The Throne of Solomon is the throne of King Solomon in the Hebrew Bible, and is a motif in Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
The term "throne" is used both literally and metonymically in the Hebrew Bible.
As a symbol for kingship, the throne is seen as belonging to David, or to God Himself. In 1 Kings 1:37 Benaiah's blessing to Solomon was "may the LORD... make his throne greater than the throne of my lord king David"; while in 1 Chronicles 29:23 we are told "Solomon sat on the throne of the LORD as king".
Literally, the throne as Solomon's seat of state is described in 1 Kings 10:
18 Moreover the king made a great throne of ivory, and overlaid it with the finest gold. 19 There were six steps to the throne, and the top of the throne was round behind; and there were arms on either side by the place of the seat, and two lions standing beside the arms. 20 And twelve lions stood there on the one side and on the other upon the six steps; there was not the like made in any kingdom. JPS 1917
According to I Kings 7:7, Solomon's throne was placed in the Porch of Judgment, being actually an audience chamber where the king sat in judgment. Its floors were paved with cedar wood. In the Aramaic translation it is described as being an anteroom or vestibule, called "porch of the pillars."
A Jewish tradition holds that the throne was removed to Babylon, then Ahasuerus sat on the throne of Solomon.Another tradition holds that six steps related to six terms for the earth. According to the Targum Sheni of Megillat Esther, Solomon's throne was one of the earliest mechanical devices invented, with movable parts. When it was transferred to Persia some centuries later and used in the palace of Ahasuerus, it ceased to work. It has been described as a throne overlaid with gold, and studded with jewels; emeralds, cat's eye, the Baghdadi onyx, pearls and marble. It was ascended by many steps, the sides of which were aligned with twelve sculptured lions of gold, before whom were golden sculptures of eagles, the right paw of each lion set opposite the left wing of each eagle. As one approached the top of the staircase, there were another six steps directly in front of the semi-circular throne, each step with a pair of sculpted animals, each in gold; the first step having a couching bull opposite a lion; the second a wolf on its haunches opposite a sheep; the third a panther opposite a camel; the fourth an eagle opposite a peacock; the fifth a wildcat opposite a cock; the sixth a hawk opposite a pigeon. Above the throne was a seven-branched candlestick which afforded light, each branch bearing a sculpted image of the seven patriarchs: Adam (the first man), Noah, Shem, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Job among them.
Above the throne was also a sculpted design showing seventy golden seats upon which sat the seventy members of the Sanhedrin, adjudicating in the presence of King Solomon. At the two sides of King Solomon's ears were fixed two fish of the sea. At the very top of Solomon's throne were fixed twenty-four golden wings that provided a protective shade and covering for the king, and whenever the king wished to ascend his throne, the bull on the first step would, by a movable, mechanical contraption, outstretch its forearm and place the king upon the second step, and so-forth, until he ascended the sixth step, upon which ascension mechanical eagles then descended and lifted-up the king, placing him upon his throne.
The New Testament speaks only of the "throne of David," as in the angel Gabriel's message in Luke 1:32 in relation to the Davidic line, and notably the Gospel of Luke gives the descent of Jesus via Nathan (son of David), not Solomon. In religious tradition the Seat of Wisdom in Roman Catholic tradition is associated with Solomon, and in art, such as the Lucca Madonna (van Eyck), which portrays the Virgin sitting on the throne of Solomon.
A "Throne of Solomon" was also among the Solomonic objects of the Byzantine Court at Constantinople.
The Throne of Charlemagne, or Royal Throne at Aachen (Aachener Königsthron) is a throne erected in the 790s by Charlemagne, as one of the fittings of his palatine chapel in Aachen. Until 1531, it served as the throne of the coronation of the Holy Roman Emperors and the King of the Romans, being used at a total of thirty-one coronations. As a result, especially in the eleventh century, it was referred to as the totius regni archisolum ("Archstool of the Whole Realm").Charlemagne himself was not crowned on this throne, but instead in the Old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome by Pope Leo III. The throne was modeled after the throne of Solomon.
The Throne Chair of Denmark was also inspired by the throne of Solomon.
Various depictions in sacred art such as stained glass windows, frescoes, and paintings depict the throne and the king.
The throne of Solomon featured both in Islamic commentary, and art, including mosque decoration.
The concept has given rise to various geographical names:
The Peacock Throne of Shah Jahan was commissioned to underscore his position as the just king.
