanic root skiljaną meaning 'to separate, split, divide.' The word "Scilling" is mentioned in the earliest recorded Germanic law codes, those of Æthelberht of Kent.
The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is the amphibious light infantry and also one of the five fighting arms of the Royal Navy. The marines can trace their origins back to the formation of the English Army's "Duke of York and Albany's maritime regiment of Foot" at the grounds of the Honourable Artillery Company on 28 October 1664.
After selection, Scarborough sailed to Deptford dockyard to be refitted for convict transportation under the supervision of Naval Agent George Teer. 6 feet 2 inches (1.9 m) amidships and between 6 feet 1 inch (1.9 m) and 5 feet 11 inches (1.8 m) fore and aft, and two windsails were brought aboard to improve the flow of air in the convict quarters. Bulkheads were also fitted to separate convict quarters from those of the marines and crew, and space set aside for stores and a sick bay. An Osbridge machine was also installed to filter Scarborough's drinking water during the voyage to New South Wales. Teer was entirely satisfied with Scarborough's fitout; in December 1786 he advised the Navy Board that she and her fellow First Fleet transports were "completed fitted [with] provisions and accommodations .. better than any other set of transports I have ever had any directions in."The height between decks was increased to
Scarborough's crew as a convict transport was approximately 35 men including her master, three mates, a boatswain and a ship's surgeon.
A boatswain, bo's'n, bos'n, or bosun, also known as a Petty Officer, deck boss, or a qualified member of the deck department, is the seniormost rate of the deck department and is responsible for the components of a ship's hull. The boatswain supervises the other members of the ship's deck department, and typically is not a watchstander, except on vessels with small crews. Additional duties vary depending upon ship, crew, and circumstances.
On her first convict voyage, as part of the First Fleet, her master was John Marshall and her surgeon was Dennis Considen. Sirius. There they received 24 lashes each and then were again transferred, this time to Prince of Wales. She arrived at Port Jackson, Sydney, on 26 January 1788.She left Portsmouth on 13 May 1787, carrying 208 male convicts, together with officers and 34 other ranks of the New South Wales Marine Corps. On the way Marshall suspected that the convicts had a plan to mutiny. An informer named two ringleaders, whom Marshall then transferred to HMS
Dennis Considen was an Irish-born surgeon, best known for his pioneering role in the use of Australian native plants for pharmaceutical use, especially eucalyptus oil, which he used to treat the convicts. He sailed with the First Fleet as surgeon on the Scarborough, which transported English convicts to Port Jackson, Australia, in 1788.
Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, England, with a total population of 205,400 residents. The city of Portsmouth is nicknamed Pompey and is mainly built on Portsea Island, a flat, low-lying island measuring 24 square kilometres in area, just off the south-east coast of Hampshire. Portsmouth is the only island city in the United Kingdom, and is the only city whose population density exceeds that of London.
A convict is "a person found guilty of a crime and sentenced by a court" or "a person serving a sentence in prison". Convicts are often also known as "prisoners" or "inmates" or by the slang term "con", while a common label for former convicts, especially those recently released from prison, is "ex-con" ("ex-convict"). Persons convicted and sentenced to non-custodial sentences tend not to be described as "convicts".
On leaving Port Jackson on 6 May 1788, in company with Charlotte , she travelled to China. 's stores, and scurvy had become rampant among her crew. Fifteen of the sickest men were brought ashore on Tinian and housed in tents on the dunes, while the remainder of the crew foraged for food. While anchored off Tinian, both vessels were nearly blown onto shore by strong winds, but disaster was averted when their captains decided to cut the anchor ropes and raise sail to move off shore.On 17 May 1788 the two ships landed at Lord Howe Island for birds and vegetables, then sailed for Whampoa. En route, the ships became the first European vessels to pass among the Marshall and Gilbert islands. Further north, they made landfall on Tinian in the Northern Marianas, where both ships were forced to anchor. The long sea voyage had depleted Scarborough
After several weeks recovery on Tinian, Scarborough's crew had returned to sufficient health for the voyage to resume. In easy sailing weather, Scarborough and Charlotte reached Macau on 9 September and Whampoa shortly afterwards. There the EIC chartered them as an "extra ship". They received cargoes of tea and made ready to sail to England. Departing Whampoa on 17 December, the ships reached St. Helena by 20 March 1789 and arrived in England on 15 June. <
Scarborough returned to New South Wales with the notorious Second Fleet. In company with Surprize and Neptune, she sailed from England with 253 male convicts on 19 January 1790. Her master was again John Marshall and the surgeon was Augustus Jacob Beyer.
