The Dark Eye

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The Dark Eye
The Dark Eye logo
Designer(s) Ulrich Kiesow et al.
Publisher(s)Schmidt Spiele (1984–1997)
Fantasy Productions (1997–2007)
Ulisses Spiele (2007–)
Publication date1984 (1st edition)
1988 (2nd edition)
1993 (3rd edition)
2001 (4th edition)
2006 (4.1)
2015 (5th edition)
Genre(s) Fantasy
First released in English as Realms of Arkania (novels and role-playing video games only) from 1993–1997. The first English edition of RPG rules was published in 2003.

The Dark Eye is a German role-playing game created by Ulrich Kiesow and launched by Schmidt Spiel & Freizeit GmbH and Droemer Knaur Verlag in 1984.

Role-playing game Game in which players assume the roles of characters in a fictional setting

A role-playing game is a game in which players assume the roles of characters in a fictional setting. Players take responsibility for acting out these roles within a narrative, either through literal acting, or through a process of structured decision-making regarding character development. Actions taken within many games succeed or fail according to a formal system of rules and guidelines.

Ulrich Kiesow was one of the co-founders of Fantasy Productions (FanPro) in 1983, together with Werner Fuchs and Hans Joachim Alpers. He was the translator of the first German language editions for both Tunnels & Trolls, which was the first German language RPG rule book, and Dungeons & Dragons.

Droemer Knaur is a publishing group based in Munich. The group consists of the book publishers Droemer, Knaur, the Pattloch Publisher and O.W. Barth. Droemer Knaur belongs to the Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. In addition, the publishing group cooperates with neobooks, a free provider under the self-publishing platform for self-publishing e-books.


It is the most successful role-playing game on the German market, outselling Dungeons & Dragons . Many years of work on the game have led to a detailed and extensively-described game world. Droemer Knaur dropped the project in early 1989; after the bankruptcy of the Schmidt Spiel & Freizeit GmbH in 1997, publishing was continued by Fantasy Productions (which had already done all the editorial work). Since the game's launch, the game has gone through five editions, making the rules and background more complex. The basic rules of the fourth edition of The Dark Eye were published in 2001, and was the first edition to be released in English (in October 2003). The fifth edition of the game was released in August 2015, with an English translation released in November 2016. [1]

<i>Dungeons & Dragons</i> Fantasy role-playing game

Dungeons & Dragons is a fantasy tabletop role-playing game (RPG) originally designed by Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson. It was first published in 1974 by Tactical Studies Rules, Inc. (TSR). The game has been published by Wizards of the Coast since 1997. It was derived from miniature wargames, with a variation of the 1971 game Chainmail serving as the initial rule system. D&D's publication is commonly recognized as the beginning of modern role-playing games and the role-playing game industry.

Fantasy Productions company

Fantasy Productions Medienvertriebsgesellschaft GmbH is a German publishing company based in Erkrath.

Aventuria (the continent on which the game is set) was first introduced to the English-language market through a series of computer games and novels and later under the name Realms of Arkania. The trademark Realms of Arkania was owned by the now-defunct Sir-tech Software, Inc., which spurred the name change to The Dark Eye; Fantasy Productions was unable to obtain the trademark. In April 2007, Ulisses Spiele assumed the TDE pen-and-paper licence from Fantasy Productions. [2]

Trademark Recognizable sign, design or expression which identifies products or services

A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark is a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others, although trademarks used to identify services are usually called service marks. The trademark owner can be an individual, business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a package, a label, a voucher, or on the product itself. For the sake of corporate identity, trademarks are often displayed on company buildings. It is legally recognized as a type of intellectual property.

Sir-Tech United States based video game developer and publisher

Sir-Tech Software, Inc. was a United States and Canada-based video game developer and publisher.

Game history

First edition (1984)

Logo of the first edition Schwarze auge 1 logo.svg
Logo of the first edition

The German first edition (1984) was translated into Dutch (Het Oog des Meesters), French (L'Œil noir) and Italian (Uno sguardo nel buio), but not into English. It has a very simple class and level system. It was published in Das Schwarze Auge—Abenteuer Basis-Spiel (The Dark Eye—Adventure Base Game). Advanced rules were published in 1985 in the book Abenteuer Ausbau-Spiel—Zusatzausrüstung für alle Abenteuer (Extended adventure—Additional equipment for all adventures).

