Scarborough (1782 ship)

Last updated
Scarborough
Scarborough (1782 ship).jpg
Convict transport Scarborough by Frank Allen
History
British-Red-Ensign-1707.svgGreat Britain
NameScarborough
Namesake Scarborough, North Yorkshire
OwnerJohn, George, & Thomas Hopper
BuilderFowler & Heward, Scarborough, North Yorkshire
Launched1782, Scarborough
FateFoundered April 1805
General characteristics [1]
Tons burthen4109194, [2] or 411, or 412, [3] or 428 [3] or 429 [4] (bm) [lower-alpha 1]
Length
  • 109 feet 3 inches (33.3 m) (overall)
  • 87 feet 0+14 inch (26.5 m) (keel)
Beam29 feet 10 inches (9.1 m)
Depth of hold12 feet 5+12 inches (3.8 m)
PropulsionSail
Sail planShip rig
Complement
Armament
  • 1783:8 × 6-pounder guns [6]
  • 1800:14 × 4&6-pounder guns [3]
  • 1801:4 × 4-pounder + 10 × 6-pounder guns [7]
  • 1803:14 × 6&4-pounder guns [3]

Scarborough was a double-decked, three-masted, ship-rigged, copper-sheathed, barque that participated in the First Fleet, assigned to transport convicts for the European colonisation of Australia in 1788. Also, the British East India company (EIC) chartered Scarborough to take a cargo of tea back to Britain after her two voyages transporting convicts. She spent much of her career as a West Indiaman, trading between London and the West Indies, but did perform a third voyage in 1801–02 to Bengal for the EIC. In January 1805 she repelled a French privateer of superior force in a single-ship action, before foundering in April.

Contents

Early career

Scarborough spent her first four years transporting timber from the Baltic and North America. [2] [8] She first enters Lloyd's Register in 1783. Her entry gives her burthen as 600 tons (bm), her master as "Scorbdle", her owner as T. Hooper, and her trade as "London Transport". [6] The next year John Marshall replaced Scorbdale as master. [9]

In 1787 south London shipbroker William Richards chartered Scarborough for the First Fleet voyage at a rate of 12 shillings per ton (bm) per month. He selected her after first consulting with Royal Marine officers Watkin Tench and David Collins. [10] Both marine officers would sail with the Fleet to Australia, Tench as a captain of marines and Collins as judge-advocate for the new colony. She was the second-largest transport selected for the Fleet after Alexander. [5]

After selection, Scarborough sailed to Deptford dockyard to be refitted for convict transportation under the supervision of Naval Agent George Teer. [11] The height between decks was increased to 6 feet 2 inches (1.9 m) amidships and between 6 feet 1 inch (1.9 m) and 5 feet 11 inches (1.8 m) fore and aft, and two windsails were brought aboard to improve the flow of air in the convict quarters. [12] [13] Bulkheads were also fitted to separate convict quarters from those of the marines and crew, and space set aside for stores and a sick bay. An Osbridge machine was also installed to filter Scarborough's drinking water during the voyage to New South Wales. [13] [lower-alpha 2] Teer was entirely satisfied with Scarborough's fitout; in December 1786 he advised the Navy Board that she and her fellow First Fleet transports were "completed fitted [with] provisions and accommodations .. better than any other set of transports I have ever had any directions in." [lower-alpha 3]

Scarborough's crew as a convict transport was approximately 35 men including her master, three mates, a boatswain and a ship's surgeon. [12]

Voyage with the First Fleet

On her first convict voyage, as part of the First Fleet, her master was John Marshall and her surgeon was Dennis Considen. [16] She left Portsmouth on 13 May 1787, carrying 208 male convicts, together with officers and 34 other ranks of the New South Wales Marine Corps. On the way Marshall suspected that the convicts had a plan to mutiny. An informer named two ringleaders, whom Marshall then transferred to HMS Sirius. There they received 24 lashes each and then were again transferred, this time to Prince of Wales. [17] She arrived at Port Jackson, Sydney, on 26 January 1788.

