Tmesipteris tannensis is a fern ally endemic to New Zealand. It is usually epiphytic on trees and tree ferns, but is occasionally terrestrial.
An example of occurrence of T. tannensis within a tiered phytocoenosis is in Central Westland of South Island, New Zealand. These forests are the most extensive continuous podocarp/broadleaf forests in New Zealand. The overstory includes miro, rimu and mountain totara. The mid-story includes tree ferns such as Cyathea smithii and Dicksonia squarrosa , whilst the lowest tier and epiphytic associates include Asplenium polyodon , Astelia solandri and Blechnum discolor along with T. tannensis.
Dacrydium cupressinum, commonly known as rimu, is a large evergreen coniferous tree endemic to the forests of New Zealand. It is a member of the southern conifer group, the podocarps. The former name "red pine" has fallen out of common use.
Pseudopanax is a small genus of 12–20 species of evergreen plants, the majority of which are endemic to New Zealand. Flowers of the genus occur in terminal umbels.
Cranfillia fluviatilis, synonym Blechnum fluviatile, is a fern known in the Māori language as kiwikiwi. A herbaceous plant, C. fluviatilis is a "hard fern" of the genus Cranfillia in the family Blechnaceae. It was identified by Patrick Brownsey in 1979. Other common names are star fern, creek fern, kawakawa and kiwakiwa.
Lomaria discolor, synonym Blechnum discolor, commonly called crown fern, is a species of fern in the family Blechnaceae. This species is endemic to New Zealand. As noted by C. Michael Hogan, this species is found in a number of forest communities in diverse locations within New Zealand, and is sometimes a dominant understory component.
Leptecophylla juniperina is a species of flowering plant in the family Ericaceae. The species is native to New Zealand and the Australian states of Tasmania and Victoria. The plant's fruit is edible, raw or cooked. Plants grow best in areas with moderate winters and cool moist summers.
Hymenophyllum demissum is a species of fern in the family Hymenophyllaceae. H. demissum is found in New Zealand, with a specific example occurrence being in North Island's Hamilton Ecological District in a Nothofagus-podocarp forest in association with other fern species understory plants, crown fern, Blechnum discolor being an example.
Alseuosmia macrophylla, the toropapa or karapapa, is a plant species in the family Alseuosmiaceae. This is a small evergreen shrub which is endemic to New Zealand, along with two closely related species. An example occurrence of A. macrophylla is in the North Island habitat of the Hamilton Ecological District, where Blechnum discolor and Blechnum filiforme are understory elements with Nothofagus truncata and rimu overstory. This plant is known for the pleasant scent of its flowers, and its family name translates as "perfumed grove". The small red berries of toropapa are edible and sweet tasting. As a forest understory plant, toropapa will not tolerate full sunlight or frost, and needs its roots to stay moist and cool, however so long as these conditions are met it is reasonably hardy, and is sometimes cultivated as a garden plant.
Asplenium polyodon, commonly known as sickle spleenwort, is a species of fern in the family Aspleniaceae. The distribution of A. polyodon includes parts of the countries of Australia and New Zealand. A specific locale of occurrence is in forested areas of Westland, New Zealand, where associate understory species include crown fern.
Metrosideros perforata, also known as white rata, climbing rata, akatea or Akatorotoro, is one of twelve Metrosideros species endemic to New Zealand. It is one of three white flowering rātā vines.
Coprosma spathulata is a shrub that is native to New Zealand. An example occurrence of this species is within the Hamilton Ecological District in the North Island within a forest dominated by Nothofagus and rimu, where understory associates include Blechnum discolor and Doodia media.
Astelia trinervia is a species of rhizomatous tufted perennial native to New Zealand. An example occurrence of this species is in the North Island's Hamilton Ecological District, where it occurs in the understory associated with Blechnum discolor and overstory forest elements of rimu and nothofagus trees.
