|Tiger from Tjampa|
Still picture of Harimau Tjampa.
|Directed by||D. Djajakusuma|
|Produced by||D. Djajakusuma|
|Written by||Alwi Dahlan|
|Screenplay by||Alwi Dahlan|
|Music by||E. Sambas|
Tiger from Tjampa (Indonesian : Harimau Tjampa) is an Indonesian black and white drama film released in 1953, produced by Perfini, written and directed by D. Djajakusuma. It is still highly regarded today in Indonesia as an early portrayal in a fiction film of aspects of a traditional regional culture. Despite the numerous combat scenes as well as scenes of students practicing pencak silat, Indonesia's traditional form of self-defence, based on the movements of animals and although in the film, the lessons are conducted by a famous master, Tiger from Tjampa was never presented as a martial arts film.
Indonesian is the official language of Indonesia. It is a standardized register of Malay, an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Indonesia is the fourth most populous nation in the world. Of its large population, the majority speak Indonesian, making it one of the most widely spoken languages in the world.
Black-and-white images combine black and white in a continuous spectrum, producing a range of shades of gray.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Cultural universals are found in all human societies; these include expressive forms like art, music, dance, ritual, religion, and technologies like tool usage, cooking, shelter, and clothing. The concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology, architecture and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization, mythology, philosophy, literature, and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society.
D. Djajakusuma won Best Scenario for this film at the first Indonesian Film Festival held in 1955.
Set in the 1930s, and narrated like an old ballad, The Tiger from Tjampa tells the story of a young man, Lukman (Bambang Hermanto) who seeks to avenge his father's murder by learning pencak silat, Indonesia's traditional form of self-defence, based on the movements of animals. The pencak silat shown in the film is regionally specific to West Sumatra.
West Sumatra is a province of Indonesia. It lies on the west coast of the island of Sumatra. The latest official estimate for January 2014 shows a population of 5,098,790. West Sumatra is sub-divided into 12 regencies and seven cities. It has relatively more cities than other provinces in Indonesia, except Java province. Its capital is Padang.
Lukman pleads Datuk Langit (Raden Ismail) to teach him, the man having asked him for three buffalos as payment which is beyond his means. Lukman then witnesses a man beat his opponent in a fight quite easily and begs him to teach him silat. The man agrees with the condition that his silat would not be used for oppressing the weak, but for self defense only. Lukman breaks his promise numerous times, but every time his teacher always manages to forgive him until his lessons are complete. Lukman then once defies his teacher by killing a gambler, and is imprisoned.
In jail, Lukman learns that Datuk Langit is responsible for his father's death. He manages to escape from prison and confront him, finally defeating him, after which he turns both him and himself to the authorities.
Filmed largely on location in 1953 in the villages in West Sumatra, the region of the matrilineal Minangkabau people, The Tiger from Tjampa is exceptional in its evocation of a unique region and milieu. Apart from some of the main actors, almost everything in the film is from West Sumatra. All the film's varied music is from there, as are its dances. In its dialogue the film also effectively uses peribahasa - maxims and proverbs handed down for generations within oral culture - with their characteristic lilting Minangkabau rhythms. The film also displays the intense spirit of community that underlies educational practises in an oral culture.
Minangkabau people, also known as Minang, are an ethnic group indigenous to the Minangkabau Highlands of West Sumatra, Indonesia. The Minangkabau's West Sumatran homelands was the seat of the Pagaruyung Kingdom, believed by early orientalists to have been the cradle of the Malay race, and the location of the Padri War.
Djajakusuma, who took this project over from Usmar Ismail, is remembered in Indonesia as one of the first to make feature films in regional areas after independence. Both as a filmmaker, and as a teacher at the Jakarta Institute of the Arts, Djajakusuma's advocacy for a cinema engaging with the regions influenced younger generations of directors to follow his example, among those being Slamet Rahardjo and Garin Nugroho.
Usmar Ismail was a prominent Indonesian film director. He was of Minangkabau descent. He was widely regarded as the native Indonesian pioneer of the Cinema of Indonesia although films made by the Dutch date back to around 1926.
