|Three-coloured harlequin toad|
The three-coloured harlequin toad (Atelopus tricolor) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is found in Bolivia and Peru. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests and rivers. It is threatened by habitat loss.
They have slim body; head is longer than broad; snout acuminate; nostril lateral not visible from above; eye width is about the same length as distance from nostril to anterior corner of eye. Loreal area barely convex; upper lip fleshy; immediate lateral postorbital are convex; temporal area slightly convex; tympanum absent; dorsal postorbital crest developed but not prominent. Tibia long; foot shorter than tibia; relative length of toes: 1<2<3<5<4; metatarsal tubercles poorly developed.
Atelopus is a large genus of true toads, commonly known as harlequin toads or stubfoot toads, from Central and South America, ranging as far north as Costa Rica and as far south as Bolivia. Atelopus species are small, generally brightly colored, and diurnal. Most species are associated with mid-to-high elevation streams. This genus has been greatly affected by amphibian declines, and many species are now considered endangered, while others already are extinct. While threatened by habitat loss, pollution, and introduced species, the primary cause of these declines appears to be the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. For example, there are 32 known Atelopus species in Ecuador. One of these is data deficient, two are endangered and the remaining are critically endangered. Almost half the Ecuador species have not been recorded in a decade or more and are likely extinct. In some species conservationists have established captive colonies as a safeguard. However, numerous Atelopus species have been rediscovered decades after their last sighting, such as A. arsyescue, A. mindoensis, A. bomolochos, A. ignescens, A. balios, A. longirostris, A. subornatus and A. varius.
Rhinella chrysophora, sometimes known as the Rio Viejo toad, is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to the Cordillera Nombre de Dios on the Atlantic versant in north-central Honduras.
Atelopus balios, the Rio Pescado stubfoot toad, is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to southwestern Ecuador, with records from Pacific lowlands in Azuay, Cañar, and Guayas Provinces. It is a rare species that was already suspected to be extinct, but a single specimen was discovered in 2011 by a team from Conservation International during a hunt for missing amphibians. The decline in amphibian populations is well documented. The Atelopus balios is Critically Endangered as a result of the widespread amphibian Chytridiomycosis fungus that has decimated other amphibian populations. There are only 10 known findings of the tadpole, Atelopus balios.
The Guajira stubfoot toad or Carrikeri harlequin frog, Atelopus carrikeri, is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is about 5 cm (2.0 in) long and typically black, though some populations have orange coloration. This species is endemic to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range of northern Colombia. It is critically endangered because of the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, and habitat destruction due to agriculture. The species had not been seen from 1994 until it was rediscovered in early 2008.
Atelopus certus, the Darien stubfoot toad or Toad Mountain harlequin frog, is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae endemic to Panama.
Atelopus chiriquiensis, the Chiriqui harlequin frog or Lewis' stubfoot toad, is an extinct species of toad in the family Bufonidae that was found in the Cordillera de Talamanca in Costa Rica and western Panama. Its natural habitats were stream margins in lower montane wet forests and rainforests. Its elevational range was 1,400–2,500 m (4,600–8,200 ft) asl.
The elegant stubfoot toad or Pacific jambato frog is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae found in lowlands and Andean slopes of northwest Ecuador to 1,140 m (3,740 ft) asl and on the Gorgona Island, off southwest coast of Colombia. It was described by George Albert Boulenger in 1882 based on a specimen collected by Edward Whymper. It is known in Spanish as rana jambato del Pacífico or simply jambato del Pacífico.
Atelopus glyphus, the Pirri harlequin frog or Pirri Range stubfoot toad, is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae found in Colombia and Panama within the Northwestern Andean montane forests. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests and rivers.
Atelopus muisca is an extinct species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to Colombia. Its natural habitats were subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, subtropical or tropical high-altitude grassland, and rivers. It is threatened by habitat loss.
Atelopus pachydermus is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is found in the Andes of northern Peru and southern Ecuador. Records from Colombia reflect the vagueness of the stated type locality, "Neu-Granada", encompassing territory part of several present-day countries. Other records outside the current range refer to other species. The most recent record of this very rare and possibly extinct species is from around 1995. However, there is a need to reassess the status of this species because of confusion with Atelopus podocarpus.
Atelopus pulcher is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to eastern Peru where it is found in the Huallaga River drainage; its range might extend to Ecuador. Its natural habitats are lowland and premontane tropical forests. It is a diurnal and terrestrial species that breeds in streams.
Incilius pisinnus is a species of "true" toads in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to Mexico and known from the Tepalcatepec Valley in Michoacán. Prior to its description in 2005, it was mixed with Incilius coccifer and Incilius cycladen. The specific name pisinnus, from the Latin word for "small", refers to the comparatively small size of this species among its close relatives.
Rhinella acrolopha, also known as Cerro Mali beaked toad, is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is found in the Serranía del Darién in eastern Panama and in the immediately adjacent northwestern Colombia, in the Los Katíos National Park. The specific name acrolopha is derived from the Greek akrolophos, meaning crest of a mountain or ridge, and refers to the isolated occurrence of this species at high elevations in the Serranía del Darién. However, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) characterizes it as a lowland species.
Eleutherodactylus dilatus is a species of frog in the family Eleutherodactylidae. It is endemic to Mexico and restricted to the Chilpancingo region of the Sierra Madre del Sur in central Guerrero. Its common name is Guerreran peeping frog.
The Mozambique ridged frog is a species of frog in the family Ptychadenidae. These frogs can swim fairly well, jump far and can crawl with ease through dense plants. Their strong hindlegs can launch them up to three metres into the air in a single bound.
Cherax parvus is a species of crayfish in the family Parastacidae. It is only known from its type locality – the Upper Tully River catchment in the Cardwell Range of north-eastern Queensland – and is listed as data deficient on the IUCN Red List. It was discovered in a rainforest catchment in a highland of northeastern Queensland during a Queensland Museum expedition to the upper Tully River area in November 1992. It is one of the smallest species in the genus. No species of Cherax has been considered endemic to wet upland or highland areas before it was discovered; most previous records were from elevations less than 400 meters. It also has several morphological features unique to the genus, and does not appear closely related to any extant species, suggesting a long period of geographic isolation.
The Argentine fat-tailed mouse opossum was formerly considered a species opossum in the family Didelphidae. It is found in the eastern foothills of the Andes in northern Argentina and southern Bolivia. Its dorsal fur is gray brown to dark brown. Its ventral fur is gray-based except for the white to yellowish chest hairs. It has been distinguished from T. cinderella by its postorbital ridges. T. cinderella has well-developed postorbital ridges in both juveniles and adults that extend laterally behind the eye sockets. Only adults of T. sponsorius have fully developed postorbital ridges, and these do not extend laterally behind the eye sockets. However, mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis does not support the population being distinct from T. cinderella.
Atelopus eusebiodiazi is a species of toads in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to northwestern Peru and only known from its type locality in Huamba, near Ayabaca, Piura Region. The specific name eusebiodiazi honors Eusebio Diaz, taxidermist at the Museum of Natural History, Lima, and the collector of the holotype.
Pelophryne murudensis, also known as the Murud dwarf toad, is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to Mount Murud in Sarawak, Borneo.
The common Surinam toad or star-fingered toad is a species of frog in the family Pipidae found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical swamps, swamps, freshwater marshes, and intermittent freshwater marshes. It is threatened by habitat loss.
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