This is most likely a memorial that was probably built to commemorate the Prophet Sulaiman (biblical Solomon). It is located within the plaza of Haram al-Sharif, which supports its eastern wall. Kursi, which means chair, is an odd name for a building, and possibly relates to the spur of the Rock against which it is erected. The building itself is undated, but is clearly a mid-16th century foundation, as the shape of the two shallow domes covering the building are associated with the Ottoman period.
The facade of Sulaiman's tomb in al-Aqsa enclave. Additionally, a cavetto frieze situated above the mihrab is identical to one found over the mihrab in the al-'Imara al-'Amira complex (959/1552), suggesting that Kursi Sulaiman (the 'throne of Solomon') was built around that time. The building has three facades visible from the Temple Mount and the eastern facade is integrated in the eastern wall of Haram al-Sharif compound. A marble slab inspect over the main northern entrance to the structure reads the first verse of Surah Isra mentioning the Night Journey of prophet Muhammad. It was decorated with Surah Neml Verse 30 “Indeed, it is from Solomon, and indeed, it reads: 'In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful”.
The building has a large hall divided into different areas, one of which is the prayer area with a mihrab. It is surmounted by two shallow domes. The hall also includes a symbolic tomb which might allude to the tomb of Sulaiman or his throne. The building is presently used as an institute for Hadith.
Solomon, also called Jedidiah, was, according to the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament a fabulously wealthy and wise king of the United Kingdom of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are about 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as king of the United Monarchy, which broke apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone.
Al-Aqsa Mosque, located in the Old City of Jerusalem, is the third holiest site in Islam. The mosque was built on top of the Temple Mount, known as the Al Aqsa Compound or Haram esh-Sharif in Islam, several decades after Muhammad's death. Modern Muslims believe that Muhammad was transported from the Great Mosque of Mecca to this location during the Night Journey. Islamic tradition holds that Muhammad led prayers towards this site until the 16th or 17th month after his migration from Mecca to Medina, when Allah directed him to instead turn towards the Kaaba in Mecca.
A throne is the seat of state of a potentate or dignitary, especially the seat occupied by a sovereign on state occasions; or the seat occupied by a pope or bishop on ceremonial occasions. "Throne" in an abstract sense can also refer to the monarchy or the Crown itself, an instance of metonymy, and is also used in many expressions such as "the power behind the throne". The expression "ascend (mount) the throne" takes its meaning from the steps leading up to the dais or platform, on which the throne is placed, being formerly comprised in the word's significance.
The Peacock Throne was a famous jewelled throne that was the seat of the emperors of the Mughal Empire in India. It was commissioned in the early 17th century by emperor Shah Jahan and was located in the Diwan-i-Khas in the Red Fort of Delhi. It was named after a peacock as two peacocks are shown dancing at its rear.
The Sulaiman Mountains or Kōh-e Sulaymān are a north–south extension of the southern Hindu Kush mountain system in Afghanistan and Pakistan. They rise to form the eastern edge of the Iranian Plateau and the northeastern edge of the Balochistan Plateau. They are located in the Zabul, Kandahar and Loya Paktia regions of Afghanistan, and in Pakistan they extend over the northern part of Balochistan province, and some parts of southwestern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. Bordering the Sulaimans to the north are the arid highlands of the Central Hindu Kush, whose heights extend up to 3,383 metres (11,099 ft), and to the east are the plains of the Indus River valley. Together with the Kirthar Mountains in southern Pakistan, they form what is known as the Sulaiman-Kirthar geologic province.
Suleiman is the main transliteration of the Arabic سليمان Sulāymān / Silīmān. The name means "man of peace" and corresponds to the English name Solomon. The word may also be transliterated as Sulaiman, Suleman, Soliman, Sulayman, Sulyman, Suleyman, Sulaman, Süleyman, Sulejman, Sleiman, Suliman, Solomon, Soleman, Solyman, Souleymane. This disambiguation page focuses on individuals and entities with Suleiman as a predominant transliteration.
Takht-e Soleymān, is an archaeological site in West Azerbaijan, Iran dating back to Sasanian Empire. It lies midway between Urmia and Hamadan, very near the present-day town of Takab, and 400 km (250 mi) west of Tehran.
The Tower of David, also known as the Citadel, is an ancient citadel located near the Jaffa Gate entrance to the Old City of Jerusalem.
Takht-i-Bahi, commonly mispronounced as Takht-i-Bhai, is an Indo-Parthian archaeological site of an ancient Buddhist monastery in Mardan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The site is considered among the most imposing relics of Buddhism in all of Gandhara, and has been "exceptionally well-preserved."
