Tondaiman

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The Tondaiman family were Tamil rulers of the ancient Tondai Nadu (Tondaimandalam) division of Tamilakkam in South India. Their capital was at Kanchipuram. [1]

Tondaimandalam also known as Tondai Nadu is a historical region located in the northernmost part of Tamil Nadu. The region comprises the districts which formed a part of the traditional Pallava kingdom. The boundaries of Tondaimandalam are ambiguous – between the Rivers basins of Penna River and Ponnaiyar River.

Kanchipuram Municipality in Tamil Nadu, India

Kanchipuram, also known as Kānchi or Kancheepuram, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in Tondaimandalam region, 72 km (45 mi) from Chennai – the capital of Tamil Nadu. The city covers an area of 11.605 km2 (4.481 sq mi) and had a population of 164,265 in 2011. It is the administrative headquarters of Kanchipuram District. Kanchipuram is well-connected by road and rail. Chennai International Airport is the nearest domestic and international airport to the city, which is located at Tirusulam in Kanchipuram district.

Contents

They ruled with the Pallava dynasty, which controlled northern Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and had its capital at Kanchipuram. Hundreds of records and edicts exist pertaining to the Tondaiman rulers of Chola dynasty.

Pallava dynasty Indian dynasty that existed between the 3rd and 9th centuries CE

The Pallava dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India. They gained prominence after the eclipse of the Satavahana dynasty, whom the Pallavas served as feudatories.

Tamil Nadu State in Southern India

Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka.

Andhra Pradesh State in southern India

Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India. Situated in the south-east of the country, it is the seventh-largest state in India, covering an area of 162,970 km2 (62,920 sq mi). As per the 2011 census, it is the tenth most populous state, with 49,386,799 inhabitants. The largest city in Andhra Pradesh is Visakhapatnam. Telugu, one of the classical languages of India, is the major and official language of Andhra Pradesh.

Sangam literature

Ruler Tondaiman Ilandirayan was mentioned in Purananuru (புறநானூறு) (in one of the poems written by Avvaiyar) as a king confronting Adhiaman; battle was avoided by the tactics of Avvaiyaar. [2] He is said to be the founder of Pallava dynasty. [3] Pathupaattu (பத்துப்பாட்டு) a sangam literature work mentioned that Tondaiman Ilandriyan ruled th Kanchipuram town before 2500 years. [4]

The Purananuru, also known as Puram, Purappaattu, and Purambu Naanuru, is a Tamil poetic work in the Eight Anthologies (Ettuthokai), one of the two divisions of the Eighteen Greater Texts (Pathinenmelkanakku) collection. It is a treatise on kingship: what a king should be, how he should act, how he should treat his subjects and how he should show his generosity. The Sangam Collection is classified into Eighteen Greater Texts (Patinenmelkanakku) and Eighteen Lesser Texts (Pathinenkilkanakku) and each classification has eighteen collections, as an anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period. It is dated between 1st century BCE and 3rd century CE.

Avvaiyar title of more than one poet who was active during different periods of Tamil literature

Avvaiyar was the title of more than one female poet who were active during different periods of Tamil literature. They were some of the most famous and important female poets of the Tamil canon.

Chola Empire

The Tondaiman title was borne by various chiefs in the Chola empire, notable ones being Karunakara Tondaiman and Naralokaviran alias Porkoyil Tondaiman who served as generals under Kulottunga I. [5]

Karunakara Tondaiman was a famous general of Kulottunga Chola I. He is renowned for leading the Chola invasion of Kalinga during the reign of Kulottunga I and is the hero of Jayamkondar's poem Kalinkkattuparani In the Parani poem he is referred to as the lord of Vandai. while in the Draksharamam inscription of Kulottunga I, he is called as Vanduvaraja and Pallavaraja. He also served as a minister under Kulothunga Chola's son and successor, Vikrama Chola.

Naralokaviran was a general in the Chola army during the reign of Kulottunga Chola I and his son Vikrama Chola He was the headman of Arumbakkam and a resident of Manavil in Manavil nadu in Tondaimandalam. He maintained a large fief at Manavil. Just as Karunakara Tondaiman, the other general of Kulottunga Chola I who distinguished himself in the Kalinga and northern wars, Naralokaviran led many of the king's campaigns in the south and distinguished himself in the Pandyan wars. He had many titles like Madurantaka Ponn-ambalakkoothan, Sabharnataka, Kalingarayan and Porkoyil-Thondaiman.

