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The Three Crowned rulers, or the Three Glorified by Heaven, [ page needed ] They signalled a time of integration and political identity for the Tamil people. [ full citation needed ] They frequently waged war against one another under a period of instability and between each other, held control over Greater Tamilakam from 6th century BCE to the 13th century. After being defeated by the Pandyas, the Cholas fled to Devicottah and are later mentioned in various texts that participated in wars in the 16th century.or World of the Three or The Tamil Kings, primarily known as Muvendar, refers to the triumvirate of Chera, Chola and Pandya who dominated the politics of the ancient Tamil country, Tamilakam, from their three Nadu (countries) of Chola Nadu, Pandya Nadu (present day Madurai and Tirunelveli) and Chera Nadu (present day Kerala and some parts of Tamilnadu) in southern India.
The etymology of the Tamil word for the three kings – Moovendhar (pronounced Mūvēntar) – comes from Tamil : மூ, romanized: mū, lit. 'three' and Tamil : வேந்தர், romanized: vēntar, lit. 'king', . They are mentioned by Megasthenes and the Edicts of Ashoka, and first in Tolkappiyam among Tamil literature who was the first to call them Three Glorified by Heaven (Tamil : வான்புகழ் மூவர், Vāṉpukaḻ Mūvar). Ptolemy and the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mention three kingdoms ruling Tamilakam.[ citation needed ]
The Pandyas were the earliest of the Muvendhar and were of high antiquity being mentioned by Kātyāyana and Valmiki. [ citation needed ] They were famous for being patrons of the Tamil Sangams which were held in their capital, Madurai. Pliny mentions the Pandya country and its capital. The large number of Roman coins from Emperor Augustus to Emperor Zeno found in Madurai shows that trade flourished among Rome, Greece and Tamilakam. Two embassies sent from the Pandya dynasty to Emperor Augustus were recorded.[ citation needed ] The Roman and Greek writers praise Korkai (now called Tuticorin or Thoothukudi) as the seaport of the Pandyas.[ citation needed ]However the establishment of a Pandya territory is not known until the sixth century under King Kadungon who liberated the Pandya country from the Kalabhras. Xuanzang reports that Jainism was flourishing while Buddhism was declining during this period.
The Silappatikaram alludes to the solar ancestry of the Cholas and the lunar ancestry of the Pandyas. It does not mention anything about the ancestry of the Cheras.The 15th-century Tamil Mahabharata of Villiputtur Alvar describes the Chera king as from the fire dynasty, retaining the solar and lunar origins for the Chola and the Pandya kings, respectively. The Tiruvilayatar Puranam (or Thiruvilaiyadal Puranam ), possibly from the 17th century, also states that when Brahma re-created the world after a deluge, he created the Chera, Chola and the Pandya kings as descendants of the fire, the sun and the moon, respectively.
Chola Purva Patayam ("Ancient Chola Record"), a Tamil language manuscript of uncertain date, contains a legend about the divine origin of the three crowned kings. According to it, the Shramana king Shalivahana (also known as Bhoja in this story) defeated Vikramaditya, and started persecuting the worshipers of Shiva and Vishnu. After failing to kill Shalivahana with a rain of fire, Shiva created three kings: Vira Cholan (Chola), Ula Cheran (Chera), and Vajranga Pandiyan (Pandya). The three kings came to bathe together at the triveni sangam (three-river confluence) in Thirumukkoodal, and formed an alliance against Shalivahana. Next, they went through a number of adventures at various places, including Kashi and Kanchi. With the blessings of Durga, they found treasure and inscriptions of Hindu kings from the age of Shantanu to Vikramaditya. They then reached Cudatturiyur (possibly Uraiyur), where Vira Cholan wrote letters to all those who worshipped Shiva and Vishnu, seeking their help against Shalivahana. A number of people assembled at Cudatturiyur to support the three kings' campaign. When Shalivahana heard of this preparation, he marched towards the south and took possession of the strong citadel at Tiruchirappalli. The three kings sent their envoy to Shalivahana, asking him to surrender and renounce his faith. When he refused, they and their allies assembled an army at Thiruvanaikaval. From an inscription that they had earlier found at Kanchi, they realised that there was a subterranean entrance into the Tiruchirappalli fort. They sent a few soldiers who entered the fort and opened its Chintamani gate. Their forces then entered the fortress, and defeated Shalivahana. Chola Purva Patayam dates Shalivahana's defeat to the year 1443 of an uncertain calendar era (possibly from the beginning of Kali Yuga). [ better source needed ]
The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethno-linguistic group who trace their ancestry mainly to India’s southern state of Tamil Nadu, the union territory of Puducherry, and to Sri Lanka. People who speak Tamil and are born in Tamil clans are considered Tamils. Tamils constitute 5.9% of the population in India, 15% in Sri Lanka, 7% in Malaysia, and 5% in Singapore.
