This article needs to be updated.(December 2021)
Tlaxcoaque is a plaza located in the historic center of Mexico City which has given its name to both the 17th-century church that is on it and the blocks that surround it. Historically this plaza and the church that sits on it have marked the southern edge of Mexico City, and today it is on the border of the historic center and Colonia Obrera.The church and plaza are somewhat isolated from the rest of the center due to the construction of wide streets, such as 20 de Noviembre and Fray Servando Teresa de Mier, that separate them from the surrounding buildings. Another notable building in this area is the police surveillance station, which was infamous in the 1970s as a place where detainees were tortured. This stopped after the 1985 Mexico City earthquake exposed handcuffed bodies which had evidence of torture on them. Today, the area around this plaza is semi-deserted outside of work hours and is considered to be a high-crime area. The church itself has experienced break-ins.
Plaza Tlaxcoaque with its small chapel was constructed in the 17th century. It marks the beginning of 20 de Noviembre Avenue, which was built in 1936 to commemorate the 26th anniversary of the armed uprising of Francisco I. Madero in 1910. From Tlaxocaque, one can see all the way to the Zocalo.The plaza has been traditionally considered to be the south entrance to the historic center of Mexico City and for much of the city's history, this place marked the southern border. Today, it is on the border of the historic center and Colonia Obrera.
At the center of the plaza is the Chapel of the Immaculate Conception of Tlaxcoaque. It was constructed in the 17th century of tezontle stone and quarried sandstone.At one time, this church held the remains of Hernán Cortés. The chapel contains arches of sandstone and figures of indigenous angels. On the main altar is an image of the Immaculate Conception, dressed in blue and white flanked by an image of the Sacred Heart and of Saint Joseph. The church and plaza are now isolated from the rest of the historic center due in part to the construction of 20 de Noviembre Street, which destroyed the nearby parts of the Hospital de Jesús Nazareno and convent of San Bernardo. It is now immediately surrounded by the wide streets of Chimalpopoca, 20 de Noviembre, Fray Servando Teresa de Mier and San Antonio Abad, with an underground parking facility underneath the building. The chapel was declared a historic monument on 9 February 1931. In 2001, the church was broken into three times and robbed. The break ins cause significant damage to the old wooden doors of the church as well as the loss of monies and several religious artifacts including a sculpture of San Caralampio.
On the corner of 20 de Noviembre and Fray Servando Teresa de Mier streets is the police and emergency services building that was inaugurated in 1957 by President Adolfo Ruiz Cortines and then Police Chief Luis Cueto Ramirez. In the 1970s, it was home to the Dirección de Investigación para la Prevención de la Delincuencia (Direction of Investigation for the Prevention of Crime) y del Servicio Secreto (Secret Service), who had been accused of torturing detainees during interrogations.In the 1985 earthquake, part of this building collapsed, and handcuffed bodies were found which had marks indicated that they had been tortured. When the scandal was exposed and the building was rebuilt, it no longer held these two agencies. The building also housed a Police Museum but since 1985, the museum was closed and the collection has remained in storage. There were plans to reopen the museum at a different location in the late 1980s but this never occurred. Today, it houses the Dirección General de Tránsito y el Centro de Monitoreo de la Secretaría de Seguridad Pública (SSP), which deals mostly with traffic law enforcement and public surveillance. It also houses the ERUM, the major ambulance service for the city and a heliport.
As the area is no longer residential, the streets here become nearly empty from 6pm to the early morning on weekdays and all day on weekends, and during these hours, it is considered to be dangerous. Those who work the night shifts at the ERUM ambulance service state that they do not come to work alone, but always as a group from Metro station Pino Suárez for safety reasons. The area is ranked sixth in delinquent activity in the Cuauhtémoc borough.Tlaxcoaque is also known for semi-permanent street vendors who have become very territorial. Efforts to eliminate street vendors have resulted in threats to public officials, especially those associated with the Secretaría de Seguridad Pública, mostly through anonymous phone calls. This has prompted security details for higher-level administrators and the jailing of several suspects.
One of the reasons for the efforts to clear vendors from here and the rest of the historic center is the 2010 celebrations of the Bicentennial of Mexico's Independence and the Centennial of the Mexican Revolution.Tlaxcoaque was slated for redevelopment, with the police station to be torn down to make way for the Plaza Bicenntenial and the construction of new multifamily housing around the plaza. However, due to financial problems, these plans have been indefinitely suspended.