Dutch language West Germanic language

Dutch(Nederlands ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting the majority of people in the Netherlands and Belgium. It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German.

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Italian language Romance language

Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to Vulgar Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both Italian and other regional languages.


The character (called "Hero" in the rules) is defined by five qualities (or attributes): Mut (courage), Klugheit (wisdom), Charisma (same), Geschicklichkeit (agility) and Körperkraft (strength). [3] They are determined by 1d6+7 in dice notation (8–13). The weight the character can carry is equal to strength × 100 ounces (1 aventurian ounce is 25 g).

Statistic (role-playing games) piece of data representing a particular aspect of a fictional character

A statistic in role-playing games is a piece of data that represents a particular aspect of a fictional character. That piece of data is usually a (unitless) integer or, in some cases, a set of dice.

Dice notation is a system to represent different combinations of dice in role-playing games using simple algebra-like notation such as 2d6+12.

The player can choose five different character types (or classes): adventurer, warrior, dwarf, elf and mage. All characters can be adventurers, but there are attribute conditions to access the other types (for example, a warrior must have at least 12 in both courage and strength).

During the adventures, the character gains adventure points; with a sufficient number of adventure points, they can go to the next level. When attaining a new level the character can increase an attribute by one point, and either the attack or parry value by one point; they also win vitality points equal to one dice roll, or vitality or astral energy points equal to one dice roll for elves and mages. The extended rules add a sixth quality to the hero's definition: stamina. The initial stamina is the sum of the force and vitality points. Stamina represents resistance to exhaustion; it decreases when the hero makes physical efforts such as running, swimming and fighting.

The extended rules also provide four more classes that can be chosen during the creation of the character, or sometimes as an evolution of an adventurer or dwarf: rider, druid, priest or wood elf. It introduces the aptitudes (skills) that are chances to manage definite actions (such as horseback riding or camouflage), whereas the qualities are generic indicators. The aptitudes range between 0 and 18 (and are tested with a d20 in dice notation). They have a base value (some are part of the culture, or are simple tasks). When the character reaches a new level, the player can distribute 10 points to raise the aptitudes. The base value and the cost to increase depend on the type of hero (riding is easier for a warrior than for a mage); the cost also depends on the current aptitude level.


The character type determines the starting value of vitality points (from 20 for a mage to 35 for a dwarf). This is to be compared with the 1d6+4 (dice notation) damage points inflicted by a sword.

In the extended rules, stamina plays a role in the healing of diseases (such as a fever); when it is 20 or more spontaneous healing is possible, and it is faster when stamina is above 25.

Resolution of actions

Actions are resolved by testing the attributes; the action succeeds when:

1d20 + modifier ≤ attribute

The modifier is positive when the action is difficult, and negative when it is easy. The extended rules introduce the aptitudes, which are tested in the same way as the qualities.


In fights, the characters act in decreasing order of initiative (the character with the highest initiative acts first). Characters have attack and parry values determined by various other values. Typical attack/parry values for a new character are in the range of 14/12 (for fighters) to something like 6/8 (dedicated non-fighters, such as priests of the goddess Tsa). When the attack test of the attacker is successful and the defender misses the parry test, the defender loses the number of vitality points equal to the damage of the weapon minus the protection rating of the armor (chain mail has a protection rating of four, and knight armour has six). When the attacker rolls one or two on the die, they make a master hit; the maximum damage is inflicted, and the armour does not protect.

The extended rules provide for miniature figures which allow a finer representation of movement, with (for example) the possibility to push back an enemy. They also offer various possibilities such as fleeing, charging and successive attacks from the same fighter (assault). They replace the master hit with the notions of good attack (the attacker makes a throw equal to or less than the good attack score, as shown on a table in relation to her attack score) and good parry (five points less than the parry score with the d20 in dice notation). A good attack not parried by a good parry implies a serious (or critical) impact (throw 1d20 and read the result on a table). When the attack or parry-test die shows 20, this can lead to a fumble. The extended rules also allow dodging thrown weapons, introduce specific rules for empty-hand and horseback fighting and infection (fever) for wounds.