On 18 February several convicts plotted a mutiny. They chose as their leader one Samuel Burt, who revealed the plot to the ship's officers. The plotters were interrogated, and several were severely flogged. Others were chained to the deck.
Scarborough arrived at the Cape of Good Hope on 13 April 1790, and spent 16 days there, taking on provisions, and eight male convicts from HMS Guardian, which had been wrecked after striking an iceberg. She and Neptune parted from Surprize in heavy weather and arrived at Port Jackson on 28 June 160 days out from England. During the voyage 68 or 73 (28%) convicts died and 96 (37%) were sick when landed. After landing, a total of 124 convicts who had arrived in Port Jackson succumbed to disease. She also brought with her two officers and 38 soldiers.
Scarborough returned to England in 1792, via China.
Scarborough's Pacific voyages had left her increasingly decrepit and in need of repairs to her hull. In 1792 she was re-sheeted to remove damage caused by shipworm, and was then set to work plying a trade route between London and St. Petersburg. Further repairs were undertaken in 1795 and 1798. In 1800 to 1801, under Captain J. Scott, she shuttled back and forth between London and the Caribbean, carrying trade goods and provisions for British colonies including St. Vincents, with extensive repairs between voyages. In 1801 Lloyd's Register gives her trade as London to St. Vincents, and then London to the East Indies.
On 10 December 1800 Captain John Scott received a letter of marque.Mr. Charles Kensington tendered Scarborough to the EIC to bring back rice from Bengal. She was one of 28 vessels that sailed on that mission between December 1800 and February 1801.
Scott left Falmouth on 25 January 1801 for Bengal. Scarborough arrived at Calcutta on 19 June. Homeward bound, she left Diamond Harbour on 21 August, reached the Cape on 22 December and St Helena on 28 January 1802, and arrived at the Downs on 8 April.
In 1802 her owners sold Scarborough to Charles Kensington. However, on 10 November she was sold to foreign buyers and her registration was canceled.
In 1803 her former owners repurchased her to use her as a West Indiaman.Captain John Scott received a letter of marque on 15 December 1803. For the next two years she plied a route between London and Tobago.
In December 1804, Scarborough, Captain James Scott, left the Motherbank in a convoy for the West Indies. She joined with HMS Swift and ten other vessels but then a gale on 5 January dispersed the vessels. Scarborough joined Dorset and King George, and the three agreed to keep company to Barbados. On 26 January they encountered a French privateer of 16 guns and perhaps 200 men. In order to be able to resist, Scott asked for reinforcements from his two companion vessels. Their captains agreed and seven men came over from Dorset and five from King George, giving Scott 27 men and boys in all, also including a passenger from the 60th Regiment who joined in. At 4p.m. an engagement ensued that lasted an hour or so. Scarborough succeeded in repelling the privateer, but at the cost of one man killed and her first officer mortally wounded. Scott stated that he thought the privateer had suffered some 70 casualties. The three British ships reached Barbados on the next day.
In April 1805, Scarborough began leaking heavily while at sea and foundered off Port Royal, Jamaica.
An Urban Transit Authority First Fleet ferry was named after Scarborough in 1986.
Lady Penrhyn was built on the River Thames in 1786 as a slave ship.
Friendship was a merchant brig built in Scarborough, England, and launched in 1784. She is most notable for her transport of convicts as part of the Australian First Fleet. Due to problems manning her, her crew scuttled her in 1788.
Charlotte was an English merchant ship built in the River Thames in 1784 and chartered in 1786 to carry convicts as part of the First Fleet to New South Wales. She returned to Britain from Botany Bay via China, where she picked up a cargo for the British East India Company. Charlotte then spent much of the rest of her career as a West Indiaman in the London-Jamaica trade. She may have been lost off Newfoundland in 1818; in any case, she disappears from the lists by 1821.
Alexander was a merchant ship launched at Hull in 1783 or 1784. She was one of the vessels in the First Fleet, that the British government hired to transport convicts for the European colonisation of Australia in 1788. On her return voyage from Australia the British East India Company permitted her to carry a cargo from Canton back to Britain. Thereafter she traded out of London until 1809, when she is no longer listed.
Surprize was a three-deck merchant vessel launched in 1780 that made five voyages as a packet ship under charter to the British East India Company (EIC). The fourth of which was subsequent to her participating in the notorious Second Fleet transporting convicts to Port Jackson (EIC). Her fifth voyage for the EIC was subsequent to her second voyage transporting convicts to Australia. In 1799 a French frigate captured her in the Bay of Bengal.
