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The Tondaiman family were Tamil rulers of the ancient Tondai Nadu (Tondaimandalam) division of Tamilakkam in South India. Their capital was at Kanchipuram.
Tondaimandalam also known as Tondai Nadu is a historical region located in the northernmost part of Tamil Nadu. The region comprises the districts which formed a part of the traditional Pallava kingdom. The boundaries of Tondaimandalam are ambiguous – between the Rivers basins of Penna River and Ponnaiyar River.
Kanchipuram, also known as Kānchi or Kancheepuram, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in Tondaimandalam region, 72 km (45 mi) from Chennai – the capital of Tamil Nadu. The city covers an area of 11.605 km2 (4.481 sq mi) and had a population of 164,265 in 2011. It is the administrative headquarters of Kanchipuram District. Kanchipuram is well-connected by road and rail. Chennai International Airport is the nearest domestic and international airport to the city, which is located at Tirusulam in Kanchipuram district.
They ruled with the Pallava dynasty, which controlled northern Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and had its capital at Kanchipuram. Hundreds of records and edicts exist pertaining to the Tondaiman rulers of Chola dynasty.
The Pallava dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India. They gained prominence after the eclipse of the Satavahana dynasty, whom the Pallavas served as feudatories.
Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India. Situated in the south-east of the country, it is the seventh-largest state in India, covering an area of 162,970 km2 (62,920 sq mi). As per the 2011 census, it is the tenth most populous state, with 49,386,799 inhabitants. The largest city in Andhra Pradesh is Visakhapatnam. Telugu, one of the classical languages of India, is the major and official language of Andhra Pradesh.
Ruler Tondaiman Ilandirayan was mentioned in Purananuru (புறநானூறு) (in one of the poems written by Avvaiyar) as a king confronting Adhiaman; battle was avoided by the tactics of Avvaiyaar.He is said to be the founder of Pallava dynasty. Pathupaattu (பத்துப்பாட்டு) a sangam literature work mentioned that Tondaiman Ilandriyan ruled th Kanchipuram town before 2500 years.
The Purananuru, also known as Puram, Purappaattu, and Purambu Naanuru, is a Tamil poetic work in the Eight Anthologies (Ettuthokai), one of the two divisions of the Eighteen Greater Texts (Pathinenmelkanakku) collection. It is a treatise on kingship: what a king should be, how he should act, how he should treat his subjects and how he should show his generosity. The Sangam Collection is classified into Eighteen Greater Texts (Patinenmelkanakku) and Eighteen Lesser Texts (Pathinenkilkanakku) and each classification has eighteen collections, as an anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period. It is dated between 1st century BCE and 3rd century CE.
Avvaiyar was the title of more than one female poet who were active during different periods of Tamil literature. They were some of the most famous and important female poets of the Tamil canon.
The Tondaiman title was borne by various chiefs in the Chola empire, notable ones being Karunakara Tondaiman and Naralokaviran alias Porkoyil Tondaiman who served as generals under Kulottunga I.
Karunakara Tondaiman was a famous general of Kulottunga Chola I. He is renowned for leading the Chola invasion of Kalinga during the reign of Kulottunga I and is the hero of Jayamkondar's poem Kalinkkattuparani In the Parani poem he is referred to as the lord of Vandai. while in the Draksharamam inscription of Kulottunga I, he is called as Vanduvaraja and Pallavaraja. He also served as a minister under Kulothunga Chola's son and successor, Vikrama Chola.
Naralokaviran was a general in the Chola army during the reign of Kulottunga Chola I and his son Vikrama Chola He was the headman of Arumbakkam and a resident of Manavil in Manavil nadu in Tondaimandalam. He maintained a large fief at Manavil. Just as Karunakara Tondaiman, the other general of Kulottunga Chola I who distinguished himself in the Kalinga and northern wars, Naralokaviran led many of the king's campaigns in the south and distinguished himself in the Pandyan wars. He had many titles like Madurantaka Ponn-ambalakkoothan, Sabharnataka, Kalingarayan and Porkoyil-Thondaiman.
Kulottunga Chola was an 11th-century monarch of the Chola Empire. He was one of the sovereigns who bore the title Kulottunga, literally meaning the exalter of his race. He did not belong to the main line of Cholas but was rather a prince of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty. His mother was a Chola princess and the daughter of emperor Rajendra Chola I. His accession marked the beginning of a new era and ushered in a period of internal peace and benevolent administration.
The poet Kambar wrote Silaiyezhupathu about Karunagara Tondaiman.
