Thyrocopa apatela

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Thyrocopa apatela
Starr 060929-9317 Dubautia menziesii.jpg
At Haleakala National Park
Maui, Hawaii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Xyloryctidae
Genus: Thyrocopa
Species:T. apatel
Binomial name
Thyrocopa apatela
(Walsingham, 1907)
Synonyms
  • Hodegia apatelaWalsingham, 1907
  • Thyrocopa mediomaculataWalsingham, 1907

Thyrocopa apatela, the grasshopper moth [1] or Haleakala flightless moth, [2] is a species of brachypterous (flightless) moth from the Hawaiian island of Maui. [3]

In biology, a species ( ) is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more closely they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, and in a ring species. Also, among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, and each clone is potentially a microspecies.

Moth Group of mostly-nocturnal insects in the order Lepidoptera

Moths comprise a group of insects related to butterflies, belonging to the order Lepidoptera. Most lepidopterans are moths, and there are thought to be approximately 160,000 species of moth, many of which have yet to be described. Most species of moth are nocturnal, but there are also crepuscular and diurnal species.

Maui island of the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean

The island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles (1,883 km2) and is the 17th largest island in the United States. Maui is part of the State of Hawaii and is the largest of Maui County's four islands, which include Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, and unpopulated Kahoʻolawe. In 2010, Maui had a population of 144,444, third-highest of the Hawaiian Islands, behind that of Oʻahu and Hawaiʻi Island. Kahului is the largest census-designated place (CDP) on the island with a population of 26,337 as of 2010 and is the commercial and financial hub of the island. Wailuku is the seat of Maui County and is the third-largest CDP as of 2010. Other significant places include Kīhei, Lahaina, Makawao, Pukalani, Pāʻia, Kula, Haʻikū, and Hāna.

This species appears to be undergoing severe range reduction. Although it was found as low as 1,524 meters in the 1970s, recent collecting indicates it is now restricted to areas above 2,900 meters. This may be the result of the range expansion of introduced ants on Haleakalā.

Haleakalā

Haleakalā, or the East Maui Volcano, is a massive shield volcano that forms more than 75% of the Hawaiian Island of Maui. The western 25% of the island is formed by another volcano, Mauna Kahalawai, also referred to as the West Maui Mountains.

The length of the forewings is 8–11 mm. Adults are on wing from May to August. It is largely diurnal, though they occasionally come to light. Adults are mostly collected while hopping between sunny rocks.

The larva is likely a generalist, feeding on Dubautia and other plant species found in the alpine scrub of Haleakalā's high-elevation areas. Larvae have also been found feeding on wind-blown debris under small rocks.

<i>Dubautia</i> genus of plants

Dubautia is a genus of flowering plant in the sunflower family, Asteraceae. The genus was named after Joseph Eugène DuBaut (1796-1832), an officer in the French Navy who participated in Freycinet's expedition.

Related Research Articles

<i>Thyrocopa</i> genus of insects

Thyrocopa is a genus of moths in the Xyloryctidae family endemic to Hawaii. The taxon has approximately forty species, including some flightless species.

Thyrocopa kikaelekea, a species of flightless moth from Hawaii in genus Thyrocopa, was recently discovered by entomologists at University of California, Berkeley and described in a 2008 paper.

<i>Setina aurita</i> species of insect

Setina aurita is a moth of the family Erebidae.

Hyposmocoma kaupo is a species of moth of the family Cosmopterigidae. It is endemic to Maui. The type locality is the Kaupo Gap area of east Maui, where it was collected at an altitude of 1,085 meters.

Thyrocopa abusa is a moth of the family Xyloryctidae. It was first described by Lord Walsingham in 1907. It is endemic to the Hawaiian islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui and Hawaii. It is the type species of the Thyrocopa genus.

Thyrocopa alterna is a moth of the family Xyloryctidae. It was first described by Lord Walsingham in 1907. It is endemic to the Hawaiian islands of Maui and Hawaii.

Thyrocopa apikia is a moth of the family Xyloryctidae. It was described by Matthew J. Medeiros in 2009 and is endemic to the Hawaiian island of Molokai.

Thyrocopa decipiens is a moth of the family Xyloryctidae. It was first described by Lord Walsingham in 1907. It is endemic to the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Molokai, Maui and Hawaii.

Thyrocopa epicapna is a moth of the family Xyloryctidae. It was first described by Edward Meyrick in 1883. It is endemic to the Hawaiian islands of Kauai, Lanai, Kahoolawe, Maui, Hawaii, and possibly Oahu.

Thyrocopa geminipuncta is a moth of the family Xyloryctidae. It was first described by Lord Walsingham in 1907. It is endemic to the Hawaiian islands of Maui and Molokai.

Thyrocopa gigas is a moth of the family Xyloryctidae. It was first described by Arthur Gardiner Butler in 1881. It is endemic to the Hawaiian islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai and Maui. However, it may be extinct on Oahu, where two females were collected in 1892 but no further specimens have been collected since then.

Thyrocopa indecora is a moth of the family Xyloryctidae. It was first described by Arthur Gardiner Butler in 1881. It is endemic to the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Maui and Hawaii.

Thyrocopa megas is a moth of the family Xyloryctidae. It was first described by Lord Walsingham in 1907. It is endemic to the Hawaiian islands of Oahu and Maui.

Thyrocopa minor is a moth of the family Xyloryctidae. It was first described by Lord Walsingham in 1907. It is endemic to the Hawaiian island of Molokai. It is possibly extinct.

Thyrocopa neckerensis is a moth of the family Xyloryctidae. It was first described by Matthew J. Medeiros in 2009. It is endemic to Necker Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

Thyrocopa peleana is a moth of the family Xyloryctidae. It is endemic to the Hawaiian island of Oahu. It may be extinct.

Thyrocopa sapindiella, the Oahu aulu thyrocopa moth, is a moth of the family Xyloryctidae. It was first described by Otto Swezey in 1913. It is endemic to the Hawaiian island of Oahu. It may be extinct.

Thyrocopa spilobathra is a moth of the family Xyloryctidae. It was first described by Edward Meyrick in 1915. It is endemic to the Hawaiian island of Oahu. It may be extinct.

Thyrocopa usitata is a moth of the family Xyloryctidae. It was first described by Arthur Gardiner Butler in 1881. It is endemic to the Hawaiian islands of Kauai, Oahu and Hawaii.

Thyrocopa viduella is a moth of the family Xyloryctidae. It is endemic to the Hawaiian island of Kauai.

References

Elwood Curtin Zimmerman was an American entomologist best known for his two multivolume series: Insects of Hawaii published by the University of Hawaiʻi Press and Australian Weevils published by Australia's CSIRO.