Sierra de la Laguna

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Sierra de la Laguna
Highest point
Peak Sierra de la Laguna High Point
Elevation 6,857 ft (2,090 m)
Country Mexico
State Baja California Sur
Municipality La Paz Municipality and Los Cabos Municipality
Type of rock Peninsular Ranges
Sierra de la Laguna.png

The Sierra de la Laguna is a mountain range at the southern end of the Baja California Peninsula in Mexico, and is the southernmost range of the Peninsular Ranges System.

Baja California Peninsula peninsula of North America on the Pacific Coast of Mexico

The Baja California Peninsula is a peninsula in Northwestern Mexico. It separates the Pacific Ocean from the Gulf of California. The peninsula extends 1,247 km from Mexicali, Baja California in the north to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur in the south. It ranges from 40 km at its narrowest to 320 km at its widest point and has approximately 3,000 km of coastline and approximately 65 islands. The total area of the Baja California Peninsula is 143,390 km2 (55,360 sq mi).

Mexico country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Peninsular Ranges

The Peninsular Ranges are a group of mountain ranges that stretch 1,500 km (930 mi) from Southern California to the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula; they are part of the North American Coast Ranges, which run along the Pacific Coast from Alaska to Mexico. Elevations range from 500 to 10,834 feet.


It is located in La Paz Municipality and Los Cabos Municipality of southern Baja California Sur state.

La Paz Municipality, Baja California Sur Municipality in Baja California Sur, Mexico

La Paz is a municipality of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. Its area of 20,275 km² makes it the municipality in Mexico with the fourth-largest area. It had a population of 290,286 inhabitants in the 2015 census. Its municipal seat, also named La Paz, is the state capital.

Los Cabos Municipality Municipality in Baja California Sur, Mexico

Los Cabos is a municipality located at the southern tip of Mexico's Baja California Peninsula, in the state of Baja California Sur. It encompasses the two towns of Cabo San Lucas and San José del Cabo linked by a twenty-mile Resort Corridor of beach-front properties and championship golf courses. The area was remote and rural until the latter 20th century, when the Mexican government began to develop Cabo San Lucas for tourism, which then spread east to the municipal seat. The main draw is the climate and geography, where desert meets the sea, along with sport fishing, resorts and golf. This tourism is by far the main economic activity with over two million visitors per year. Over 1 million visit from the United States.

Baja California Sur State of Mexico

Baja California Sur, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California Sur, is the second-smallest Mexican state by population and the 31st admitted state of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

The "Sierra de la Laguna High Point", at 6,857 feet (2,090 m) in elevation, is the highest point of the range and in Baja California Sur state. [1]


The southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula, including the Sierra de la Laguna, was formerly an island in prehistoric times. It has a distinctive flora and fauna, with many affinities to Southwestern Mexico. The Sierra is home to many endemic species and subspecies.

The dry San Lucan xeric scrub ecoregion extends from the sea level at the coast to 250 metres (820 ft) in elevation. The Sierra de la Laguna dry forests ecoregion occupy lower portion of the range, from 250–800 metres (820–2,620 ft) in elevation.

San Lucan xeric scrub desert

The San Lucan xeric scrub is a xeric shrubland ecoregion of the southernmost Baja California Peninsula, in Los Cabos Municipality and eastern La Paz Municipality of southern Baja California Sur state, Mexico.

Ecoregion Ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion

An ecoregion is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone. All three of these are either less or greater than an ecosystem. Ecoregions cover relatively large areas of land or water, and contain characteristic, geographically distinct assemblages of natural communities and species. The biodiversity of flora, fauna and ecosystems that characterise an ecoregion tends to be distinct from that of other ecoregions. In theory, biodiversity or conservation ecoregions are relatively large areas of land or water where the probability of encountering different species and communities at any given point remains relatively constant, within an acceptable range of variation.

The Sierra de la Laguna dry forests are a subtropical dry forest ecoregion of the southern Baja California Peninsula in Mexico.

Above 800 metres (2,600 ft) in elevation, the dry forests transition to the Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests ecoregion. The composition of the pine-oak forests varies with elevation; oak woodlands predominate from 800–1,200 metres (2,600–3,900 ft) in elevation, with oak-pine woodlands between 1,200–1,600 metres (3,900–5,200 ft) in elevation, transitioning to pine-oak forests above 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) in elevation. The predominant pine is a local subspecies of Mexican Pinyon, Pinus cembroides subsp. lagunae.

The Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests is a subtropical coniferous forest ecoregion, found in the Sierra de la Laguna mountain range at the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico.

Pine genus of plants

A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus of the family Pinaceae. Pinus is the sole genus in the subfamily Pinoideae. The Plant List compiled by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden accepts 126 species names of pines as current, together with 35 unresolved species and many more synonyms.

Oak genus of plants

An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are approximately 600 extant species of oaks. The common name "oak" also appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus, as well as in those of unrelated species such as Grevillea robusta and the Casuarinaceae (she-oaks). The genus Quercus is native to the Northern Hemisphere, and includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cool temperate to tropical latitudes in the Americas, Asia, Europe, and North Africa. North America contains the largest number of oak species, with approximately 90 occurring in the United States, while Mexico has 160 species of which 109 are endemic. The second greatest center of oak diversity is China, which contains approximately 100 species.

The forests are exploited commercially for timber, and cattle-raising is common in the oak woodland and dry forest zones.

Biosphere reserve

UNESCO has designated the Sierra de la Laguna a global biosphere reserve: "This semi arid to temperate subhumid climate area represents highly important and contrasted ecosystems, including arid zones, matorrales, low deciduous forest type, evergreen oak: Quercus devia (“encino”) woods, pine-evergreen oak mix woods and oases with palms and “guerivos” situated throughout the gallery forest following the long river basins." The Biosphere reserve was established by a Mexican presidential decree of 6 June 1994, which designated a core area and buffer zones.

The core area is centered on the higher-elevation oak-pine forests, while the transition area includes the communities of Todos Santos, El Pescadero, El Triunfo, San Antonio, San Bartolo, Buena Vista, Los Barriles, Las Cuevas, Santiago and Miraflores.


The climate is influenced by its altitude. At higher altitudes, it has a subtropical highland climate with cool temperatures year round and higher amounts of precipitation.

Climate data for Sierra de la Laguna, elev. 1,906 metres (6,253 ft)
Record high °C (°F) 25.0
Average high °C (°F) 15.8
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.9
Average low °C (°F) 2.1
Record low °C (°F) −7.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 31.1
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.92 1.32 0.78 0.37 0.18 0.90 7.62 11.91 9.45 4.65 1.86 2.60 43.56
Average snowy days 0 0.04 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.04
Source #1: Colegio de Postgraduados [2]
Source #2: Servicio Meteorológico National (extremes) [3]

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  1. Sierra de la Laguna High Point - Baja California Sur, Mexico
  2. "Normales climatológicas para Sierra de la Laguna, B.C.S" (in Spanish). Colegio de Postgraduados. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
  3. "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951-2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico National. Retrieved January 17, 2013.

Coordinates: 23°34′N110°00′W / 23.567°N 110.000°W / 23.567; -110.000