Elves, druids, shamans, witches and mages can cast spells and have astral energy points; the starting value of astral energy points depends on the attribute values the hero has when created. The system is based on the memory of the player; the player must speak the formula without reading it during the game. When the formula is correct the spell is cast, and the character loses astral energy points corresponding to the spell.

The extended rules introduce new spells. From the fifth level on, it is no longer necessary to speak the words to cast the spell. These rules also describe spells for the druids and wood elves, and priests' miracles: manifestations of the priest's god, which are similar to magic spells. The priests do not have astral energy but karma, which works the same way.

First-edition advanced rules (The Sword Masters, 1988)

Two sets, DSA-Professional—Schwertmeister Set I ("TDE Professional—Sword Masters Set I") and DSA-Professional II—das Fest der Schwertmeister ("TDE Professional II—The Sword Masters' Feast"), were published in 1988 and 1989. This edition was published as advanced rules for the first edition, but is sometimes erroneously considered the second edition. Combat rules are much more elaborate, introducing a hit-location system.

It was written for advanced-level characters (typically level 15). The sets describe a new world: Tharun (pronounced "taroon"), a hollow world. It is the inside of Ethra, lightened by a central sun. Nine archipelagos constitute the realm of this world. A pantheon of nine deities rules over the inhabitants. Divine runes (one of the only sources of magic which can be used by magicians and druids) are scattered all over the world. The sets also provide a divine quest. A third set of campaigns was planned, but has not been released. The Tharun setting was abandoned, but it is said that the world and its pantheon still exist; some deities are worshiped in Myranor.[ citation needed ]

Second edition (1988)

The second edition was published in 1988. The character is defined by the same five positive attributes (qualities) as in the first edition, as well as five new negative ones: Aberglaube (superstition), Höhenangst (acrophobia), Raumangst (claustrophobia), Goldgier (avarice) and Totenangst (necrophobia). The positive attributes are determined by 1d6+7 in dice notation (8–13), and the negative by 1d6+1 (2–7). The player can choose from over 40 different character types (classes). Again, there are attributes (conditions) to access the types. A character also features over 80 skills, called "talents"; the use of a talent requires testing three attributes, and the character is able to cast over 100 (11×11) spells.

Third edition and Realms of Arkania (1993)

The third edition (1993) was used (with a few limitations) to power the three Realms of Arkania computer games: RoA: Blade of Destiny (1993), Attic/Sir-Tech), RoA: Star Trail (1994, Attic/Sir-Tech) and RoA: Shadows over Riva (1997, Attic/Sir-Tech). Realms of Arkania was also the name of three translated novels: RoA: The Charlatan (January 1996, ISBN   0-7615-0233-5), RoA: The Lioness (March 1996, ISBN   0-7615-0477-X) and RoA: The Sacrifice (September 1996, ISBN   0-7615-0476-1).

The rules are similar to the second edition except for two additional positive attributes: Fingerfertigkeit (dexterity) and Intuition (intuition); and two additional negative attributes: Neugier (curiosity) and Jähzorn (violent temper). [3] The character is thus defined by seven positive and seven negative attributes (qualities), and this edition uses the same system of talents.

Fourth edition (2001)

The fourth edition of The Dark Eye supports a great variety of character choices. Where the older editions forced the player to create a character along very strict lines, the fourth edition is flexible and the player can choose from hundreds of different character classes and cultural backgrounds. The creation rules are somewhat similar to those of Shadowrun (also published by Fantasy Productions) and even more to GURPS . One reason for this development is the large community of professional authors and enthusiastic players, which have helped to define the continent of Aventuria over the last 20 years. Character generation is based on “generation points” from which a race, a culture and a profession must be “paid”. The points are also used for attributes and other skills. After generation, the gained “adventure points” for each adventure can be used for equipping the character with skills. Consequently, the systems intends to balance power levels of different character classes.