Slamet Rahardjo Djarot is an Indonesian actor, director, and screenwriter. The elder brother of director, sound producer, and politician Eros Djarot, Rahardjo has starred in dozens of films since his debut in 1971's Wadjah Seorang Laki-Laki. Since his directorial debut in 1979 with Rembulan dan Matahari, he has directed and/or written twelve films; one of which, Langitku, Rumahku, was Indonesia's submission to the 63rd Academy Awards in 1991.
Garin Nugroho Riyanto, better known as Garin Nugroho, is an Indonesian film director.
D. Djajakusuma received the Best Scenario award at the Indonesian Film Festival in 1955.
Tiger from Tjampa raised controversy when the female lead, Nurnaningish appeared half naked on-screen. This was a first in Indonesian cinema.
Silat Melayu, literally meaning "Malay silat", is a blanket term for silat styles of the Malay people. The term was originally used in reference to the native silat of Riau in Indonesia, but today it is more commonly used for the systems created in the Indochinese peninsula, particularly Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Brunei and Vietnam. In modern usage, the term is most often used to differentiate the Malaysian styles from Indonesian pencak silat. English-language writings sometimes mistakenly refer to silat Melayu as bersilat but this is actually a verb form of the noun silat, literally meaning "to do silat".
Datuk is a traditional Minangkabau and Malay honorific title commonly used in Indonesia, Malaysia, East Timor and Brunei. Its variant is Dato and its equivalent is Datu in the Philippines.
The culture of Indonesia has been shaped by long interaction between original indigenous customs and multiple foreign influences. Indonesia is centrally-located along ancient trading routes between the Far East, South Asia and the Middle East, resulting in many cultural practices being strongly influenced by a multitude of religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Islam and Christianity, all strong in the major trading cities. The result is a complex cultural mixture very different from the original indigenous cultures.
Pencak silat is an umbrella term for a class of related Indonesian martial arts. In neighbouring countries the term usually refers to professional competitive silat. It is a full-body fighting form incorporating strikes, grappling and throwing in addition to weaponry. Every part of the body is used and subject to attack. Pencak silat was practiced not only for physical defense but also for psychological ends.
Perisai Diri is a martial arts organization of pencak silat from Indonesia that was founded by Raden Mas Soebandiman Dirdjoatmodjo on July 2, 1955, in Surabaya, East Java. The term literally means "shield of oneself".
Sports in Indonesia are popular from both the participation and spectating aspect. Some popular sports in Indonesia are badminton, football, and the native Indonesian martial art Pencak Silat. Badminton is arguably Indonesia's most successful sport. Indonesia has won gold medals in badminton in every Olympic Games since the sport was first introduced to the Olympics in 1992 except in 2012 Summer Olympics. Indonesia is regularly a participating in Thomas Cup, Uber Cup, and Sudirman Cup Badminton championships. Indonesia is regularly participating in regional multi-events sport, such as Southeast Asian Games, Asian Games, and Olympic Games. In Southeast Asia, Indonesia is one of the major sport powerhouses in the region by winning the Southeast Asian Games 10 times since 1977.
Silat is a collective word for a class of indigenous martial arts from the geo-cultural area of Southeast Asia, more precisely in the Indonesian Archipelago, a region known locally as Nusantara. It is traditionally practised in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, portions of the Philippines, southern part of Thailand and central part of Vietnam. There are hundreds of different styles (aliran) and schools (perguruan) but they tend to focus either on strikes, joint manipulation, weaponry, or some combination thereof.
The Overseas Minangkabau is a demographic group of Minangkabau people of Minangkabau Highlands origin in West Sumatra, Indonesia who have settled in other parts of the world. Over half of the Minangkabau people can be considered overseas Minangkabaus. They make up the majority of the population of Negeri Sembilan and Pekanbaru. They also form a significant minority in the populations of Jakarta, Bandung, Medan, Batam, Surabaya and Palembang in Indonesia as well as Kuala Lumpur, Malacca, Penang, Singapore and Brunei Darussalam in the rest of the Malay world. Minangkabaus have also emigrated as skilled professionals and merchants to the Netherlands, United States, Saudi Arabia and Australia. The matrilineal culture and economic conditions in West Sumatra have made the Minangkabau people one of the most mobile ethnic group in Maritime Southeast Asia.
