|International Drug Names
| Routes of
|By mouth (tablets)
|Feces (70%), urine (9%)
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Chemical and physical data
|3D model (JSmol)
|(what is this?)
Tilorone (trade names Amixin, Lavomax and others) is the first recognized synthetic, small molecular weight compound that is an orally active interferon inducer.It is used as an antiviral drug in some countries which do not require double-blind placebo-controlled studies, including Russia. It is effective against Ebola virus in mice.
Tilorone activates the production of interferon.
Interferons are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several viruses. In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten their anti-viral defenses.
Aciclovir (ACV), also known as acyclovir, is an antiviral medication. It is primarily used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections, chickenpox, and shingles. Other uses include prevention of cytomegalovirus infections following transplant and severe complications of Epstein–Barr virus infection. It can be taken by mouth, applied as a cream, or injected.
Lactoferrin (LF), also known as lactotransferrin (LTF), is a multifunctional protein of the transferrin family. Lactoferrin is a globular glycoprotein with a molecular mass of about 80 kDa that is widely represented in various secretory fluids, such as milk, saliva, tears, and nasal secretions. Lactoferrin is also present in secondary granules of PMNs and is secreted by some acinar cells. Lactoferrin can be purified from milk or produced recombinantly. Human colostrum has the highest concentration, followed by human milk, then cow milk (150 mg/L).
Nelfinavir, sold under the brand name Viracept, is an antiretroviral medication used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Nelfinavir belongs to the class of drugs known as protease inhibitors (PIs) and like other PIs is almost always used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs.
Aphidicolin is a tetracyclic diterpene antibiotic isolated from the fungus Cephalosporum aphidicola with antiviral and antimitotic properties. Aphidicolin is a reversible inhibitor of eukaryotic nuclear DNA replication. It blocks the cell cycle at early S phase. It is a specific inhibitor of DNA polymerase Alpha and Delta in eukaryotic cells and in some viruses and an apoptosis inducer in HeLa cells. Natural aphidicolin is a secondary metabolite of the fungus Nigrospora oryzae.
Enoxacin is an oral broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent used in the treatment of urinary tract infections and gonorrhea. Insomnia is a common adverse effect. It is no longer available in the United States.
Miltefosine, sold under the trade name Impavido among others, is a medication mainly used to treat leishmaniasis and free-living amoeba infections such as Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris. This includes the three forms of leishmaniasis: cutaneous, visceral and mucosal. It may be used with liposomal amphotericin B or paromomycin. It is taken by mouth.
NIM811 is a mitochondrial permeability transition inhibitor. Also known as N-methyl-4-isoleucine cyclosporin, it is a four-substituted cyclosporine analogue that binds to cyclophilin, however this binary complex cannot bind to calcineurin, and therefore lacks immunosuppressive activity.
Fleroxacin is a quinolone antibiotic. It is sold under the brand names Quinodis and Megalocin.
Antiviral proteins are proteins that are induced by human or animal cells to interfere with viral replication. These proteins are isolated to inhibit the virus from replicating in a host's cells and stop it from spreading to other cells. The Pokeweed antiviral protein and the Zinc-Finger antiviral protein are two major antiviral proteins that have undergone several tests for viruses, including HIV and influenza.
Solithromycin is a ketolide antibiotic undergoing clinical development for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and other infections.
Nemonoxacin is a non-fluorinated quinolone antibiotic undergoing clinical trials. It has the same mechanism of action as fluouroquinolones; it inhibits DNA gyrase, preventing DNA synthesis, gene duplication, and cell division. At the end of 2016, it had reached market in Taiwan, Russia, the Commonwealth Independent States, Turkey, mainland China, and Latin America under the brand name Taigexyn. Nemonoxacin has completed phase 2 trials in the US and has moved on to phase 3 trials. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted nemonoxacin qualified infectious disease product (QIDP) and fast track designations for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CAP) and acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSI).
Omadacycline, sold under the brand name Nuzyra, is a broad spectrum antibiotic medication belonging to the aminomethylcycline subclass of tetracycline antibiotics. In the United States, it was approved in October 2018, for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute skin and skin structure infections.
FGI-103 is an antiviral drug developed as a potential treatment for the filoviruses Ebola virus and Marburg virus. In tests on mice FGI-103 was effective against both Ebola and Marburg viruses when administered up to 48 hours after infection. The mechanism of action of FGI-103 has however not yet been established, as it was found not to be acting by any of the known mechanisms used by similar antiviral drugs.
Gepotidacin (INN) is an experimental antibiotic that acts as a topoisomerase type II inhibitor. It is being studied for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection and infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea), including multidrug resistant strains.
MK-608 is an antiviral drug, an adenosine analog. It was originally developed by Merck & Co. as a treatment for hepatitis C, but despite promising results in animal studies, it was ultimately unsuccessful in clinical trials. Subsequently it has been widely used in antiviral research and has shown activity against a range of viruses, including Dengue fever, tick-borne encephalitis virus, poliovirus, and most recently Zika virus, in both in vitro and animal models. Since it has already failed in human clinical trials previously, it is unlikely MK-608 itself will be developed as an antiviral medication, but the continuing lack of treatment options for these emerging viral diseases means that much research continues using MK-608 and related antiviral drugs.
Narlaprevir, is an inhibitor of NS3/4A serine protease, intended for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C caused by genotype 1 virus in combination with other antiviral drugs.
Lobucavir is an antiviral drug that shows broad-spectrum activity against herpesviruses, hepatitis B and other hepadnaviruses, HIV/AIDS and cytomegalovirus. It initially demonstrated positive results in human clinical trials against hepatitis B with minimal adverse effects but was discontinued from further development following the discovery of increased risk of cancer associated with long-term use in mice. Although this carcinogenic risk is present in other antiviral drugs, such as zidovudine and ganciclovir that have been approved for clinical use, development was halted by Bristol-Myers Squibb, its manufacturer.
GS-6620 is an antiviral drug which is a nucleotide analogue. It was developed for the treatment of Hepatitis C but while it showed potent antiviral effects in early testing, it could not be successfully formulated into an oral dosage form due to low and variable absorption in the intestines which made blood levels unpredictable. It has however continued to be researched as a potential treatment for other viral diseases such as Ebola virus disease.
Bemnifosbuvir is an antiviral drug invented by Atea Pharmaceuticals and licensed to Roche for clinical development, a novel nucleotide analog prodrug originally developed for the treatment of hepatitis C. Bemnifosbuvir is the orally bioavailable hemisulfate salt of AT-511, which is metabolized in several steps to the active nucleotide triphosphate AT-9010, acting as an RNA polymerase inhibitor and thereby interfering with viral replication. Bemnifosbuvir has been researched for the treatment of coronavirus diseases such as that produced by SARS-CoV-2. It showed good results in early clinical trials but had inconsistent results at later stages, so the planned Phase 3 trials are being redesigned and results are not expected until late 2022.