|Part of a series on|
|History of Tamil Nadu|
The Tondaiman family were Tamil rulers of the ancient Tondai Nadu (Tondaimandalam) division of Tamilakkam in South India. Their capital was at Kanchipuram.
They ruled with the Pallava dynasty, which controlled northern Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and had its capital at Kanchipuram. Hundreds of records and edicts exist pertaining to the Tondaiman rulers of Chola dynasty.
Ruler Tondaiman Ilandirayan was mentioned in Purananuru (புறநானூறு) (in one of the poems written by Avvaiyar) as a king confronting Adhiaman; battle was avoided by the tactics of Avvaiyaar.He is said to be the founder of Pallava dynasty. Pathupaattu (பத்துப்பாட்டு) a sangam literature work mentioned that Tondaiman Ilandriyan ruled th Kanchipuram town before 2500 years.
The Tondaiman title was borne by various chiefs in the Chola empire, notable ones being Karunakara Tondaiman and Naralokaviran alias Porkoyil Tondaiman who served as generals under Kulottunga I.
The poet Kambar wrote Silaiyezhupathu about Karunagara Tondaiman.
|Outline of South Asian history|
The Aranthangi Tondaimans ruled Aranthangi from the 15th to the 18th centuries in southern Tamil Nadu. (As per the copper plates of Tondaiman released by Tamil University of Tanjore). There are references to the Aranthangi Tondaimans in temple inscriptions at Avudayarkovil, Alapiranthan, Palaiyavanam, Pillaivayal, Aranthangi, Kovilur, Paramandur, Palankarai, Piranmalai, Thiruvarankulam and Kurumbur. Similarly, the Aranthangi Tondaimans were an independent line of chieftains ruling from Aranthangi; they flourished about 200 years before the rule of the Thondaman dynasty of Pudukottai (which began about 1640).
The Aranthangi Tondaimans were the chief patrons of the Avudayarkovil temple, and liberally donated to its maintenance (as indicated by copper plates in the possession of the Tiruvavaduthurai Adheenam). They donated land to the Tiruvarur, Rameswaram, Kanchipuram and Benares temples. About 25 copper plates indicating grants from the Aranthangi Tondaimans have been recorded so far; 16 are in the Thiruvavaduthurai Adheenam. Their direct descendants were the Palayavanam Zamin "Vanangamudi Pandarathar".The Thondaiman kings of the Pudukkottai principality who came to power in the 17th century were their descendants.
The Middle kingdoms of India were the political entities in India from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE. The period begins after the decline of the Maurya Empire and the corresponding rise of the Satavahana dynasty, starting with Simuka, from 230 BCE. The "Middle" period lasted for about 1,500 years and ended in the 13th century, with the rise of the Delhi Sultanate, founded in 1206, and the end of the Later Cholas.
The history of southern India covers a span of over four thousand years during which the region saw the rise and fall of a number of dynasties and empires. The period of known history of the region begins with the Iron Age period until the 15th century CE. Dynasties of Chera, Chola, Pandyan, Chalukya, Pallava, Satavahana Rashtrakuta, Kakatiya, Reddy dynasty, Seuna (Yadava) dynasty and Hoysala were at their peak during various periods of history. These Dynasties constantly fought amongst each other and against external forces when northern armies invaded southern India. Vijayanagara empire rose in response to the Muslim intervention and covered the most of southern India and acted as a bulwark against Mughal expansion into the south. When the European powers arrived during the 16th and 18th century CE, the southern kingdoms, most notably Tipu Sultan's Kingdom of Mysore, resisted the new threats, and many parts eventually succumbed to British occupation. The British created the Madras Presidency which acted as an administrative centre for the rest of South India, with them being princely states. After Indian independence South India was linguistically divided into the states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana and Kerala.
The Pandya dynasty, also known as the Pandyas of Madurai, was a dynasty of south India, one of the three ethnically Tamil lineages, the other two being the Chola and the Chera. The rulers of the three dynasties were referred to as "the three crowned rulers of the Tamil country". The Pandyas ruled extensive territories, at times including the large portions of present-day south India and Sri Lanka. Madurai was capital of the pandya kingdom.