Silai yezhubathu(translation, "Seventy Statues") is a Tamil-language work by the poet Kambar. It describes about the Vanniyar caste, their bravery, archery skills, culture, pride, their troops and dharma. It was written to describe their way of life in ancient Tamilakam. According to the poem, the Vanniyar people rose from the sacrificial fire of Sambu Maharishi and belong to the Sambu gothra.
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The Aranthangi Tondaimans ruled Aranthangi from the 15th to the 18th centuries in southern Tamil Nadu. (As per the copper plates of Tondaiman released by Tamil University of Tanjore). There are references to the Aranthangi Tondaimans in temple inscriptions at Avudayarkovil, Alappiranathan, Palaiyavanam, Pillaivayal, Aranthangi, Kovilur, Paramandur, Palankarai, Piranmalai, Thiruvarankulam and Kurumbur. Similarly, the Aranthangi Tondaimans were an independent line of chieftains ruling from Aranthangi; they flourished about 200 years before the rule of the Thondaman dynasty of Pudukottai (which began about 1640).
Aranthangi is a town in Pudukkottai district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. As of 2011, the city had a population of 40,814.
Kurumbur is a village in the Alwar thirunagarirevenue block of tuticorin district, Tamil Nadu, India. Peoples are so kindness and social thoughtfulness in their regular life.
Pudukkottai District is a district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. The city of Pudukkottai is the district headquarters. It is also known colloquially as Pudhugai. Pudukkottai district is one of the least urbanised district in Tamil Nadu.
The Aranthangi Tondaimans were the chief patrons of the Avudayarkovil temple, and liberally donated to its maintenance (as indicated by copper plates in the possession of the Tiruvavaduthurai Adheenam). They donated land to the Tiruvarur, Rameswaram, Kanchipuram and Benares temples. About 25 copper plates indicating grants from the Aranthangi Tondaimans have been recorded so far; 16 are in the Thiruvavaduthurai Adheenam.
The Middle kingdoms of India were the political entities in India from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE. The period begins after the decline of the Maurya Empire and the corresponding rise of the Satavahana dynasty, starting with Simuka, from 230 BCE. The "Middle" period lasted for about 1500 years and ended in the 13th century, with the rise of the Delhi Sultanate, founded in 1206, and the end of the Later Cholas.
Simhavishnu, also known as Avanisimha, son of Simhavarman III and one of the Pallava kings of India, was responsible for the revival of the Pallavan dynasty. He was the first Pallava monarch whose domain extended beyond Kanchipuram (Kanchi) in the South. He was portrayed as a great conqueror in Mattavilasa Prahasana, a drama written by his son Mahendravarman I.
Raja Raja Chola I, born as Arulmozhi Varman, was a Chola emperor from present day south India who ruled over the Chola kingdom of medieval Tamil Nadu, parts of northern India, two thirds of Sri Lankan territory, Maldives and parts of East Asia, between 985 and 1014 CE. During his reign, the Cholas expanded beyond the Kaveri delta with their domains stretching from Sri Lanka in the south to Kalinga in the north. Raja Raja also launched several naval campaigns on the ports of Malabar Coast (Kerala), Maldives and Sri Lanka.
Narasimhavarman I was a Tamil king of the Pallava dynasty who ruled South India from 630–668 AD. He shared his father Mahendravarman I's love of art and completed the work started by Mahendravarman in Mamallapuram.
Kōpparakēsarivarman Rājādhiraja Chōla I was an 11th-century emperor of the Indian Chola empire and the successor of his father, Rajendra Chola I. During his long reign, he helped his father conquer many territories and maintained the Chola authority over most of Lanka, Vengi, Kalinga, etc. and the relations with overseas domains despite a series of revolts in the territory. Rajadhiraja Chola’s record shows that he was a born fighter who was very capable of maintaining a vast and expansive empire with territories even outside the shores of India. He was a great warrior who always led from the front. His life is a testimony to a king who fought his own wars standing shoulder to shoulder with his men on front lines. He earned the title Jayamkonda Cholan after numerous victories. Towards the end of his reign he sacked the Western Chalukyan capital Kalyanapuram and assumed the title Kalyanapuramgonda Chola and performed a virabhisheka under the name Vijaya Rajendra Cholan. One of his predecessors, Rajaraja Chola I also assumed the title Jayangonda Chola towards the end of his reign.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in history. The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Ashoka, of the Maurya Empire. As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE.
Virarajendra Chola is considered to be one of the most underrated Chola kings, mainly because a major part of his life was spent as a subordinate of his two elder brothers Rajadhiraja Chola I and Rajendra Chola II, who along with Virarajendra Chola himself were the illustrious sons of their Chakravarti(Emperor) father, Rajendra Chola I. While certainly it was not a practice among the Chola kings to nominate the eldest son, but the most capable as the heir to the throne. During his early reign he granted the maintenance of a school to study the Vedas, Sastras and Grammar and a hostel was provided for the students. A hospital named Virasolan was also provided by him for the sick people. The famous grammatical work in Tamil, Virasoliyam was written by Buddhamitra during his reign.
