|Thoracic spinal nerve|
The spinal cord with spinal nerves.
The plan of the lumbosacral plexus
The thoracic spinal nerve 12 (T12) is a spinal nerve of the thoracic segment.
A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body. In the human body there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, one on each side of the vertebral column. These are grouped into the corresponding cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal regions of the spine. There are eight pairs of cervical nerves, twelve pairs of thoracic nerves, five pairs of lumbar nerves, five pairs of sacral nerves, and one pair of coccygeal nerves. The spinal nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system.
It originates from the spinal column from below the thoracic vertebra 12 (T12).
It may also be known as the subcostal nerve.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of two components that make up the nervous system of bilateral animals, with the other part being the central nervous system (CNS). The PNS consists of the nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord. The main function of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs, essentially serving as a relay between the brain and spinal cord and the rest of the body. Unlike the CNS, the PNS is not protected by the vertebral column and skull, or by the blood–brain barrier, which leaves it exposed to toxins and mechanical injuries.
In vertebrates, thoracic vertebrae compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. In humans, there are twelve thoracic vertebrae and they are intermediate in size between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae; they increase in size going towards the lumbar vertebrae, with the lower ones being a lot larger than the upper. They are distinguished by the presence of facets on the sides of the bodies for articulation with the heads of the ribs, as well as facets on the transverse processes of all, except the eleventh and twelfth, for articulation with the tubercles of the ribs. By convention, the human thoracic vertebrae are numbered T1–T12, with the first one (T1) located closest to the skull and the others going down the spine toward the lumbar region.
The intercostal nerves are part of the somatic nervous system, and arise from the anterior rami of the thoracic spinal nerves from T1 to T11. The intercostal nerves are distributed chiefly to the thoracic pleura and abdominal peritoneum and differ from the anterior rami of the other spinal nerves in that each pursues an independent course without plexus formation.
The white ramus communicans from Latin ramus (branch) and communicans (communicating) is the preganglionic sympathetic outflow nerve tract from the spinal cord.
Each spinal nerve receives a branch called a gray ramus communicans from the adjacent paravertebral ganglion of the sympathetic trunk. The gray rami communicantes contain postganglionic nerve fibers of the sympathetic nervous system and are composed of largely unmyelinated neurons. This is in contrast to the white rami communicantes, in which heavily myelinated neurons give the rami their white appearance.
The posterior thoracic nucleus, is a group of interneurons found in the medial part of lamina VII, also known as the intermediate zone, of the spinal cord. It is mainly located from the cervical vertebra C8 to lumbar L3-L4 levels and is an important structure for proprioception of the lower limb.
The ventral ramus is the anterior division of a spinal nerve. The ventral rami supply the antero-lateral parts of the trunk and the limbs. They are mainly larger than the dorsal rami.
The thoracic spinal nerve 1 (T1) is a spinal nerve of the thoracic segment.
The thoracic spinal nerve 2 (T2) is a spinal nerve of the thoracic segment.
The thoracic spinal nerve 3 (T3) is a spinal nerve of the thoracic segment.
The thoracic spinal nerve 4 (T4) is a spinal nerve of the thoracic segment.
The thoracic spinal nerve 5 (T5) is a spinal nerve of the thoracic segment.
The thoracic spinal nerve 6 (T6) is a spinal nerve of the thoracic segment.
The thoracic spinal nerve 7 (T7) is a spinal nerve of the thoracic segment.
The thoracic spinal nerve 8 (T8) is a spinal nerve of the thoracic segment.
The thoracic spinal nerve 9 (T9) is a spinal nerve of the thoracic segment.
The thoracic spinal nerve 10 (T10) is a spinal nerve of the thoracic segment.
The thoracic spinal nerve 11 (T11) is a spinal nerve of the thoracic segment.
In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.
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