The fourth edition was also translated into English. Three books are available in English (all published 2006):

Fifth edition (2015)

Ulisses started development of the fifth edition in the beginning of 2014. Its development involved a players poll and parts of the publishers internet forum are dedicated to that topic. The beta version (in German) was released 10 May 2014 and can be freely downloaded. [4] The final German version is available as of 31 July 2015. [5] The publisher also created a website concerning the progress of the English version. [6] The English translation was released in November 2016.



The Dark Eye role-playing gamers at Convention Burg-Con in Berlin, 2009 RPG-2009-Berlin-1.jpg
The Dark Eye role-playing gamers at Convention Burg-Con in Berlin, 2009

The Dark Eye is set in the fantasy realm of Aventuria. During the 1990s, it was first translated as "Arkania", but the name was later changed to one closer to the original German name. Aventuria is a continent of the planet Ethra (an anagram of "Earth", as the planet's name in the German edition, Dere, is an anagram of Erde, the German word for "Earth"). The other continents of Ethra are Myranor (also called "Gyldenland" in Aventuria), Uthuria and Vaestenland.


Tharun was envisioned as the inner side of Ethra, which was supposed to be a hollow world. It is lit by a central sun which also annihilates the usual magic. In today's ingame theory Tharun is a so-called "Globule", a place in another Sphere of reality – or an alternate dimension (although this explanation is very simplified).

The original sun, Glost, was the work of Guerimm, the god of fire. New gods appeared and started to oppose the twelve gods of Aventuria. One of them, Arkan'Zim, destroyed Glost, and another new god, Sindayri, created a new sun, aiming to reduce the influence of the twelve gods in the hollow world. The splinters of Glost were spread everywhere. The inhabitants picked them and drew runes on them. They thus became runestones; the combination of three runestones can lead to the liberation of the energy of Glost, allowing a new magic. Tharun is linked to the surface of Ethra by a double-sided volcano. The upper side is on an island 1,400 km west from Havena, the other side is upside down, and is situated in Tharun on the isle of Hamur. The society is a military dictatorship, with a caste of Sword Masters ruling the rest of the population.


Myranor or Gyldenland (In the original Güldenland, meaning "Golden country") is a large continent west of Aventuria. It was first described in 1990 and released as a separate RPG in 2000. Initially, it was used to play-test an early version of what came to be The Dark Eye 4th edition rules.

In contrast to Aventuria, the setting is high fantasy. There are gigantic Metropolis, flying ships and cities, several races unknown to aventurians including cat-like humanoids and intelligent insects, as well as a country leached by its vampire-like, skull god "Draydalān" worshiping population. The continent is huge and parts of it still are unexplored. While most of Aventuria is set in the central European Middle Ages, Myranor is based on a mixture of classic Greek/Roman as well as medieval Asian background. One notable political structure is a huge empire that has been in degeneration for millennia. At its height, it had been the origin of modern civilization in Aventuria, and the area it still controls is larger than Aventuria itself. In its early years, the empire was controlled by mighty three-eyed wizards called "the old ones", who disappeared thousands of years ago.

After its initial release in 2000, only one additional rule book, one regional description and six adventures were released. After those, nothing further was released for Myranor. Two fans, however, revised Myranor to be played with the "final" 4th edition rules with FanPro's permission. These new rules were released as a hardcover book in January 2006. On 20 January 2007 Ulisses Spiele announced that they would be handling future publications related to Myranor.



There are three human groups, and several smaller cultures:

  • Middenrealers: from Gyldenland, they landed on the west coast and spread to the centre of Aventuria.
    • Andergastans (template: )
    • Bornlanders (template: Russia at the end of the Middle Ages)
    • Cyclopeans (template: Ancient Greece and Roman Empire)
    • Horasians (template: Italy and France, between the Baroque and the Renaissance)
    • Maraskans (template: Asia—an amalgam of Middenrealers and Tulamydes)
    • Middenrealmers (template: Germany or rather the German Holy Roman Empire in the Middle Ages)
    • Northern-Aventurians (template: )
    • Nostrians (template: )
    • Southern-Aventurians (template: )
    • Svellters (template: )
  • Tulamydes: natives of Aventuria, probably from the Rashtul Wall; they spread to the south of Aventuria;
    • Mhanadistanians (template: caricature of the golden age of Arab civilisation)
    • Novadis (template: Tuareg): nomadic people of the desert of Khom;
  • Thorwalians (template: vikings): coming from Hjaldingard in Gyldenland, they settled in northwest Aventuria
  • Norbards (template: petty, travelling east-European traders): an amalgam of Middenrealers and Tulamydes
  • Smaller groups, all indigenous to Aventuria:


