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Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Lecanoromycetes
Order: Lecanorales
Family: Ramalinaceae
Genus: Tibellia
Vězda & Hafellner (1992)
Type species
Tibellia dimerelloides
Vězda & Hafellner (1992)

Tibellia is a genus of lichenized fungi in the family Ramalinaceae. [1] This is a monotypic genus, containing the single species Tibellia dimerelloides. The genus is named after Swedish lichenologist Leif Tibell. [2]

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Lichen Symbiosis of fungi with algae or cyanobacteria

A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi species in a mutualistic relationship. Lichens have properties different from those of their component organisms. They come in many colors, sizes, and forms and are sometimes plant-like, but are not plants. They may have tiny, leafless branches (fruticose); flat leaf-like structures (foliose); grow crust-like, adhering tightly to a surface (substrate) like a thick coat of paint (crustose); have a powder-like appearance (leprose); or other growth forms.

<i>Cladonia</i> Genus of lichenised fungi in the family Cladoniaceae

Cladonia is a genus of moss-like lichens in the family Cladoniaceae. They are the primary food source for reindeer/caribou. Cladonia species are of economic importance to reindeer-herders, such as the Sami in Scandinavia or the Nenets in Russia. Antibiotic compounds are extracted from some species to create antibiotic cream. The light green species Cladonia stellaris is used in flower decorations.

Cladoniaceae Family of fungi

The Cladoniaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. It is one of the largest families of lichen-forming fungi, with about 560 species distributed amongst 17 genera. The reindeer moss and cup lichens (Cladonia) belong to this family. The latter genus, which comprises about 500 species, forms a major part of the diet of large mammals in taiga and tundra ecosystems. Many Cladoniaceae lichens grow on soil, but other can use decaying wood, tree trunks, and, in a few instances, rocks as their substrate. They grow in places with high humidity, and cannot tolerate aridity.

<i>Usnea</i> Genus of lichens

Usnea is a genus of mostly pale grayish-green fruticose lichens that grow like leafless mini-shrubs or tassels anchored on bark or twigs. The genus is in the family Parmeliaceae. It grows all over the world. Members of the genus are commonly called old man's beard, beard lichen, or beard moss.

Lecanoraceae Family of lichen-forming fungi

The Lecanoraceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales. Species of this family have a widespread distribution.


The Baeomycetales are an order of mostly lichen-forming fungi in the subclass Ostropomycetidae, in the class Lecanoromycetes. It contains 8 families, 33 genera and about 170 species. As a result of molecular phylogenetics research published in the late 2010s, several orders were folded into the Baeomycetales, resulting in a substantial increase in the number of taxa.

Verrucariaceae Family of fungi

The Verrucariaceae are a family of mostly lichenised fungi in the order Verrucariales. The lichen-forming species have a wide variety of thallus forms, and include crustose (crust-like), foliose (bushy), and squamulose (scaly) representatives. There are several dozen lichenicolous (lichen-dwelling) examples in the family, and some genera that contain solely lichenicolous members. An unusually wide variety of photobiont partners have been recorded, mostly green algae, but also brown algae and yellow-green algae. The family, circumscribed nearly two centuries ago, now includes 56 genera and over one thousand species. Most diversity occurring in the temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere. Rocks and soil are the most common substrates for the Verrucariaceae, with growth on wood and bark less common. Some semi-aquatic lichens occur in this family, including about two dozen species of marine lichens.

<i>Caloplaca</i> Genus of lichenised fungi in the family Teloschistaceae

Caloplaca is a lichen genus comprising a number of distinct species. Members of the genus are commonly called firedot lichen, jewel lichen. gold lichens, "orange lichens", but they are not always orange, as in the case of C. albovariegata. The distribution of this lichen genus is worldwide, extending from Antarctica to the high Arctic. It includes a portion of northern North America and the Russian High Arctic. There are about thirty species of Caloplaca in the flora of the British Isles. An example species in this genus is Caloplaca saxicola, a lichen with worldwide distribution including the Antarctic continent, Europe and northern North America including the northern reaches of the Canadian boreal forests.