The Pallava dynasty was an Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India. They gained prominence after the eclipse of the Satavahana dynasty, whom the Pallavas served as feudatories.
Simhavishnu, also known as Avanisimha, son of Simhavarman III and one of the Pallava kings of India, was responsible for the revival of the Pallavan dynasty. He was the first Pallava monarch whose domain extended beyond Kanchipuram (Kanchi) in the South. He was portrayed as a great conqueror in Mattavilasa Prahasana, a drama written by his son Mahendravarman I.
Rajaraja I, born Arulmoli Varman, often described as Rajaraja the Great, was a Chola emperor chiefly remembered for reinstating the Chola power and ensuring its supremacy in south India and Indian Ocean.
Chakravarti Kulottunga Choladeva was an 11th-century monarch of the Chola Empire of South India. He was one of the sovereigns who bore the title "Kulottunga", literally meaning "the exalter of his race" in Tamil. He did not belong to the main line of Cholas but was rather a prince of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty. His mother, Ammangaidevi, was a Chola princess and the daughter of emperor Rajendra Chola I. His father was king Rajaraja Narendra of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty who was the nephew of Rajendra Chola I and maternal grandson of Rajaraja Chola I. According to historian Sailendra Nath Sen, his accession marked the beginning of a new era and ushered in a period of internal peace and benevolent administration.
Kōpparakēsarivarman Rājādhiraja Chōla I was an emperor of the Indian Chola empire and the successor of his father, Emperor Rajendra Chola I. During his long reign, he helped his father conquer many territories and maintained the Chola authority over most of Lanka, Vengi, Kalinga, etc. and the relations with overseas domains despite a series of revolts in the territory. Rajadhiraja Chola’s record shows that he was a born fighter who was very capable of maintaining a vast and expansive empire with territories even outside the shores of India. He was a great warrior who always led his soldiers from the front. His life is a testimony to a great king who fought his own wars, standing shoulder to shoulder with his men on front lines. He earned the title Jayamkonda Chola after numerous victories. Towards the end of his reign, he sacked the Western Chalukyan capital Kalyanapuram and assumed the title Kalyanapuramgonda Chola and performed a Virabhisheka under the name Vijaya Rajendra Cholan.
The Chola dynasty was a Tamil thalassocratic empire of southern India, one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the world's history. The earliest datable references to the Chola are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Ashoka, of the Maurya Empire. As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, along with the Chera and Pandya, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE. Despite these ancient origins, the period when it is appropriate to speak of a "Chola Empire" only begins with the medieval Cholas in the mid-9th century CE.
Vikramaditya VI became the Western Chalukya King after deposing his elder brother Someshvara II, a political move he made by gaining the support of Chalukya vassals during the Chola invasion of Chalukya territory. Vikramaditya's reign is marked with the abolishment of the Saka era and the start of the Chalukya-Vikrama era. He was the greatest of the Western Chalukya kings and had the longest reign in the dynasty. He earned the title Permadideva and Tribhuvanamalla. He had several queens who ably assisted him in administration. One of his queens, Chandala Devi, a princess from the Shilahara ruling family of Karad was called Abhinava Saraswati for her skills as an artist. Queen Kethala Devi administered the Siruguppa region and Savala Devi was in charge of an Agrahara in Naregal. According to the historian Kamath, Vikramaditya VI was a "great king who ruled over South India" and he finds a "pride of place in Karnataka history". More inscriptions in Kannada are attributed to Vikramaditya VI than any other king prior to the Vijayanagara era.
Virarajendra Chola was a Chola king, who spent a major part of his life as a subordinate of his two elder brothers Rajadhiraja Chola I and Rajendra Chola II, who along with Virarajendra Chola himself were the sons Rajendra Chola I. During his early reign he granted the maintenance of a school to study the Vedas, Sastras and Grammar and a hostel was provided for the students. A hospital named Virasolan was also provided by him for the sick people. The famous grammatical work in Tamil, Virasoliyam was written by Buddhamitra during his reign.