On leaving Port Jackson on 6 May 1788, in company with Charlotte , she travelled to China. [18] On 17 May 1788 the two ships landed at Lord Howe Island for birds and vegetables, then sailed for Whampoa. [19] En route, the ships became the first European vessels to pass among the Marshall and Gilbert islands. [19] Further north, they made landfall on Tinian in the Northern Marianas, where both ships were forced to anchor. The long sea voyage had depleted Scarborough's stores, and scurvy had become rampant among her crew. Fifteen of the sickest men were brought ashore on Tinian and housed in tents on the dunes, while the remainder of the crew foraged for food. While anchored off Tinian, both vessels were nearly blown onto shore by strong winds, but disaster was averted when their captains decided to cut the anchor ropes and raise sail to move off shore. [19]

After several weeks recovery on Tinian, Scarborough's crew had returned to sufficient health for the voyage to resume. In easy sailing weather, Scarborough and Charlotte reached Macau on 9 September and Whampoa shortly afterwards. There the EIC chartered them as an "extra ship". They received cargoes of tea and made ready to sail to England. Departing Whampoa on 17 December, the ships reached St. Helena by 20 March 1789 and arrived in England on 15 June. [1] [19]

Voyage with the Second Fleet

Scarborough returned to New South Wales with the notorious Second Fleet. In company with Surprize and Neptune, she sailed from England with 253 male convicts on 19 January 1790. Her master was again John Marshall and the surgeon was Augustus Jacob Beyer.

On the 18 February, several convicts plotted a mutiny. They chose as their leader Samuel Burt, who revealed the plot to the ship's officers. The plotters were interrogated, and several were severely flogged. Others were chained to the deck. [20]

Scarborough arrived at the Cape of Good Hope on 13 April 1790, and spent 16 days there, taking on provisions, and eight male convicts from HMS Guardian, which had been wrecked after striking an iceberg. She and Neptune parted from Surprize in heavy weather and arrived at Port Jackson on 28 June - 160 days out from England. During the voyage 68 convicts died and 96 (37%) were sick when landed. After landing, a total of 124 convicts who had arrived in Port Jackson succumbed to disease. She also brought with her two officers and 38 soldiers. [21]

Scarborough returned to England in 1792, via China. [2]

Later service

Scarborough's Pacific voyages had left her increasingly decrepit and in need of repairs to her hull. In 1792 she was re-sheeted to remove damage caused by shipworm, and then plied between London and St. Petersburg. [22] Further repairs were undertaken in 1795 and 1798. [22] In 1800 to 1801, under Captain J. Scott, she shuttled back and forth between London and the Caribbean, carrying trade goods and provisions for British colonies including St. Vincents, with extensive repairs between voyages. [22] In 1801 Lloyd's Register gives her trade as London to St. Vincents, and then London to the East Indies.

On 10 December 1800 Captain John Scott received a letter of marque. [3] Mr. Charles Kensington tendered Scarborough to the East India Company to bring back rice from Bengal. She was one of 28 vessels that sailed on that mission between December 1800 and February 1801. [4]

Scott left Falmouth on 25 January 1801 for Bengal. Scarborough arrived at Calcutta on 19 June. Homeward bound, she left Diamond Harbour on 21 August, reached the Cape on 22 December and St Helena on 28 January 1802, and arrived at the Downs on 8 April. [23]

In 1802 her owners sold Scarborough to Charles Kensington. However, on 10 November she was sold to foreign buyers and her registration was cancelled. [2]

In 1803 her former owners repurchased her to use her as a West Indiaman. [2] Captain John Scott received a letter of marque on 15 December 1803. [3] For the next two years she plied a route between London and Tobago. [22]

Single-ship action

In December 1804, Scarborough, under Captain James Scott, left the Motherbank in a convoy for the West Indies. She joined with HMS Swift and ten other vessels but a gale dispersed the vessels on 5 January. Scarborough joined Dorset and King George, and the three agreed to keep company to Barbados. On 26 January, they encountered a French privateer of 16 guns and nearly 200 men. In order to be able to resist, Scott asked for reinforcements from his two companion vessels. Their captains agreed and seven men came over from Dorset and five from King George, giving Scott 27 men and boys in total, including a passenger from the 60th Regiment who joined in. At 4 p.m. an engagement ensued that was estimated to last an hour. Scarborough succeeded in repelling the privateer, but at the cost of one man killed and her first officer mortally wounded. James Scott speculated that the privateer had suffered 70 casualties. The three British ships reached Barbados the next day. [24]

Fate

In April 1805, Scarborough began leaking heavily while at sea and foundered off Port Royal, Jamaica. [25] [26] [2]

Postscript

An Urban Transit Authority First Fleet ferry was named after Scarborough in 1986. [27]

See also

Notes, citations, and references

Notes

  1. The 411 tons comes from the Register of Transports 1774-1794", Admiralty 49/127. Cited in Bateson. [5] Contemporary Admiralty surveys also record a figure of 4183694 tons (bm), based on design. An informal source, First Fleet Lieutenant Phillip Gidley King, estimated Scarborough at 430 tons (bm). [5]
  2. Osbridge machines: a rudimentary means of circulating water to remove sediment and reduce the incidence of bacteria. Naval surgeon William Turnbull described their operation as follows, "This machine consists of a hand pump which is inserted in a scuttle made at the top of the cask, and by means of it the water, being raised a few feet, falls through several sheets of tin pierced like colanders, and placed in a half-cylinder of the same metal. The purpose of it is to reduce the water into numberless drops, which being exposed in this form to the open air is deprived of its offensive quality." [14]
  3. Captain George Teer to Navy Board, 7 December 1786. [15]

