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The Tibetan Settlement Office (T.S.O.) (formerly "Tibetan Welfare Office") Tibetan : ང་ཚོའི་སྐོར།, Wylie : nga tsho'i skor is acting within the Tibetan Ministry of the Interior and is part of the central Tibetan administration in Dharmshala, India. The T.S.O. organizes projects in the social, cultural and economical sectors. Furthermore, they focus on issues of environment and enduring development.
The Tibetan alphabet is an abugida used to write the Tibetic languages such as Tibetan, as well as Dzongkha, Sikkimese, Ladakhi, and sometimes Balti. The printed form of the alphabet is called uchen script while the hand-written cursive form used in everyday writing is called umê script.
The Wylie transliteration system is a method for transliterating Tibetan script using only the letters available on a typical English language typewriter. It bears the name of Turrell V. Wylie, who described the scheme in an article, A Standard System of Tibetan Transcription, published in 1959. It has subsequently become a standard transliteration scheme in Tibetan studies, especially in the United States.
India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.
In 1994 the „Clean Upper Dharmshala“-project was launched by the T.S.O. The aim was to solve the waste management in Upper Dharmshala which needed strong efforts due to the increase of nonbiodegradable waste in that region.
In the beginning the project had installed three „Green Workers“, who collected recyclable material from companies and households in McLeod Ganj. A great positive impact on the environmental situation could also be achieved by installing five dustbins which were frequently emptied by a dust cart.
McLeod Ganj is a suburb of Dharamshala in Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It is known as "Little Lhasa" or "Dhasa" because of its large population of Tibetans. The Tibetan government-in-exile is headquartered in McLeod Ganj.
Furthermore, public toilets were built, which are frequently being maintained. The drainage system in the area of McLeod Ganj and the Dal Lake was displaced to prevent water pollution.
Dal is a lake in Srinagar, the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir. The urban lake, which is the second largest in the state, is integral to tourism and recreation in Kashmir and is named the "Jewel in the crown of Kashmir" or "Srinagar's Jewel". The lake is also an important source for commercial operations in fishing and water plant harvesting.
Recyclable material is being collected door by door by the "Green Workers" or emitted by the households.
The following materials are being recycled:
A carton is a box or container usually made of paperboard and sometimes of corrugated fiberboard. Many types of cartons are used in packaging. Sometimes a carton is also called a box.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from Latin: stannum) and atomic number 50. It is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table of elements. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains stannic oxide, SnO2. Tin shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, and has two main oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons. It has two main allotropes: at room temperature, the stable allotrope is β-tin, a silvery-white, malleable metal, but at low temperatures it transforms into the less dense grey α-tin, which has the diamond cubic structure. Metallic tin does not easily oxidize in air.
The collected material is either sold in Dharmshala or transported to Pathankot (distance: 80 kilometres). The transportation itself is not cost-effective.
Pathankot is a city in the Punjab state of India. Pathankot district is a border district which shares international border with Pakistan on its West. Pathankot was officially declared as District of Punjab state on 27 July 2011. Pathankot district is at the meeting point of the three northern states of India — Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir. Due to its location, Pathankot serves as a travel hub for those three northerly states.
The T.S.O. opened a little paper factory in Upper Dharmshala where handmade products are made by recycling paper.
In 1994 „The Green Shop“ was opened and is an environmentally oriented shop selling various products, and acts as a collection point for hazardous materials, such as used batteries and expired medicines.
Furthermore, the following products are sold:
The Tibetan Settlement Office is concerned about the needs of the society. It tries to find various solutions for example in questions of youth, education and old-age provision. The T.S.O. is also giving legal advice in cases of conflicts in the society. One of its main goals is to obtain a social, religious and political harmony within the society.
The T.S.O. also established the „Gaddi Women's Self-Help Society“.[ citation needed ]
Since 2003, the Tibetan Settlement Office is a partner of Austrian Service Abroad, with one Austrian Social Servant (usually) per year working here for ten months.
Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects. It is an alternative to "conventional" waste disposal that can save material and help lower greenhouse gas emissions. Recycling can prevent the waste of potentially useful materials and reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, thereby reducing: energy usage, air pollution, and water pollution.
Waste management are the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste, together with monitoring and regulation of the waste management process.
Dharamshala is the district headquarters of Kangra district in India. It was formerly known as Bhagsu. The Dalai Lama's residence and the headquarters of the Central Tibetan Administration are in Dharamshala. Dharamshala is 18 kilometers from Kangra. Dharamshala has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission. On 19 January 2017, Chief Minister Virbhadra Singh declared Dharamshala as the second capital of Himachal Pradesh state, making Himachal Pradesh the third state of India with two capitals after Jammu and Kashmir and Maharashtra.
Bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate can be used to make lower grade products, such as carpets. To make a food grade plastic, the bottles need to be hydrolysed down to monomers, which are purified and then re-polymerised to make new PET. In many countries, PET plastics are coded with the resin identification code number "1" inside the universal recycling symbol, usually located on the bottom of the container.