The Shirani, also spelled Sherani, are a Pashtun tribe, from the Bettani tribal confederacy, who live in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Sherani are mostly settled in the Frontier Region Dera Ismail Khan, in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan and in the adjoining Sherani District of Balochistan, Pakistan. Some clans have settled in other surrounding districts of Balochistan; and in the Zabul, Ghazni, and Kandahar provinces of Afghanistan.
Takht-e-Sulaiman, or Throne of Solomon, is a peak of the Sulaiman Mountains, located near the village of Darazinda in Frontier Region Dera Ismail Khan of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. It is close to Frontier Region Dera Ismail Khan's borders with both South Waziristan and Zhob, Balochistan. At 3,487 metres (11,440 ft), it is the highest peak in Frontier Region Dera Ismail Khan and the greater Shirani region. Ibn Battuta named Takht-e-Sulaiman as Kōh-e Sulaymān, "Mount of Solomon".
Sulayman is a variant of Suleiman. It may refer to:
Fort Munro, also known as Tuman Leghari, is a hill station, located at a height of 6,470 feet (1,970 m) above sea level in Dera Ghazi Khan. It attracts many people for short stays during the hot summer. It is around 85 kilometres from Dera Ghazi Khan city, Punjab, Pakistan and about 185 kilometres from Multan in Sulaiman Mountain range. The people of Fort Munro are nomads, especially of the Leghari tribe.
Solomon's Pools are three ancient reservoirs located in the south-central West Bank, immediately to the south of al-Khader, about 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) southwest of Bethlehem, near the road to Hebron. Although the site is traditionally associated with King Solomon, modern dating techniques put the construction of the oldest, extant part to the 2nd century BCE.
Dome of the Chain is a free-standing domed building located adjacently east of the Dome of the Rock in the Old City of Jerusalem. It is one of many small buildings that can be found scattered around Haram ash-Sharif. Its exact historical use and significance are under scholarly debate. Erected in 691-92 CE, the Dome of the Chain is one of the oldest surviving structures on the Temple Mount.
The Throne of Charlemagne is a throne erected in the 790s by Charlemagne, as one of the fittings of his palatine chapel in Aachen and placed in the Octagon of the church. Until 1531, it served as the coronation throne of the Kings of Germany, being used at a total of thirty-one coronations. As a result, especially in the eleventh century, it was referred to as the totius regni archisolum. Charlemagne himself was not crowned on this throne, but instead in the Old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome by Pope Leo III.
Takhte Soleyman or Takht-e Suleyman is a mountain in the Takht-e Suleyman Massif, Alborz mountain range, north of Iran.
Qaṣr-i Abu Naṣr, Qasre Abunasr, or Takht-e Sulayman is the site of an ancient settlement situated in city of Shiraz in the Fars province of Iran. According to archaeological studies the fortress was built during the Parthian period, and was an important and strategic location in the Sassanid Empire. Archaeologists have found various artifacts and coins belonging to various historical periods, such as the Achaemenid, Seleucid Empire, Parthian and Sassanid. This site is recorded in an Iranian historical list from 1932 as "Takht e Sulayman". When Muslims invaded Iran, and conquered it, they called this palace "Father of Victory"
Sheikh Suleiman al-Taji al-Faruqi, called by some people "the Maari of Palestine". He was a Palestinian politician, writer and poet, and one of the founders of the Ottoman National Party in 1911, and the founder of the newspaper "The Islamic University" in 1933. He was known for his strong opposition to the leadership of Hajj Muhammad Amin al-Husseini.
1 Kings 10 is the tenth chapter of the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible or the First Book of Kings in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. The book is a compilation of various annals recording the acts of the kings of Israel and Judah by a Deuteronomic compiler in the seventh century BCE, with a supplement added in the sixth century BCE. This chapter belongs to the section focusing on the reign of Solomon over the unified kingdom of Judah and Israel. The focus of this chapter is the Solomon's achievements.
visited the imperial court at Constantinople and reported on the marvelous Throne of Solomon displayed there
One of the most intriguing Solomonic objects kept at Constantinople was the throne of Solomon, which is named only by the Book of Ceremonies.
Myres, David, "A Grammar of Architectural Ornament in Ottoman Jerusalem", in Auld, S. & R. Hillenbrand, Ottoman Jerusalem, The Living City 1517–1917, Part II, 2000, pp. 1087–1109.
Auld, S. & R. Hillenbrand, : Ottoman Jerusalem. The Living City 1517–1917, The British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem, Altajir World of Islam Trust, (2000).
Chair of Solomon (الكرسي سليمان). Retrieved April 11, 2019, from http://islamicart.museumwnf.org/database_item.php?id=monument;ISL;pa;Mon01;10;ar
Media related to Throne of Solomon at Wikimedia Commons