Athirajendra Chola reigned for a very short period of few months as the Chola king succeeding his father Virarajendra Chola. His reign was marked by civil unrest, possibly religious in nature, in which he was killed. The Chalukya Chola prince Rajiga succeeded him as Kulothunga Chola I.
Medieval Cholas rose to prominence during the middle of the 9th century CE and established one of the greatest empires in South India. They successfully united South India under their rule and through their naval strength extended their influence in Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka. They had trade contacts with the Arabs in the west and with the Chinese in the east.
The Later Chola dynasty ruled the Chola Empire from 1070 C.E. until the demise of the empire in 1279 C. E. This dynasty was the product of decades of alliances based on marriages between the Cholas and the Eastern Chalukyas based in Vengi and produced some of the greatest Chola emperors such as Kulothunga Chola I.
Kulothunga Chola II was a 12th-century king of the Chola Dynasty of the Tamil people of South India. He succeeded his father Vikrama Chola to the throne in 1135 CE. Vikrama Chola made Kulothunga his heir apparent and coregent in 1133 CE, so the inscriptions of Kulothunga II count his reign from 1133 CE. Kulothunga II's reign was a period of general peace and good governance.
Kulothunga Chola III also known as aChakravarti was the ruler of the Chola empire from 1178 to 1218 CE, after succeeding Rajadhiraja Chola II. Kulothunga Chola III gained success in war against his traditional foes. He gained victories in war against the Hoysalas, Pandyas of Madurai, Cheras of Venad, the Sinhala kings of Eelam (Ceylon), as well as the Chodas of Velanadu and Nellore. He also restored Chola control over Karur, which were ruled by the Adigaman chiefs as vassals of the Cholas. He drove out the Hoysalas under Veera Ballala II who had made inroads in the Gangavadi and adjoining areas of Tagadur in Kongu country in an effort expand their territory. However, during the last two years of his reign, he lost in war to the resurgent Pandyas, heralded a period of steady decline and ultimately, demise of the Cholas by 1280 CE.
Rajaraja Narendra was the Eastern Chalukya king of the Vengi or Vengai Nadu kingdom in South India. Rajaraja was related to the Cholas of Tanjavur by marital and political links. Rajaraja Narendra established the city Rajahmahendravaram (Rajahmundry). His period was famous for the Social and Cultural heritage. During the time of Rajaraja Chola I, Rajahmundry got sacked Western Chalukya. The region witnessed war between Western Chalukya and other neighbouring dynasties and political support by chola dynasty.
Ilandiraiyan was a ruler of Kanchipuram and a contemporary of the Early Chola king, Karikala. Some consider him the founder of the Pallava dynasty. Ilandiraiyan is referred to in the literature of the Sangam period and is the hero of some of the poems in the Pathupattu. He was a poet himself and four of his songs are extant even today. He is also known as Tondaiman Ilandiraiyan as Kanchipuram is located in the region known as Tondaimandalam.
Kalingatteuparani is a 12th-century Tamil poem and a war song by Jayamkondar, celebrating the victory of Kulottunga Chola I over the Kalinga king, Anantavarman Chodaganga in the Chola-Kalinga war. parani is a type of literature that is written on a king(person) who kills a thousand elephants in a war. Hence, kalingattuparani depicts that kulottunga chola I killed a thousand elephants in tha chola-kalinga war. It gives a vivid and a graphic description of battle scenes. It is hailed as one of the master-pieces of Tamil literature with its majestic style and diction. Kulottunga Chola I is the protagonist and the hero of this work. Jayakondar, the court poet, touches on various sections such as lineage of the king, his birth, his family, the training in warfare that he received as a child, his accession to the throne, his exploits and his subsequent move to the city of Kanchi. The author then proceeds to explain the training that Kulothunga received in warfare and his heroics in Vayiragaram and Chakrakottam while he was still young. Next he proceeds to talk about his queens and how one day the king wanted to move his capital to Kanchi. Finally, he touches on the circumstances which led to the Kalinga war. Karunakara Thondaiman, a Pallavan prince and a feudatory will distinguish himself in this affair.
South Indian Inscriptions is an epigraphical series that has been published by the Archaeological Survey of India in 34 volumes from 1890 through the present. The texts are supplemented with summaries and an overview of the texts, both in English The series was originally edited by archaeologist E. Hultzsch, then V. Venkayya and Rai Bahadur.