Medieval Cholas rose to prominence during the middle of the 9th century CE and established one of the greatest empires of India. They successfully united South India under their rule and through their naval strength extended their influence in Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka. They had trade contacts with the Arabs in the west and with the Chinese in the east.
Vikrama Chola, known as Kō Parakēsari Varman, was a 12th-century king of the Chola Empire in southern India. He succeeded his father Kulothunga I to the throne.
The Later Chola dynasty ruled the Chola Empire from 1070 C.E. until the demise of the empire in 1279 C. E. This dynasty was the product of decades of alliances based on marriages between the Cholas and the Eastern Chalukyas based in Vengi and produced some of the greatest Chola emperors such as Kulothunga Chola I. Even though the later Cholas are often referred to as Chalukya Cholas, there were two breaks in the line. Kulothunga Chola II and Rajadhiraja Chola II did not belong to the Chalukya Chola line. Kulottunga II was a grandson of Vikrama Chola and Rajadhiraja Chola II was not the son of Rajaraja Chola II.
Eastern Chalukyas, also known as the Chalukyas of Vengi, were a dynasty that ruled parts of South India between the 7th and 12th centuries. They started out as governors of the Chalukyas of Badami in the Deccan region. Subsequently, they became a sovereign power, and ruled the Vengi region of present-day Andhra Pradesh until c. 1130 CE. They continued ruling the region as feudatories of the Cholas until 1189 CE.
Kulothunga Chola II was a 12th-century king of the Chola Dynasty of the Tamil people of South India. He succeeded his father Vikrama Chola to the throne in 1135 CE. Vikrama Chola made Kulothunga his heir apparent and coregent in 1133 CE, so the inscriptions of Kulothunga II count his reign from 1133 CE. Kulothunga II's reign was a period of general peace and good governance.
Kulothunga Chola III also known as a Chakravarti was the ruler of the Chola empire from 1178 to 1218 CE, after succeeding Rajadhiraja Chola II. Kulothunga Chola III gained success in war against his traditional foes. He gained victories in war against the Hoysalas, Pandyas of Madurai, Cheras of Venad, the Sinhala kings of Eelam (Ceylon), as well as the Chodas of Velanadu and Nellore. He also restored Chola control over Karur, which were ruled by the Adigaman chiefs as vassals of the Cholas. He drove out the Hoysalas under Veera Ballala II who had made inroads in the Gangavadi and adjoining areas of Tagadur in Kongu country in an effort expand their territory. However, during the last two years of his reign, he lost in war to the resurgent Pandyas, heralded a period of steady decline and ultimately, demise of the Cholas by 1280 CE. Kulottunga III had alliances with the Hoysalas. The Hoysala king Veera Ballala married a Chola queen called Cholamahadevi and gave his daughter Somaladevi in marriage to Kulottunga III.
The region of Tamil Nadu or Tamilakam, in the southeast of modern India, shows evidence of having had continuous human habitation from 15,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE. Throughout its history, spanning the early Upper Paleolithic age to modern times, this region has coexisted with various external cultures.
Karunakara Tondaiman was a famous general of Kulottunga Chola I. He is renowned for leading the Chola invasion of Kalinga during the reign of Kulottunga I and is the hero of Jayamkondar's poem Kalinkkattuparani In the Parani poem he is referred to as the lord of Vandai. while in the Draksharamam inscription of Kulottunga I, he is called as Vanduvaraja and Pallavaraja. He also served as a minister under Kulothunga Chola's son and successor, Vikrama Chola.
South Indian Inscriptions is an epigraphical series that has been published by the Archaeological Survey of India in 34 volumes from 1890 through the present. The texts are supplemented with summaries and an overview of the texts, both in English The series was originally edited by archaeologist E. Hultzsch, then V. Venkayya and Rai Bahadur.