The recycling of paper is the process by which waste paper is turned into new paper products. It has a number of important benefits besides saving trees from being cut down. It is less energy and water intensive than paper made from wood pulp. It saves waste paper from occupying landfill and producing methane as it breaks down. Around two thirds of all paper products in the US are now recovered and recycled, although it does not all become new paper. After repeated processing the fibers become too short for the production of new paper.
A materials recovery facility, materials reclamation facility, materials recycling facility or Multi re-use facility is a specialized plant that receives, separates and prepares recyclable materials for marketing to end-user manufacturers. Generally, there are two different types: clean and dirty materials recovery facilities.
Plastic shopping bags, carrier bags, or plastic grocery bags are a type of plastic bag used as shopping bags and made from various kinds of plastic. In use by consumers worldwide since the 1960s, these bags are sometimes called single-use bags, referring to carrying items from a store to a home. However, reuse for storage or trash is common, and modern plastic shopping bags are increasingly recyclable or biodegradable. In recent decades, numerous countries have introduced legislation restricting the sale of plastic bags, in a bid to reduce littering and plastic pollution.
A plastic bag, polybag, or pouch is a type of container made of thin, flexible, plastic film, nonwoven fabric, or plastic textile. Plastic bags are used for containing and transporting goods such as foods, produce, powders, ice, magazines, chemicals, and waste. It is a common form of packaging.
Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful products. Since the vast majority of plastic is non-biodegradable, recycling is a part of global efforts to reduce plastic in the waste stream, especially the approximately 8 million tons of waste plastic that enters the Earth's ocean every year.
Glass recycling is the processing of waste glass into usable products. Glass that is crushed and ready to be remelted is called cullet. There are two types of cullet: internal and external. Internal cullet is composed of defective products detected and rejected by a quality control process during the industrial process of glass manufacturing, transition phases of product changes and production offcuts. External cullet is the waste glass that is collected and/or reprocessed with the purpose of recycling. External cullet is classified as waste. When using the word "cullet" in the context of end-of-waste it will always refer to external cullet.
Kerbside collection, or curbside collection, is a service provided to households, typically in urban and suburban areas of collecting and disposing of household waste and recyclables. It is usually accomplished by personnel using purpose built vehicles to pick up household waste in containers acceptable to or prescribed by the municipality.
TerraCycle is a private U.S. recycling business headquartered in Trenton, New Jersey. It runs a volunteer-based curbside collection program to collect non-recyclable pre-consumer and post-consumer waste, and then partners with corporate donors to turn it into raw material to be used in new products. The company licenses its name to manufacturers of roughly 200 products made using its raw material.
Biodegradable plastics are plastics that can be decomposed by the action of living organisms, usually bacteria.
Waste sorting is the process by which waste is separated into different elements. Waste sorting can occur manually at the household and collected through curbside collection schemes, or automatically separated in materials recovery facilities or mechanical biological treatment systems. Hand sorting was the first method used in the history of waste sorting.
Recycling in the Netherlands is under the responsibility of local authorities. Different localities implement different systems. Municipalities all over the country publish a calendar, on a yearly basis, of the pickup dates and the addresses of the waste separation and recycling stations.
In 2015, 43.5% of the United Kingdom’s municipal waste was recycled, composted or broken down by anaerobic digestion. The majority of recycling undertaken in the United Kingdom is done by statutory authorities, although commercial and industrial waste is chiefly processed by private companies. Local Authorities are responsible for the collection of municipal waste and operate contracts which are usually kerbside collection schemes. The Household Waste Recycling Act 2003 required local authorities in England to provide every household with a separate collection of at least two types of recyclable materials by 2010. Recycling policy is devolved to the administrations of Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales who set their own targets, but all statistics are reported to Eurostat.
Disposable food packaging comprises disposable items often found in fast food restaurants, takeout restaurants and kiosks, and catering establishments. Food serving items for picnics and parties are very similar. Typical disposable foodservice products are foam food containers, plates, bowls, cups, utensils, doilies and tray papers. These products can be made from a number of materials including plastics, paper, bioresins, wood and bamboo.
Somarelang Tikologo is a member-based environmental NGO located in Gaborone, Botswana. The aim of the organization is to promote sustainable environmental protection by educating, demonstrating and encouraging best practices in environmental planning, resource conservation and waste management in Botswana.
Biodegradable bags are bags that are capable of being decomposed by bacteria or other living organisms.
Stone Paper, also traded as Modestone, Rock Paper, Paper from Waste Marble, is generically known as Mineral Paper, Rich Mineral Paper, Sustainable Paper or Eco Paper is a type of strong, and durable paper-like material manufactured from calcium carbonate bonded with small amount of resin high-density polyethylene (HDPE). It is used for stationery, leaflets, posters, books, magazines, bags, packaging, wallpaper, adhesives, tags, in-mould labels, plates, trays, containers, maps and many other uses.