Dicranoloma is a genus of mosses in the family Dicranaceae. The Dicranoloma mosses are distributed in the Southern Hemisphere, while the Dicranum mosses are found in the Northern Hemisphere. Species within this genus are dioicous. Another genus in this family is Campylopus. Example occurrences of the genus Dicranoloma is in the form of mats on beech/podocarp forest floors of New Zealand's northern South Island. Dicranoloma dicarpum has a wide distribution in both hemispheres.
Phyllocladus alpinus, the mountain toatoa or mountain celery pine, is a species of conifer in the family Podocarpaceae. It is found only in New Zealand. The form of this plant ranges from a shrub to a small tree of up to seven metres in height. This species is found in both the North and South Islands. An example occurrence of P. alpinus is within the understory of beech/podocarp forests in the north part of South Island, New Zealand.
The Spenser Mountains is a topographic landform in the northern South Island of New Zealand. Located at the southern end of the Nelson Lakes National Park and north of the Lewis Pass they form a natural border between the Canterbury and Tasman regions. Several peaks are named after characters in Edmund Spenser’s allegorical poem, The Faerie Queene. Many of the early explorers were evidently literate men. For example, Frederick Weld named Lake Tennyson; William Travers named the Spensers and Faerie Queene; Julius Haast named Mt Una.
Raukaua simplex is a species of evergreen plant in the Araliaceae family. This species is native to New Zealand. The species occurs in certain lowland, montane and subalpine forests from the Waihou River southward to Stewart Island and the Auckland Islands. An example occurrence in Westland forests includes associates such as Cyathea smithii and Dicksonia squarrosa.
Notogrammitis heterophylla is a species of fern within the family polypodiaceae ferns. The species is found in New Zealand, Tasmania and Victoria, Australia. This plant is epiphytic In New Zealand's Westland N. heterophylla occurs in association with other epiphytes such as Asplenium polyodon and Trichomanes reniforme.
Ascarina lucida, commonly known as hutu is a species of small tree in the family Chloranthaceae. It is endemic to New Zealand, being common on the West Coast and Nelson regions of the South Island and more rarely found in the North Island. A typical plant association is within the Westland podocarp/broadleaf forests with common understory associates of Blechnum discolor, Pseudowintera colorata, Pseudopanax colensoi and Coprosma lucida. Most genus members are dioecious, producing unisexual male or female flowers on separate plants. Ascarina lucida, the only member of its genus to occur in New Zealand, is monoecious. It will grow to a height of 6m and can have a 30 cm trunk. The leaves which are in opposite pairs are simple, yellowish green in color, have a raised mid rib and are very similar to Laurelia novae-zelandiae. Their margins have prominent teeth which are dark colored at the tips. Ascarina lucida is now nearly extinct in the Taranaki region but was last reported in Oct 1969 at Mt Taranaki, near Pukeiti by Colin Ogle.
Pseudopanax colensoi is a species of evergreen plant. This species is native to New Zealand. An example occurrence in central Westland podocarp/broadleaf forests includes flora associates such as Cyathea smithii and Dicksonia squarrosa, Rumohra adiantiformis, Ascarina lucida, Pseudowintera colorata and Blechnum discolor. The maximum height of this plant is 5 meters and it is the preferred food of possums.
Pseudopanax edgerleyi is a species of plant which is native to New Zealand. An example occurrence in Westland District Podocarp/broadleaf forests includes flora associates such as Cyathea smithii, Dicksonia squarrosa and Blechnum discolor.
A plant community is a collection or association of plant species within a designated geographical unit, which forms a relatively uniform patch, distinguishable from neighboring patches of different vegetation types. The components of each plant community are influenced by soil type, topography, climate and human disturbance. In many cases there are several soil types present within a given plant community. This is because the soil type within an area is influenced by two factors, the rate at which water infiltrates or evapotranspirates from the soil, as well as the rate at which organic matter enters or decays from the soil. Plant communities are studied substantially by ecologists, due to providing information on the effects of dispersal, tolerance to environmental conditions, and response to disturbance of a variety of plant species, information valuable to the comprehension of various plant community dynamics.
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