<i>Lecanora</i> Genus of lichenised fungi in the family Lecanoraceae

Lecanora is a genus of lichen commonly called rim lichens. Lichens in the genus Squamarina are also called rim lichens. Members of the genus have roughly circular fruiting discs (apothecia) with rims that have photosynthetic tissue similar to that of the nonfruiting part of the lichen body (thallus). Other lichens with apothecia having margins made of thallus-like tissue are called lecanorine.

<i>Parmotrema</i> Genus of fungi

Parmotrema is a genus of lichen belonging to the family Parmeliaceae. It is a large genus, containing an estimated 300 species, with a centre of diversity in subtropical regions of South America and the Pacific Islands.

<i>Punctelia</i> Genus of lichen

Punctelia is a genus of foliose lichens belonging to the large family Parmeliaceae. The genus, which contains about 50 species, was segregated from genus Parmelia in 1982. Characteristics that define Punctelia include the presence of hook-like to thread-like conidia, simple rhizines, and point-like pseudocyphellae. It is this last feature that is alluded to in the vernacular names speckled shield lichens or speckleback lichens.

<i>Xanthoparmelia</i> Genus of fungi

Xanthoparmelia is a genus of foliose lichen in the family Parmeliaceae. Xanthoparmelia is synonymous with Almbornia, Neofuscelia, Chondropsis, Namakwa, Paraparmelia, and Xanthomaculina. This genus of lichen is commonly found in the United States, as well as Australia, New Zealand and Ecuador.

Caliciaceae Family of lichen-forming fungi

The Caliciaceae are a family of mostly lichen-forming fungi belonging to the class Lecanoromycetes in the division Ascomycota. Although the family has had its classification changed several times throughout its taxonomic history, the use of modern molecular phylogenetic methods have helped to establish its current placement in the order Caliciales. Caliciaceae contains 36 genera and about 600 species. The largest genus is Buellia, with around 300 species; there are more than a dozen genera that contain only a single species.

<i>Menegazzia</i> Genus of fungi

Menegazzia is a genus of lichenized fungi containing roughly 70 accepted species. The group is sometimes referred to as the tree flutes, honeycombed lichens, or hole-punch lichens. The most obvious morphological feature of the genus is the distinctive perforations spread across the upper side of the thallus. This makes the group easy to recognise, even for those not particularly familiar with lichen identification.

André Aptroot is a Dutch mycologist and lichenologist.

A corticolous lichen is a lichen that grows on bark. This is contrasted with lignicolous lichen, which grows on wood that has had the bark stripped from it, and saxicolous lichen, which grows on rock.

Peter Wilfred James (1930–2014) was an English botanist and lichenologist. He was a pioneer in the study of lichens as "environmental indicators, especially in atmospheric pollution".

David Galloway (botanist) New Zealand botanist and lichenologist

David John Galloway, FRSNZ was a biochemist, botanist, and lichenologist.

Per Magnus Jørgensen is a Norwegian botanist and lichenologist, and Professor Emeritus of systematic botany at the University of Bergen. He is known for his work on the lichen families Pannariaceae and Collemataceae. Jørgensen was awarded the Acharius Medal in 2021 for his lifetime contributions to lichenology.

Salazinic acid Chemical compound found in some lichens

Salazinic acid is a depsidone with a lactone ring. It is found in some lichens, and is especially prevalent in Parmotrema and Bulbothrix, where its presence or absence is often used to help classify species in those genera.


  1. Lumbsch TH, Huhndorf SM. (December 2007). "Outline of Ascomycota 2007". Myconet. Chicago, USA: The Field Museum, Department of Botany. 13: 1–58.
  2. Hertel, Hannes; Gärtner, Georg; Lőkös, László (2017). "Forscher an Österreichs Flechtenflora" [Investigators of Austria's lichen flora](PDF). Stapfia (in German). 104 (2): 1–211 (see pp. 149–150).