July 6, 1949
|Died||May 2, 1999 49) (aged|
|Known for||graphic design|
Tibor Kalman (July 6, 1949 – May 2, 1999) was an American graphic designer of Hungarian origin, well known for his work as editor-in-chief of Colors magazine.
Graphic design is the process of visual communication and problem-solving through the use of typography, photography, and illustration. The field is considered a subset of visual communication and communication design, but sometimes the term "graphic design" is used synonymously. Graphic designers create and combine symbols, images and text to form visual representations of ideas and messages. They use typography, visual arts, and page layout techniques to create visual compositions. Common uses of graphic design include corporate design, editorial design, wayfinding or environmental design, advertising, web design, communication design, product packaging, and signage.
Colors is a quarterly magazine about 'the rest of the world' funded by the Benetton clothing company. Founded in 1991, "as a way of communicating the intelligence of the Benetton brand to an extremely sophisticated consumer," it is published worldwide in six editions: Chinese/English, French/English, Italian/English, Korean/English, Portuguese/English and Spanish/English. Every issue of the magazine takes a single theme and covers it from an international perspective. It is produced at the Fabrica research centre in Treviso, Italy.
Kalman was born in Budapest and became a U.S. resident in 1956, after he and his family fled Hungary to escape the Soviet invasion, settling in Poughkeepsie, New York.Both of his parents had Jewish ethnic roots, and converted to Catholicism to avoid persecution, so "Kalman only became aware that he was Jewish at age 18." In 1967 he enrolled in NYU, dropping out after one year of Journalism classes to travel to Cuba to harvest sugar cane and learn about Cuban culture as a member of the Venceremos Brigade.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and the tenth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city had an estimated population of 1,752,704 in 2016 distributed over a land area of about 525 square kilometres. Budapest is both a city and county, and forms the centre of the Budapest metropolitan area, which has an area of 7,626 square kilometres and a population of 3,303,786, comprising 33 percent of the population of Hungary.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres (35,920 sq mi) in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken Uralic language in the world, and among the few non-Indo-European languages to be widely spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; other major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr.
In 1971 Kalman returned to New York City where he was hired by Leonard Riggio for a small bookstore that eventually became Barnes & Noble. He later became the creative director of their in-house design department where he designed advertisements, store signs, shopping bags, and the original B&N bookplate trademark.In 1979 Kalman, Carol Bokuniewicz, and Liz Trovato started the design firm M & Co., which did corporate work for such diverse clients as the Limited Corporation, the new wave group Talking Heads, and Restaurant Florent in New York City's Meatpacking District. He sought to challenge mundane design thinking and aspired to create unpredictable work. Kalman also worked as creative director of Interview magazine in the early 1990s.
The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Leonard S. Riggio is an American businessman and entrepreneur. He serves as executive chairman of book store chain Barnes & Noble and has been its largest shareholder since purchasing the company in 1971. Under his leadership the company expanded significantly from a single retail location on 105 Fifth Avenue, New York to a nationwide chain with 600+ stores.
By the 1980s, Kalman was known for being "the 'bad boy' of graphic design" because of his antics and radical consciousness. He believed that award-winning design was only possible when the client was ethical, and frequently called other designers out when he didn't agree with their actions. He defined good design as a benefit to everyday life and should be used to increase public awareness of social issues.Kalman adopted a vernacular style as a way to protest corporate International Style which was the primary design style of the time.
The International Style is a major architectural style that was developed in the 1920s and 1930s and was closely related to modernism and modern architecture. It was first defined by Museum of Modern Art curators Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson in 1932, based on works of architecture from the 1920s.
Kalman became founding editor-in-chief of the Benetton-sponsored Colors magazine in 1990. In 1993, Kalman closed M & Co. and moved to Rome, to work exclusively on the magazine.Billed as 'a magazine about the rest of the world', Colors focused on multiculturalism and global awareness. This perspective was communicated through bold graphic design, typography, and juxtaposition of photographs and doctored images, including a series in which highly recognizable figures such as the Pope and Queen Elizabeth were depicted as racial minorities.
Benetton Group S.r.l. is a global fashion brand based in Ponzano Veneto, Italy in 1965. Benetton Group has a network of about 5,000 stores in the main international markets.
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.