Citations

  1. 1 2 British Library: Scarborough (3).
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Hackman (2001), p. 191.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Register of Letters of Marque against France 1793-1815"; p.86 Archived July 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  4. 1 2 Hardy (1800), p. 217.
  5. 1 2 3 Bateson (1959), p. 96.
  6. 1 2 Lloyd's Register (1783), Seq. №301.
  7. Lloyd's Register (1801)
  8. Spennemann, Dirk H.R. "Historic Ships Associated with the Marshall Islands No. 2" . Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  9. Lloyd's Register (1784), Seq. №304.
  10. Keneally (2005), p. 49.
  11. Frost (1984), p. 112.
  12. 1 2 Gillen (1989), p. 430.
  13. 1 2 Bateson (1959), p. 13.
  14. Turnbull (1806), p. 40.
  15. Frost (1984), p. 113.
  16. "Entries from the log book - Convict Ship Scarborough 1788". The settler or felon?. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  17. Bateson (1959), p. 86.
  18. Letter from Newton Fowell, midshipman HMS Sirius, to John Fowell, 12 July 1788. Cited in Irvine (ed.) 1988, p.81
  19. 1 2 3 4 Cavanagh (1989), p. 4.
  20. "The Mutiny on the Scarborough, Transport". Dublin Chronicle, 23 October 1790 in Early News From A New Colony: Newspaper Extracts Concerning the Colony of New South Wales, 1785-1795. - accessed 25 July 2015 via Project Gutenberg Australia
  21. "A letter from Sydney" - The Bee, 15 May 1792 in Early News From A New Colony: Newspaper Extracts Concerning the Colony of New South Wales, 1785-1795. - accessed 25 July 2015. via Project Gutenberg Australia
  22. 1 2 3 4 Lloyd's Register, 1796-1805.
  23. British Library: Scarborough (4).
  24. Duncan (1806), pp. 167–8.
  25. "Lloyd's List". No. 4226. 18 June 1805.
  26. "Ship News". The Aberdeen Journal. No. 2999. 3 July 1805.
  27. Sydney Ferries Fleet Facts Archived 12 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine Transport for NSW

Related Research Articles

Prince of Wales was a transport ship in the First Fleet, assigned to transport convicts for the European colonisation of Australia. Accounts differ regarding her origins; she may have been built and launched in 1779 at Sidmouth, or in 1786 on the River Thames. Her First Fleet voyage commenced in 1787, with 47 female convicts aboard, and she arrived at Botany Bay in January 1788. On a difficult return voyage in 1788–1789 she became separated from her convoy and was found drifting helplessly off Rio de Janeiro with her crew incapacitated by scurvy.

<i>Lady Penrhyn</i> (1786 ship)

Lady Penrhyn was built on the River Thames in 1786 as a slave ship.

Friendship was a merchant brig built in Scarborough, England, and launched in 1784. As part of the Australian First Fleet, she transported convicts from England to New South Wales. Due to problems manning her, her crew scuttled her in 1788.

Charlotte was an English merchant ship built on the River Thames in 1784 and chartered in 1786 to carry convicts as part of the First Fleet to New South Wales. She returned to Britain from Botany Bay via China, where she picked up a cargo for the British East India Company. Charlotte then spent much of the rest of her career as a West Indiaman in the London-Jamaica trade. She may have been lost off Newfoundland in 1818; in any case, she disappeared from the lists by 1821. Charlotte made an appearance in the movie National Treasure.

Alexander was a merchant ship launched at Hull in 1783 or 1784. She was one of the vessels in the First Fleet, that the British government hired to transport convicts for the European colonisation of Australia in 1788. On her return voyage from Australia the British East India Company permitted her to carry a cargo from Canton back to Britain. Thereafter she traded out of London until 1809, when she is no longer listed.

<i>Neptune</i> (1780 ship)

Neptune was a three-decker East Indiaman launched in 1780 at Deptford. She made five voyages for the British East India Company (EIC), the last one transporting convicts to Port Jackson as one of the vessels of the notorious Second Fleet. This voyage resulted in a private suit against the master and chief officer for wrongful death. A fire and explosion in 1796 at Cape Town destroyed Neptune.