Paseo de la Reforma is a wide avenue that runs diagonally across the heart of Mexico City. It was designed at the behest of Emperor Maximilian by Ferdinand von Rosenzweig during the era of the Second Mexican Empire and modeled after the great boulevards of Europe, such as the Ringstraße in Vienna and the Champs-Élysées in Paris. The planned grand avenue was to link the National Palace with the imperial residence, Chapultepec Castle, which was then on the southwestern edge of town. The project was originally named Paseo de la Emperatriz in honor of Maximilian's consort Empress Carlota. After the fall of the Empire and Maximilian's subsequent execution, the Restored Republic renamed the Paseo in honor of the La Reforma.
Coyoacán is a borough in Mexico City. The former village is now the borough's "historic center". The name comes from Nahuatl and most likely means "place of coyotes", when the Aztecs named a pre-Hispanic village on the southern shore of Lake Texcoco dominated by the Tepanec people. Against Aztec domination, these people welcomed Hernán Cortés and the Spanish, who used the area as a headquarters during the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire and made it the first capital of New Spain between 1521 and 1523.
Cuauhtémoc, named after the former Aztec leader, is a borough of Mexico City. It contains the oldest parts of the entity, extending over what was the entire urban core in the 1920s.
Fray Servando is a metro station along Line 4 of the Mexico City Metro. It is located in the Venustiano Carranza borough of Mexico City.
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Fray José Servando Teresa de Mier Noriega y Guerra was a Roman Catholic priest, preacher, and politician in New Spain. He was imprisoned several times for his controversial beliefs, and lived in exile in Spain, France and England. His sermons and writings presented revisionist theological and historical opinions that supported republicanism. Mier worked with Francisco Javier Mina during the Mexican War of Independence and, as a deputy in independent Mexico's constituent Congress, opposed Agustín de Iturbide's claim to imperial rule. He is honored for his role in Mexican independence.
The historic center of Mexico City, also known as the Centro or Centro Histórico, is the central neighborhood in Mexico City, Mexico, focused on Zócalo or main plaza and extending in all directions for a number of blocks, with its farthest extent being west to the Alameda Central. The Zocalo is the largest plaza in Latin America. It can hold up to nearly 100,000 people.
The Padre Mier Station is a station on Line 2 of the Monterrey Metro. It is located in the intersection of Padre Mier street and Juarez Avenue in the Monterrey centre. The station was opened on 30 November 1994 as part of the inaugural section of Line 2, between General Anaya and Zaragoza.
Colonia Juárez is one of the better–known neighborhoods or colonias in the Cuauhtémoc borough of Mexico City. The neighborhood is shaped like a long triangle with the boundaries: Paseo de la Reforma on the north, Avenida Chapultepec on the south, and Eje 1 Poniente on the east.
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The Conjunto Urbano Nonoalco Tlatelolco is the largest apartment complex in Mexico, and second largest in North America, after New York's Co-op City. The complex is located in the Cuauhtémoc borough of Mexico City. It was built in the 1960s by architect Mario Pani. Originally, the complex had 102 apartment buildings, with its own schools, hospitals, stores and more, to make it a city within a city. It was also created to be a kind of human habitat and includes artwork such as murals and green spaces such as the Santiago Tlatelolco Garden. Today, the complex is smaller than it was and in a state of deterioration, mostly due to the effects and after effects of the 1985 Mexico City earthquake. This quake caused the immediate collapse of the Nuevo León building with others being demolished in the months afterwards. Further earthquakes in 1993 caused the condemnation of more buildings. In addition to the lost buildings, many residents eventually undersold or abandoned their apartments, as repairs were either never made or made poorly.
Colonia Esperanza is a small colonia or neighborhood located in the Cuauhtémoc borough of Mexico City just southeast of the historic center. Its borders are defined by the following streets: Lorenzo Boturini to the south, Fray Servando Teresa de Mier to the north, Calzada de la Viga Canal to the east and Francisco Javier Clavijero to the west.
Colonia San Rafael is a colonia of the Cuauhtémoc borough of Mexico City, just west of the historic city center. It was established in the late 19th century as one of the first formal neighborhoods outside of the city center and initially catered to the wealthy of the Porfirio Díaz era. These early residents built large mansions, many with French influence, and many still remain. Middle class residents moved in soon afterwards, and building and rebuilding over the 20th century has introduced a number of architectural styles. These buildings include some of the first works by Luis Barragán and today 383 are classified as having historic value.