The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology, of political philosophy, and of colloquial use. In sociology and in everyday usage, it is a synonym for "ethnic pluralism", with the two terms often used interchangeably, for example, a cultural pluralism in which various ethnic groups collaborate and enter into a dialogue with one another without having to sacrifice their particular identities. It can describe a mixed ethnic community area where multiple cultural traditions exist or a single country within which they do. Groups associated with an aboriginal or autochthonous ethnic group and foreigner ethnic groups are often the focus.
In 1999, Kalman won the AIGA medal as the "design profession's moral compass and its most fervent provocateur."
From 1981 up until his death, Kalman was married to the illustrator and author Maira Kalman.[ citation needed ]
The onset of non-Hodgkins lymphoma forced Kalman to leave Colors in 1995, returning to New York. In 1997, Kalman re-opened M&Co and continued to work until his death on May 2, 1999 in Puerto Rico.
Tibor Kalman: Perverse Optimist, a book about Kalman and M&Co's work was published by Princeton Architectural Press in 1999.
The First Things First 2000 manifesto, launched by Adbusters magazine in 1999, was an updated version of the earlier First Things First manifesto written and published in 1964 by Ken Garland, a British designer.
Stefan G. Bucher is an American writer, graphic designer and illustrator. He is the man behind the California design studio 344 Design.
The American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA) is a professional organization for design. Its members practice all forms of communication design, including graphic design, typography, interaction design, branding and identity. The organization's aim is to be the standard bearer for professional ethics and practices for the design profession. There are currently over 22,000 members and 73 chapters, and more than 200 student groups around the United States.
Michael Bierut is a graphic designer, design critic and educator who designed the logo for Hillary Clinton's 2016 presidential campaign.
Steven Heller is an American art director, journalist, critic, author, and editor who specializes on topics related to graphic design.
Maira Kalman is an Israeli-born American illustrator, writer, artist, and designer. Her work most widely held in WorldCat libraries is Fireboat: the heroic adventures of the John J. Harvey, a picture book she both wrote and illustrated. It won the annual Boston Globe–Horn Book Award for Nonfiction in 2003.
Rick Poynor is a British writer on design, graphic design, typography, and visual culture.
J. Abbott Miller or Abbott Miller is an American graphic designer and writer, and a partner at Pentagram, which he joined in 1999.
P. Scott Makela was a graphic designer, multimedia designer and type designer. Among other work, he was especially noted for the design of Dead History, a postmodern typeface that combined features of a rounded sans serif typeface and a crisp neo-classical serif typeface. With the emergence of the personal computer in the mid-1980s, Makela was among the first to explore digital programs such as Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator. As a result, he created an idiosyncratic, original and highly controversial design aesthetic. In particular, his disregard for clean, modernist, problem-solving design agendas—synonymous with contemporary corporate graphic design—caused much debate among powerful, old-guard designers such as Massimo Vignelli, Paul Rand, and Henry Wolf.
Jennifer Morla is the President and Creative Director of Morla Design, San Francisco, California and Creative Officer for Design Within Reach.
Alvin Lustig was an American book designer, graphic designer and typeface designer. Lustig has been honored by the American Institute of Graphic Arts and the Art Directors Club Hall of Fame for his significant contributions to American design.
Alexander Isley is an American graphic designer and educator.
Peter Buchanan-Smith is a designer, teacher, entrepreneur, and the founder of Best Made Co.
Louise Fili is an Italian-American graphic designer recognized for her elegant use of typography and timeless quality in her design. Her work often draws on inspiration from her love of Italy, Modernism, and European Art Deco styles. Considered a leader in the postmodern return to historical styles in book jacket design, Fili explores historic typography combined with modern colors and compositions.
Louise Sandhaus is an American graphic designer and graphic design educator. She is a professor at California Institute of the Arts and is principal of Louise Sandhaus Design.
Gene Federico was an American graphic designer and advertising executive.
Emily Oberman is a New York-based multidisciplinary designer and a partner at design studio Pentagram. Formerly, Oberman was a co-founder of design studio Number Seventeen and a designer at Tibor Kalman's studio M & Co..
Carin Goldberg is an American graphic designer, publication designer and brand consultant.
Janet Froelich is an American graphic designer and creative director.
Anne Quito is a design reporter and architecture critic for Quartz living in New York. She is also the founding director of Design Lab, the in-house design team for Family Health International (FHI). In 2017, Quito won the inaugural Steven Heller Prize for Cultural Commentary from the American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA). In 2018 a story she co-authored received a silver medal in the Malofiej Infographic Awards.