<i>Lady Juliana</i> (1777 ship)

Lady Juliana, was launched at Whitby in 1777. She transported convicts in 1789 from Britain to Australia.

Atlantic was launched in 1783. She made one voyage from England to Australia in 1791 carrying convicts. Later, she made one voyage for the East India Company (EIC). Subsequently she sailed to Smyrna, Surinam, and Gibraltar, before she disappeared from records in 1810.

The British Royal Navy purchased HMS Shark on the stocks in 1775. She was launched in 1776, and in 1778 converted to a fireship and renamed HMS Salamander. The Navy sold her in 1783. She then became the mercantile Salamander. In the 1780s she was in the northern whale fishery. In 1791 she transported convicts to Australia. She then became a whaling ship in the southern whale fishery for a number of years, before becoming a general transport and then a slave ship. In 1804 the French captured her, but the Royal Navy recaptured her. Although she is last listed in 1811, she does not appear in Lloyd's List (LL) ship arrival and departure (SAD) data after 1804.

Royal Admiral was an East Indiaman, launched in 1777 on the River Thames. She made eight trips for the East India Company (EIC) before she was sold. She then continued to trade. She made two trips carrying convicts from England to Australia, one as an East Indiaman in 1791, and a second in 1800. On this second voyage as a convict transport she was present at a notable naval action.

Boddington, sometimes referred to as Boddingtons, was a merchant ship launched in 1781 on the River Thames. For the first decade of her career she sailed as a West Indiaman. She made one voyage in 1792 transporting convicts from Ireland to Australia. For her return trip she also made one voyage for the East India Company from Asia to Britain. She wrecked in 1805 on the Thames River.

Speedy was a whaler launched on the Thames in 1779. She also made voyages to New South Wales, transporting female convicts in 1799. She made two voyages transporting slaves in 1805 and 1806, and was captured in January 1807 on her way into London after having delivered her slaves to Antigua in 1806.

Rolla was a sailing ship built in 1800 at South Shields, England. She made one voyage transporting convicts to New South Wales. She then made a voyage for the British East India Company from China back to Britain. She leaves Lloyd's Register in 1858.

Atlas was built in Souths Shields by Temple and launched in 1801 for Temple. She made two voyages transporting convicts from Ireland or England to Port Jackson. On the first voyage she carried cargo for the British East India Company (EIC). On the second she sailed to Bengal after delivering her convicts to New South Wales and was wrecked off India in 1820 while on her way back to Britain.

Experiment was launched in 1798 at Stockton-on-Tees, England. Between late 1800 and 1802 she made a voyage to India for the British East India Company (EIC). In 1803 she transported convicts to Port Jackson. In 1805, on her way home the French captured her, but the British recaptured her. In 1808 she became a West Indiaman. Still, in 1818 or so she sailed out to India. Experiment was condemned at Batavia in 1818 and sold there in 1819 for breaking up.

Warren Hastings was built in 1789 at Calcutta, India. Her registry was transferred to Great Britain in 1796. In 1805 she was sold and her new owners renamed her Speke. She made three voyages transporting convicts from Britain to New South Wales. After her first convict voyage she engaged in whaling.

Duke of Portland was a sailing ship built in 1790 at Bordeaux, France. The British Royal Navy captured her in 1794 after the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars. British owners named her Duke of Portland and employed her as a whaler. As such she made some eleven whaling voyages. On the outbound leg of her eighth voyage she transported convicts to Port Jackson, New South Wales.

Countess of Harcourt was a two-decker, teak merchant ship launched at Prince of Wales's Island in 1811, and sold in Great Britain in 1814. An American privateer captured her in 1814, but the British recaptured her in 1815. Later, she made five trips transporting convicts to Australia. Between the third and fourth of these, she undertook a voyage to China and Nova Scotia while under charter to the British East India Company (EIC). She was wrecked in late 1830.

Chapman was a two-deck merchant ship built at Whitby in 1777. She made three voyages to India or China for the British East India Company (EIC), during the first of which she was present at the battle of Porto Praya. During the French Revolutionary Wars she served as a hired armed ship, primarily escorting convoys but also seeing some action. Later, she undertook one voyage to Mauritius transporting troops, one voyage carrying settlers to South Africa, and three voyages transporting convicts from England and Ireland to Australia. She was last listed in 1853.

Hooghly was a full-rigged merchant ship built on the Thames, England, and launched in 1819. She made two voyages under charter to the British East India Company (EIC), four voyages transporting convicts from England and Ireland to Australia, as well as voyages transporting emigrants to South Australia between 1839 and 1856. Around 1858 she was re-rigged as a barque. She sank off Algiers in 1863.

References