Colonia Tabacalera is a colonia or neighborhood in the Cuauhtémoc borough of Mexico City, on the western border of the city's historic center. It was created in the late 19th century along with other nearby colonias such as Colonia San Rafael and Colonia Santa María la Ribera. From the early 1900s, it became a mixture of mansions and apartment buildings, with major constructions such as the now Monument to the Revolution and the El Moro skyscraper built in the first half of the century. By the 1950s, the area had a bohemian reputation with writers, artists, and exiles living there. These included Fidel Castro and Ernesto “Che” Guevara, who met each other and began planning the Cuban Revolution there. Today, the colonia is in decline with problems such as prostitution, crime, street vending and traffic. However, the area is still home to some of the many traditional Mexican cantinas that populated it in its heyday.
Colonia Tránsito is a colonia or neighborhood in the Cuauhtémoc borough of Mexico City, just south of the city's historic center. It is a residential area although there has been recent redevelopment for more commercial uses. It contains two colonial era churches, a number of buildings containing public offices and it is the home of soft drink maker Pascual Boing.
La Lagunilla Market is a traditional public market in Mexico City, located about ten blocks north of the city's main plaza, in a neighborhood called La Lagunilla. The market is one of the largest in the city and consists of three sections: one for clothing, one for furniture and one for foodstuffs, mostly selling to lower income customers. The market is surrounded by small stores and street vendors, many specializing in furniture and dresses and other needs for formal occasions. On Sundays, the number of street vendors grows significantly, a weekly “tianguis” market called a baratillo which traditionally sells used items. One section of this baratillo has developed into a market for antiques, which has attracted higher income customers and even famous ones such as Carlos Monsiváis.
La Merced is a barrio or a neighborhood of Mexico City defined by its socioeconomics and history rather than by an official designation. It extends over the southeast of the historic center of Mexico City and is one of the oldest sections of the city, established over 700 years ago by the Mexica as part of the founding of Tenochtitlan. Over its history the area was associated with commerce, first as a major docking area for boats bringing goods to Tenochtitlan/Mexico City on Lake Texcoco, later via canals as the lake was slowly drained. In the latter 19th century, the La Merced market was established in the area replacing the massive La Merced monastery which was almost completely destroyed in the 1860s. This market was established to centralize the marketing of foodstuffs for the city on one area. The first La Merced market was built in 1890 and then replaced by the current building in 1957, one of the largest traditional Mexican markets in Mexico City. In the 1980s, the wholesale function of this market was taken over by the newly constructed Centro de Abasto in the south of the city, with the barrio then going into economic and social decline, with the area having problems with poverty, prostitution and population loss. Although there have been efforts to revitalize the area and the La Merced market remains important.
The Circuito Interior Bicentenario or more commonly, Circuito Interior or even more simply Circuito, is a 42-km-long urban freeway and at-grade boulevard, forming a loop around the central neighborhoods of Mexico City. It was built starting in 1961. The Circuito Interior received the appellation Bicentenario (Bicentennial) after a renovation that took place in 2010, Mexico's bicentennial year.
The veneration of Judas Thaddaeus in Mexico has taken on importance since the mid 20th century, especially in Mexico City. The center for this veneration is at the San Hipolito Church in the city center, for centuries the only church with any space devoted to this saint. Although the church remains named for its original patron, the image of Judas Thaddaeus has been moved to the main altar. The church and some other locations in Mexico, receive thousands of devotees, mostly coming on the 28th of each month, especially October 28, the saint's feast day. The saint is officially associated with difficult circumstances, but more recently has been associated with delinquents, with the idea that the saint hears the petitions of both the good and the bad. Mexico City, especially its poorer areas, is filled with thousands of street shrines to San Judas Tadeo. Other areas with significant numbers of devotees include Michoacán, the State of Mexico, Mexicali and Monterrey.
The presence of street vendors in Mexico City dates back to pre-Hispanic era and over the centuries the government has struggled to control it, with most recently a clearing of downtown streets of vendors in 2007, but despite this there is a persistent presence of many thousands illegally. Even after oscillating between the realms of legality and illegality, street vending in Mexico and even in other parts of the world, is not the exception but rather has been a norm when it comes to commercial activities. In 2003, it was estimated that there were 199,328 street vendors in Mexico City.