  • Forest Elves: fairy-like elves, living mostly in a large wood called the Salamander Stones. They are worldly yet innocent, and dislike humans.
  • Firn Elves: live in the north, in perpetual ice; for them, life is a hard struggle.
  • Meadow Elves: live throughout the northern half of Aventuria along rivers; open-minded, they sometimes live in human cities.
  • Veld Elves: horsemen from the grasslands of northeast Aventuria; they have loose contact with humans and Goblins.

The Elves are indigenous cultures, and generally do not believe in gods. Unbeknownst to most Elves, Firn, Meadow and Veld Elves once had a single common culture (like that of Tolkien's elves).


  • Ore Dwarves: conservative, concerned with etiquette
  • Anvil Dwarves: aggressive and stubborn
  • Brilliant Dwarves: artistic
  • Hill Dwarves: similar to Tolkien's Hobbits, but here considered Dwarves


  • Ogres: giants of great strength, these simple-minded, strong creatures are often found in the company of Orcs, swinging large wooden clubs lopped off trees. Common to all Ogres is the consumption of nearly everything they encounter.
  • Orks: black-coated, monkey-like species native to the veld ("ork land") in northwest Aventuria, with a culture similar to the Orcs of Warcraft
  • Holberker: a mix between elves and orcs, found only in few areas
  • Goblins: smaller relatives of the Orks, with red-brown fur, living mostly in northeastern Aventuria. Goblins are second in numbers only to the humans.
  • Achaz: lizard-men, whose ancient culture is now destroyed
  • Trolls: large, burly creatures living in the Troll Mountains. Intelligent, they hint at an ancient trollish civilization predating every other.

Further reading

Video games

Timeline of release years
1992Blade of Destiny
1994Star Trail
1996Shadows over Riva
2010The River of Time
2012Chains of Satinav
2013Blade of Destiny(2013 remake)
Skilltree Saga
2015Blackguards 2
2017Star Trail(2017 remake)

Mobile adventure series and browser games

Other games

Dark World Board Games

A board game and two expansion games were released based on the Dark Eye gaming system:

The games are three-dimensional, where features and structures were built on top of the board, and could also be interacted with the character pieces. The games revolve around a group of Heroes battle against a snake sorcerer named Korak and his minions. The original Dark World game has the Heroes fight through Korak's castle. The Village of Fear expansion game requires the Heroes to rescue two townsfolk to retrieve the keys to enter the castle. In the Dragon's Gate expansion, the heroes must get past the Dragon Golgorath before they can enter the town. Four players can play each game as the Heroes, while a fifth player plays the role of Korak and controls all his monsters.

The Heroes have a corresponding color on their bases. Each game has a shaker or tokens which determine the order of play for each player for each round. The Hero pieces are also designed to hold interchangeable weapons-a base weapon, and a later, more-powerful gold weapon. Heroes are awarded points based upon collecting certain items, and defeating enemies. Special dice with scimitars inscribed on them are used for combat. The winner is the Hero with the most points at the end of the game or the player playing as Korak wins if all the Heroes are defeated.

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  1. „Das Schwarze Auge“ kommt auf englisch!
  2. Ulisses Spiele to take over production of the role-playing game „Das Schwarze Auge“ (German)
  3. 1 2 "Realms of Arkania 1 manual" (PDF). 1993. Retrieved 3 December 2009.
  4. Eevie Demirtel (10 May 2014). "Die DSA5-Beta ist gestartet!". Ulisses Spiele (in German).
  5. "DSA5 Regelwerk (Hardcover)". Ulisses Spiele (in German). November 2015.
  6. "The Dark Eye | Ulisses Spiele". Retrieved 1 November 2015.