Kulottunga I

Kulottunga Chola was an 11th-century monarch of the Chola Empire. He was one of the sovereigns who bore the title Kulottunga, literally meaning the exalter of his race. He did not belong to the main line of Cholas but was rather a prince of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty. His mother was a Chola princess and the daughter of emperor Rajendra Chola I. His accession marked the beginning of a new era and ushered in a period of internal peace and benevolent administration.

The poet Kambar wrote Silaiyezhupathu about Karunagara Tondaiman. [6]

Silai yezhubathu(translation, "Seventy Statues") is a Tamil-language work by the poet Kambar. It describes about the Vanniyar caste, their bravery, archery skills, culture, pride, their troops and dharma. It was written to describe their way of life in ancient Tamilakam. According to the poem, the Vanniyar people rose from the sacrificial fire of Sambu Maharishi and belong to the Sambu gothra.

  1. கணபதி துதி
  2. நூற்பெயரும் நூல்செய்தார் பெயரும் நுவலல்
  3. நூலரங்கேறிய கச்சித்தலச் சிறப்பு
  4. சம்புகோத்திரச் சிறப்பு(sambu gothra)
  5. குலோற்பவச் சிறப்பு
  6. வன்னியர் குலச் சிறப்பு
  7. வன்னியர் குலச் சிறப்பு
  8. குலத்தலைவர் படைச் சிறப்பு

Origin

Aranthangi Tondaimans

The Aranthangi Tondaimans ruled Aranthangi from the 15th to the 18th centuries in southern Tamil Nadu. (As per the copper plates of Tondaiman released by Tamil University of Tanjore). There are references to the Aranthangi Tondaimans in temple inscriptions at Avudayarkovil, Alappiranathan, Palaiyavanam, Pillaivayal, Aranthangi, Kovilur, Paramandur, Palankarai, Piranmalai, Thiruvarankulam and Kurumbur. Similarly, the Aranthangi Tondaimans were an independent line of chieftains ruling from Aranthangi; they flourished about 200 years before the rule of the Thondaman dynasty of Pudukottai (which began about 1640). [7]

Aranthangi Town in Tamil Nadu, India

Aranthangi is a town in Pudukkottai district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. As of 2011, the city had a population of 40,814.

Kurumbur village in Tamil Nadu, India

Kurumbur is a village in the Alwar thirunagarirevenue block of tuticorin district, Tamil Nadu, India. Peoples are so kindness and social thoughtfulness in their regular life.

Pudukkottai district District in Tamil Nadu, India

Pudukkottai District is a district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. The city of Pudukkottai is the district headquarters. It is also known colloquially as Pudhugai. Pudukkottai district is one of the least urbanised district in Tamil Nadu.

The Aranthangi Tondaimans were the chief patrons of the Avudayarkovil temple, and liberally donated to its maintenance (as indicated by copper plates in the possession of the Tiruvavaduthurai Adheenam). They donated land to the Tiruvarur, Rameswaram, Kanchipuram and Benares temples. About 25 copper plates indicating grants from the Aranthangi Tondaimans have been recorded so far; 16 are in the Thiruvavaduthurai Adheenam.

Notes

  1. "Southern Indian Kingdoms". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  2. History of the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, 610-1210 A.D., page 446.
  3. Vijaya Ramaswamy (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils.
  4. P. V. L. Narasimha Rao (2008). Kanchipuram: Land of Legends, Saints and Temples.
  5. S. R. Balasubrahmanyam; B. Natarajan; Balasubrahmanyan Ramachandran. Later Chola Temples: Kulottunga I to Rajendra III (A.D. 1070-1280), Parts 1070-1280. Mudgala Trust, 1979 - Architecture - 470 pages. p. 20.
  6. Silaiyelupathu (in Tamil) Retrieved 2012-07-17.
  7. C.Sivaratnam: The Tamils in early Ceylon, page 116

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South Indian Inscriptions is an epigraphical series that has been published by the Archaeological Survey of India in 34 volumes from 1890 through the present. The texts are supplemented with summaries and an overview of the texts, both in English The series was originally edited by archaeologist E. Hultzsch, then V. Venkayya and Rai Bahadur.

References