Thondaman dynasty

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Thondaiman King in his Durbar, Pudukkottai, 1858. Todiman Raja in his Durbar, Pudukkottai, 1858.jpg
Thondaiman King in his Durbar, Pudukkottai, 1858.

The Thondaman Dynasty is south Indian dynasty of petty chieftains who ruled the region in and around Pudukottai from the 17th to 20th century. [1] It was founded by Raghunatha Thondaiman, the brother-in-law of the then Raja of Ramnad, Raghunatha Kilavan Setupati.

Contents

History

In 1686, the Ramnad kingdom was ruled by Raghunatha Kilavan Setupati, the Raja of Ramnad and the Pudukottai region was ruled by a chief called Pallavarayan Tondaiman. The Raja of Ramnad suspected the chief's loyalty to the Ramnad kingdom and believed that the chief would shift his allegiance to the ruler of Thanjavur. So the Raja of Ramnad ousted the chief and appointed his brother-in-law, the brother of his Kallar caste queen Kathayi Nachiar, as the new ruler of Pudukottai. He also named the new ruler after himself and gave him the title Tondaiman, similar to the deposed chief, and called him Ragunatha Raya Tondaman. [2] [3] Thondaiman was earlier ruling Thirumayam. In appreciation of Tondaman's services, Raghunatha Kilavan Setupati gave him the region of Pudukkottai.

Ramnad estate

The estate of Ramnad was a permanently settled zamindari estate that existed in the Ramnad subdivision of the Madura district and later Ramnad district of the erstwhile Madras Presidency in British India from 1801 to 1949.

Thanjavur City in Tamil Nadu, India

Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur is an important center of South Indian religion, art, and architecture. Most of the Great Living Chola Temples, which are UNESCO World Heritage Monuments, are located in and around Thanjavur. The foremost among these, the Brihadeeswara Temple, is located in the centre of the city. Thanjavur is also home to Tanjore painting, a painting style unique to the region.

The Kallar are one of the three related castes of southern India which constitute the (Thevar). Mukkulathor confederacy.The Kallar, along with the Maravar and Agamudayar, constitute a united social caste on the basis of parallel professions, though their locations and heritages are wholly separate from one another.

After the death of Raghunatha Kilavan Setupati, Thondaman became the de facto ruler of Pudukottai. In later centuries, the Thondaiman rulers, while nominally feudatories of the Ramnad state, often pursued an independent foreign policy, a trend common in all parts of India at that time.

India Country in South Asia

India is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

After becoming the ruler of Pudukottai, Raghunatha Thondaiman fought against the Nayaks of Tanjore in support of the Nayaks of Madurai and conquered Thirukkattupalli a very important place. Then there was a direct clash between Thondaimans of Pudukottai and the Nayaks rulers of Tanjore. Thondaiman conquered the west of Thirukkattupalli.

The next ruler Raja Vijaya Reghunatha Raya Thondaiman helped Nawab of Arcot against Hyder Ali the ruler of Mysore. He was also loyal towards the British Government. After some time, when Hyder Ali's army tried to invade the kingdom of Pudukkottai, Thondaiman's army defeated them and drove Hyder's army away. Thondaiman captured Kilanilai and Aranthangi. He helped the British Government against Tipu Sultan.

Hyder Ali Sultan and de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore

Hyder Ali, Haidarālī was the Sultan and de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India. Born as Sayyid wal Sharif Hyder Ali Khan, he distinguished himself militarily, eventually drawing the attention of Mysore's rulers. Rising to the post of Dalavayi (commander-in-chief) to Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, he came to dominate the titular monarch and the Mysore government. He became the de facto ruler of Mysore as Sarvadhikari by 1761. He offered strong resistance against the military advances of the British East India Company during the First and Second Anglo–Mysore Wars, and he was the innovator of military use of the iron-cased Mysorean rockets. He also significantly developed Mysore's economy.

Mysore Metropolis in Karnataka, India

Mysore, officially Mysuru, is a city in the southern part of the state of Karnataka, India. Mysore city is geographically located between 12° 18' 26” North Latitude and 76° 38' 59'' East Longitude. It is located at an altitude of 2,427 ft (739.75 m).

Tipu Sultan Ruler of the Sultanate of Mysore karnataka

Tipu Sultan, also known as the Tipu Sahab or Tiger of Mysore, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore and a pioneer of rocket artillery. He was the eldest son of Sultan Hyder Ali of Mysore. Tipu Sultan introduced a number of administrative innovations during his rule, including his coinage, a new Mauludi lunisolar calendar, and a new land revenue system which initiated the growth of the Mysore silk industry. He expanded the iron-cased Mysorean rockets and commissioned the military manual Fathul Mujahidin. He deployed the rockets against advances of British forces and their allies during the Anglo-Mysore Wars, including the Battle of Pollilur and Siege of Seringapatam. He also embarked on an ambitious economic development program that established Mysore as a major economic power, with some of the world's highest real wages and living standards in the late 18th century.

The Thondaiman rulers are in-famously known for the betrayal of Veera Pandya Kattaboman during the freedom struggle against British and in the process helping the British East India Company. [4]

Pudukkotai finally came under formal British protection. This was arguably unavoidable, since the Thondaimans were much menaced in that period by a resurgent Mysore ruled by Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. Tipu Sultan had sought to leverage the power of the French against the British

France Republic with majority of territory in Europe and numerous oversea territories around the world

France, officially the French Republic, is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea separates Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom's 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi) were home to an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

List of Thondaman Kings

The Thondaman lineage: [5]

See also

Notes

  1. Vijaya Ramaswamy (2017). Historical Dictionary of Tamils. Jawahar Lal Nehru University. p. 191.
  2. Robert Sewell. Lists of Inscriptions, and Sketch of the Dynasties of Southern India, Volume 2. E. Keys at the Government Press, 1884. p. 225.
  3. Irāmaccantiran̲ Nākacāmi, N. S. Ramaswami. Ramanathapuram District: An Archaeological Guide. Collector of Ramanathapuram, 1979. p. 38.
  4. Dr V Shanmugam (2019). A Study on Women Empowerment. Laxmi Book Publication. p. 62. ISBN   9780359380749.
  5. Lists of Inscriptions, and Sketch of the Dynasties of Southern India By Robert Sewell, Archaeological Survey of Southern India

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