Merantau, released in some countries as Merantau Warrior, is a 2009 Indonesian martial arts action film written, directed and edited by Gareth Huw Evans, and starring Iko Uwais. The film, which marks Uwais' debut as an actor, is the first collaboration between director Evans and star Uwais. It also marks the acting debut of Yayan Ruhian, both of whom Evans met while shooting for a documentary in Indonesia which became his introduction to the Pencak Silat martial art.
Nurnaningsih was an Indonesian actress. She has been described as Indonesia's first sex bomb.
Djadoeg Djajakusuma was an Indonesian film director and promoter of traditional art forms. Born to a nobleman and his wife in Temanggung, Central Java, Djajakusuma became interested in the arts at a young age, choosing to pursue a career in theatre. During the Japanese occupation from 1943 to 1945 he was a translator and actor, and in the four-year national revolution which followed he worked for the military's educational division, several news agencies, and in drama.
Tjambuk Api is a 1958 Indonesian martial arts film directed by D. Djajakusuma and produced by Usmar Ismail. Starring Bambang Irawan, Aminah Cendrakasih, Soekarno M. Noer, and Rendra Karno, it tells of a young villager who must challenge a local criminal to be with his love. The film underwent several modifications over a period of more than a year before it could pass the censorship board, but now remains one of Djajakusuma's better known works.
Perfini was an Indonesian film production company, based in Jakarta. It was most productive in Indonesian cinema in the 1950s. Its most notable directors were Usmar Ismail, who directed its first film Darah dan Doa (1950), and D. Djajakusuma. By 1966 it reportedly had its own studio, a "20-by-30-meter building large enough for construction of a couple of modest sets".
Istiadat Pewaris Penjurit-Kepetangan Melayu or formerly known as Ilmu Persilatan Penjurit-Kepetangan Melayu, shortform IPPM is one of the oldest original known to date Malay martial art form or called 'Silat' in existence which has been heritage from one generation to another. Descended from the first ruler of the Malayapura Kingdom, King Adityawarman whom is also known as Seri Maharaja Diraja which to a later stage sparked the start of Minangkabau history in Pagaruyung Kingdom, Sumatra, Indonesia. These story has been greatly narrated in most of old Malay Literature including in of the most reliable sources to date called Sulalatus al-Salatin or better known as The Malay Annals (Malay: Sejarah Melayu). The manuscript begin with the stories of Wan Malini and Wan Empuk whom was presented with 3 adopted princes right after when their rice fields was magically expelling gold. These 3 princes was later mark as the kickstart for the next 3 big empires in Malay Archipelago. Those empires were the Kingdom of Majapahit, The Malacca Sultanate and the Pagaruyung Kingdom around the 12th century.
Inti Ombak is a style of pencak silat which blends martial arts descended from the Mataram Kingdom of Central Java with those hailing from the island of Madura. In English it is often abbreviated to IOPS, short for "Inti Ombak Pencak Silat". The Inti Ombak Pencak Silat Union is guided by three caretakers in accordance with the Javanese adage "In the front as a leader, in the middle as a moderator, in the back as an advocate". The current caretakers are Ki Poleng Sudamala of Yogyakarta, Daniel Prasetya of Colorado, and Tjahjadi Tanudjaya of Tengerang. The school's international headquarters are located in Yogyakarta, Indonesia while the US headquarters are in Loveland, Colorado.
Sewar refers to a dagger of Indian origin, typically carried in a belt and used mainly in Sumatra, Indonesia. The blade is also referred to as Sewah by the Gayo people, Seiva by the Minangkabau people, Siva by the Alas people, and Siwaih by the Acehnese people.
Indonesian martial arts refers to the variety of fighting systems native to or developed in the archipelago of Indonesia, both the age-old traditional arts, and the more recently developed hybrid combatives. In the Indonesian language the term bela-diri is used to mean martial art, and in essence the Indonesian fighting arts are meant as one's defence against perceived threat and assault. Other than physical training, they often include spiritual aspects to cultivate inner strength, inner peace and higher psychological ends.
Tapak Suci Putera Muhammadiyah, shortened as Tapak Suci, is an autonomous silat martial art organization of Muhammadiyah, the second largest modernist Muslim organization in Indonesia. Tapak Suci is one of the ten 'historic schools' of IPSI, the leading organization of pencak silat in Indonesia.
Huriah Adam was a famous dance artist from West Sumatra.