The Carnatic region is the peninsular South Indian region between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal, in the erstwhile Madras Presidency and in the modern Indian states of Tamil Nadu and southern coastal Andhra Pradesh. During the British era, demarcation was different, including Karnataka and the whole region south of Deccan with black soil.
The Pandyan dynasty, also referred to as the Pandyas of Madurai, was an ancient Tamil dynasty of South India, and among the three great kingdoms of Tamilakam, the other two being the Cholas and the Cheras. Existing since at least the 4th to 3rd centuries BCE, the dynasty passed through two periods of imperial dominance, the 6th to 10th centuries CE, and under the 'Later Pandyas'. Under Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan I and Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I, the Pandyas ruled extensive territories including regions of present-day South India and northern Sri Lanka through vassal states subject to Madurai.
Rajaraja I, often described as Rajaraja the Great was a Tamil Chola emperor who reigned from 985 CE to 1014 CE. An iconic figure and regarded as the 'King of Kings', he was the most powerful king in South India during his reign and is remembered for reinstating the Chola influence and ensuring its supremacy across the Indian Ocean.
Kulottunga I also spelt Kulothunga, born Rajendra Chalukya, was a Chola Emperor who reigned from 1070 CE to 1122 CE succeeding his cousin Athirajendra Chola. He also served as the Eastern Chalukya king from 1061 CE to 1118 CE, succeeding his father Rajaraja Narendra. He is related to the Chola dynasty through his mother's side and the Eastern Chalukyas through his father's side. His mother, Ammangaidevi, was a Chola princess and the daughter of emperor Rajendra I. His father was king Rajaraja Narendra of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty who was the nephew of Rajendra I and maternal grandson of Rajaraja I. According to historian Sailendra Nath Sen, his accession marked the beginning of a new era and ushered in a period of internal peace and benevolent administration.
Pandya Nadu or Pandi Nadu is a geographical region comprising the southern part of the present day state of Tamil Nadu. The region is bounded on its West by the Venad/Ay Nadu, Northeast by the Chola Nadu and Northwest by the Kongu Nadu. It comprises the present-day districts of Madurai, Theni, Sivaganga, Ramanathapuram, Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli, Tenkasi, Thoothukudi, Kanniyakumari, parts of Pudukkottai and Dindigul.
Rajadhiraja I was a Chola emperor, the most skilled military commander among the Chola rulers and the successor of his father, Rajendra I. He was the only Chola emperor who was killed while leading his army in war, and although he had a short reign, he helped his father conquer several territories as well as to maintain the Chola authority over most of Sri Lanka, Eastern Chalukya and Kalinga, among others. He also established imperial relations with overseas allies despite a series of revolts in the territory.
The Chera dynasty, IPA: [t͡ʃeːɾɐ], was a Sangam age dynasty who are credited as the Creators of land of Kerala as they have unified various regions of the western coast and western ghats to form the early Chera empire.
The Chola dynasty was a Tamil Thalassocratic empire of Tamilakam and was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the world history. The earliest datable references to the Chola are from inscriptions dated to the 3rd century BCE during the reign of Ashoka of the Maurya Empire. As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, along with the Chera and Pandya, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territories until the 13th century CE. The Chola Empire was at its peak and achieved imperialism under the Medieval Cholas in the mid-9th century CE. Related dynasties are Telugu Chodas of Andhra, Chodagangas of Kalinga, Nidugal Cholas of Karnataka, Rajahnate of Cebu, Rajahnate of Sanmalan.