Atlantic was launched in 1783. She made one voyage from England to Australia in 1791 carrying convicts. Later, she made one voyage for the East India Company (EIC). Subsequently she sailed to Smyrna, Surinam, and Gibraltar, before she disappeared from records in 1810.
Royal Admiral was an East Indiaman, launched in 1777 on the River Thames. She made eight trips for the East India Company (EIC) before she was sold. She then continued to trade. She made two trips carrying convicts from England to Australia, one as an East Indiaman in 1791, and a second in 1800. On this second voyage as a convict transport she was present at a notable naval action.
Atlas was built in Souths Shields by Temple and launched in 1801 for Temple. She made two voyages transporting convicts from Ireland or England to Port Jackson. On the first voyage she carried cargo for the British East India Company (EIC). On the second she sailed to Bengal after delivering her convicts to New South Wales and was wrecked off India in 1820 while on her way back to Britain.
Canada was a merchant ship launched at Shields in 1800. She made five trips transporting convicts to Australia. On two of those trips she was also under charter to the British East India Company (EIC). When she was not transporting convicts Canada traded with the West Indies, and with Canada until c.1832.
Minorca was a merchant ship launched in 1799 at Newcastle upon Tyne, England. She made one voyage in 1801 transporting convicts to New South Wales. For her return voyage to Britain she was under contract to the British East India Company (EIC).
Experiment was launched in 1798 at Stockton-on-Tees, England. Between late 1800 and 1802 she made a voyage to India for the British East India Company (EIC). In 1803 she transported convicts to Port Jackson. In 1805, on her way home the French captured her, but the British recaptured her. In 1808 she became a West Indiaman. Still, in 1818 or so she sailed out to India. Experiment was condemned at Batavia in 1818 and sold there in 1819 for breaking up.
Anne, also known as Ann, was an 18th-century Spanish sailing ship that the British had captured in 1799. The British Navy Board engaged her to transport convicts from Cork in Ireland to the penal colony of New South Wales in Australia for one voyage from 1800 to 1801. During this voyage she was possibly present, although she did not participate, in a notable action against a squadron of three French frigates. She then made one voyage for the British East India Company (EIC).
Betsey, was launched in 1801 at Calcutta, India. She made one voyage for the British East India Company (EIC) as Betsey. Around 1814 she sailed to England and was sold to English owners who renamed her Marquis of Wellington. As Marquis of Wellington she made a second voyage for the EIC after transporting convicts to New South Wales. She was returning to England in 1818 when she was wrecked near Margate.
Countess of Harcourt was a two-decker, teak merchant ship launched at Prince of Wales's Island in 1811, and sold in Great Britain in 1814. An American privateer captured her in 1814, but the British recaptured her in 1815. Later, she made five trips transporting convicts to Australia. Between the third and fourth of these, she undertook a voyage to China and Nova Scotia while under charter to the British East India Company (EIC). She was wrecked in late 1830.
Clyde was a merchant ship built at Greenock, Scotland in 1820. She made two voyages for the British East India Company (EIC). She then made three voyages transporting convicts from England and Ireland to Australia. She was last listed in 1845.
England was built at Chepstow, Wales in 1813. She made three voyages transporting convicts from England to Australia. On the first she was under charter to the British East India Company (EIC) and, after delivering her convicts, sailed to Canton where she picked up a cargo for the EIC. She foundered in 1843 in the Channel while on a voyage to Sierra Leone.
Princess Royal was launched at Great Yarmouth in September 1794 and for the next three years traded with the West Indies. She made one voyage for the British East India Company (EIC) in 1797-8. On her return she resumed general trading. In 1822 and again in 1829 she transported convicts to New South Wales. She was last listed in Lloyd's Register in 1834.
Phoenix was a merchant vessel launched in 1810 The British East India Company (EIC) chartered her to make one voyage to Madras and Bengal between 1820 and 1821. She then made one voyage transporting convicts to Tasmania in 1822, and two to New South Wales, one in 1826 and one in 1828. She was wrecked in 1829.
Ann was built in Batavia in 1797. How she came into British hands is currently unclear. She first appeared in a register in 1802, and thereafter made a voyage for the British East India Company (EIC). In 1809 she made a voyage transporting convicts to New South Wales for the British government. On her return voyage she carried cargo for the EIC from Calcutta to London. She then became a West Indiaman, trading between London and Jamaica. Later she traded with Australia and India, and is last listed c.1865.
Minerva was launched at Lancaster, Lancashire, in 1805. Following trading with Central and South America, she made two voyages under charter to the British East India Company (EIC) between 1811 and 1814. She also made four voyages transporting convicts to Australia between 1818 and 1824, one to Van Diemen's Land and three voyages to New South Wales. She was broken up in 1826.