Karikala often referred to as Karikala the Great was a Tamil Emperor of the Early Cholas of the Chola dynasty who ruled ancient Tamilakam in the Southern India from Uraiyur. He is credited with the construction of the flood banks of the river Kaveri. He is recognised as the greatest of the Early Cholas. In Thiruvalangadu plates of Rajendra Chola I, Medieval Tamil Cholas listed Karikala Chola as one of their ancestors. In Malepadu plates of Renati Chola king Punyakumara, Telugu Cholas claimed that they belong to the family of Karikala Chola and praises him for stopping the overflow over the banks of river Kaveri.
Tamiḻakam refers to the geographical region inhabited by the ancient Tamil people, covering almost the southernmost region of the Indian subcontinent. Tamilakam covered today's Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, Lakshadweep and southern parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Traditional accounts and the Tolkāppiyam referred to these territories as a single cultural area, where Tamil was the natural language and permeated the culture of all its inhabitants. The ancient Tamil country was divided into kingdoms. The best known among them were the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyans and Pallavas. During the Sangam period, Tamil culture began to spread outside Tamilakam. Ancient Tamil settlements were also established in Sri Lanka and the Maldives (Giravarus).
The Early Cholas were a Tamil kingdom of the Chola Dynasty - pre and post Sangam period. It was one of the three main kingdoms of Tamilakam. Their early capitals were Urayur or Tiruchirapalli and Kaveripattinam. Along with Pandyas and Cheras, Chola history goes back to the period when written records were scarce.
The region of Tamil Nadu in the southeast of modern India, shows evidence of having had continuous human habitation from 15,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE. Throughout its history, spanning the early Upper Paleolithic age to modern times, this region has coexisted with various external cultures.
Ay was one of the Keralite dynasties which controlled the south-western tip of the peninsula, from the early historic period up to the medieval period.The clan traditionally held sway over the harbour of Vizhinjam, the fertile region of Nanjinad, and southern parts of the spice-producing Western Ghat mountains. The dynasty was also known as Kupaka in medieval period.
Uraiyur is a posh locality in Tiruchirapalli city in Tamil Nadu, India. Uraiyur was the ancient name of Tiruchirappalli City. Now, it became the one of the busiest area in Trichy City. It was the capital of the early Cholas, who were one of the three main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country. Sometimes spelt as Urayur, this location is also known as Thirukkozhi, Nikalaapuri, Uranthai, and Kozhiyur or Koliyur. It has a history dating back to before 300 BCE There is definite mention of the Cholas, and their capital in Ashokan inscriptions in Orissa pushing back the antiquity of the Cholas as well as Uraiyur to 272–232 BCE, which was the period of Ashoka who was ruler of the Maurya Dynasty of Pataliputra. Inscriptions and rock edicts of Ashoka and the Satavahanas describe Urayur as "the citadel and centre of the Cholas". Uraiyur was ruled by Karikala Cholan. A revered Digambar Jain Acharya, Samantabhadra, was born here in the later part of the second century CE. His notable works include Ratnakarandaka Shravakachara, Aaptamimamsa and Swambhu Stotra.
Tiruchirappalli is believed to be of great antiquity and has been ruled by the Early Cholas, Mutharaiyars Early Pandyas, Pallavas, Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas, Later Pandyas, Delhi Sultanate, Ma'bar Sultanate, Vijayanagar Empire, Nayak Dynasty, the Carnatic state and the British at different times. The archaeologically important town of Uraiyur which served as the capital of the Early Cholas is a Neighborhood of Tiruchirapalli.
Hinduism in Tamil Nadu finds its earliest literary mention in the Sangam literature dated to the 5th century BCE. The total number of Tamil Hindus as per 2011 Indian census is 63,188,168 which forms 87.58% of the total population of Tamil Nadu. Hinduism is the largest religion in Tamil Nadu.
Shalivahana was a legendary emperor of ancient India, who is said to have ruled from Pratishthana. He is believed to be based on a Satavahana king.
Kongu Chera dynasty, or Cheras of Kongu or Karur, or simply as the Chera dynasty, were a medieval royal lineage in south India, initially ruling over western Tamil Nadu and central Kerala. The headquarters of the Kongu Cheras was located at Karur in central Tamil Nadu. The Chera rulers of Kongu were subordinate to or conquered by Pallava, Pandya and Chola rulers are also said to have overrun the Kongu Chera country.
Tamil dynasties are the kingdoms who ruled over present day Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Odisha. These include the Pallavas, the Pandyas, the Cholas and the Cheras.