|Tobacco ringspot virus
Tobacco ringspot virus
Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the plant virus family Secoviridae . It is the type species of the genus Nepovirus . Nepoviruses are transmitted between plants by nematodes, thrips, mites, grasshoppers, and flea beetles.TRSV is also easily transmitted by sap inoculation and transmission in seeds has been reported. In recent cases it has also been shown to appear in bees, but no transmission to plants from bees has been noted.
TRSV was observed for the first time in tobacco fields in Virginia and described in 1927.It is an isometric particle with a bipartite RNA genome. The virus has a wide host range that includes field grown crops, ornamentals and weeds. Its name comes from its most common symptom being chlorotic ringspots on the leaves of infected plants. In some areas this virus has caused growers to stop growing affected crops.
Symptoms and virus inclusions of Tobacco ringspot nepovirus in the host Zamia furfuracea, the Cardboard Cycad.A. The first symptoms seen were chlorotic ringspots. With time they become necrotic. B. There are two types of inclusions found in leaf strips stained with Azure A (nucleic acid stain), one is vacuolate (Vac Inc) and the other more crystalloid (Cyst Inc - darker spots). C. Vacuolate inclusions only.
A leaf spot is a limited, discoloured, diseased area of a leaf that is caused by fungal, bacterial or viral plant diseases, or by injuries from nematodes, insects, environmental factors, toxicity or herbicides. These discoloured spots or lesions often have a centre of necrosis. Symptoms can overlap across causal agents, however differing signs and symptoms of certain pathogens can lead to the diagnosis of the type of leaf spot disease. Prolonged wet and humid conditions promote leaf spot disease and most pathogens are spread by wind, splashing rain or irrigation that carry the disease to other leaves.
Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a pathogenic plant virus in the genus Potyvirus and the virus family Potyviridae which primarily infects the papaya tree.
Nepovirus is a genus of viruses in the order Picornavirales, in the family Secoviridae, in the subfamily Comovirinae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are 40 species in this genus. Nepoviruses, unlike the other two genera in the subfamily Comovirinae, are transmitted by nematodes.
Xiphinema americanum, the American dagger nematode, is a species of plant pathogenic nematodes. It is one of many species that belongs to the genus Xiphinema. It was first described by N. A. Cobb in 1913, who found it on both sides of the United States on the roots of grass, corn, and citrus trees. Not only is Xiphinema americanum known to vector plant viruses, but also X. americanum has been referred to as "the most destructive plant parasitic nematode in America", and one of the four major nematode pests in the Southeastern United States.
Arabis mosaic virus is a viral plant pathogen that is known to infect multiple hosts. The pathogen, commonly referred to as ArMV, is from the family Secoviridae, and it causes yellow dwarf of raspberry and is one of the causes of mosaic of rhubarb. Arabis mosaic virus infects multiple hosts, including strawberries, hops, hemp, grape, geraniums, raspberries, sugar beets, celery, horseradish, lilac, peach, and lettuces.
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the family Bromoviridae. This virus has a worldwide distribution and a very wide host range, having the reputation of the widest host range of any known plant virus. It can be transmitted from plant to plant both mechanically by sap and by aphids in a stylet-borne fashion. It can also be transmitted in seeds and by the parasitic weeds, Cuscuta sp. (dodder).
Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Alphaflexiviridae.
Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Secoviridae. It infects grapevines, causing chlorosis of the leaves and lowering the fruit quality. Because of its effect on grape yield, GFLV is a pathogen of commercial importance. It is transmitted via a nematode vector, Xiphinema index. This nematode acquires the virus through feeding on roots of an infected plant, and passes it on in the same manner.
Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Potexvirus and the family Alphaflexiviridae. PapMV is a filamentous, flexuous rod, 530 nm in length.
Peanut mottle virus(PeMoV) is a pathogenic plant virus of the family Potyviridae. As with other members of this virus family, PeMoV is a flexuous filamentous virus with particles 740–750 nm long. It is transmitted by several species of aphids and by mechanical inoculation. It was first given its name in 1965 when it was isolated from peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) in Georgia, United States. The virus was found to be seed transmitted in its host.
Peanut stunt virus (PSV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the family Bromoviridae. It is a member of the genus Cucumovirus. The members of this genus are positive-stranded RNA viruses with a multipartite genome. The virus particles have an isometric or spherical shape.
Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is a plant pathogenic virus causing ring spot diseases affecting species of the genus Prunus, as well as other species such as rose and hops. PNRSV is found worldwide due to easy transmission through plant propagation methods and infected seed. The virus is in the family Bromoviridae and genus Ilarvirus. Synonyms of PNRSV include European plum line pattern virus, hop B virus, hop C virus, plum line pattern virus, sour cherry necrotic ringspot virus, and peach ringspot virus.
Tobacco etch virus (TEV) is a plant virus in the genus Potyvirus and family Potyviridae. Like other members of the genus Potyvirus, TEV has a monopartite positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome surrounded by a capsid made from a single viral encoded protein. The virus is a filamentous particle that measures about 730 nm in length. It is transmissible in a non-persistent manner by more than 10 species of aphids including Myzus persicae. It also is easily transmitted by mechanical means but is not known to be transmitted by seeds.
Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) is a pathogenic plant virus. Over 400 species of plants from 50 families are susceptible to infection.
Tobacco streak virus (TSV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae, in the genus Ilarvirus. It has a wide host range, with at least 200 susceptible species. TSV is generally more problematic in the tropics or warmer climates. TSV does not generally lead to epidemics, with the exception of sunflowers in India and Australia, and peanuts in India.
Orthotospovirus is a genus of negative-strand RNA viruses, in the family Tospoviridae of the order Bunyavirales, which infects plants. Tospoviruses take their name from the species Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (TSWV) which was discovered in Australia in 1919. TSWV remained the only known member of the family until the early 1990s when genetic characterisation of plant viruses became more common. There are now at least twenty species in the genus with more being discovered on a regular basis. Member viruses infect over eight hundred plant species from 82 different families.
Passion fruit woodiness virus (PWV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Potyvirus and the virus family Potyviridae. Like other members of the genus Potyvirus, PWV is a monopartite strand of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA surrounded by a capsid made for a single viral encoded protein. The virus is a filamentous particle that measures about 745 nm in length.
Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) also known as Marrow mosaic virus, Melon mosaic virus, and until recently Watermelon mosaic virus type 2 (WMV-2), is a plant pathogenic virus that causes viral infection in many different plants. The virus itself is referred to as Watermelon Mosaic Virus II or WMV-2 and is an isolate of the U.S. WMV-2 is a ssRNA positive strand virus that is part of the Potyviridae or Potyvirus clade. Like all RNA viruses, it contains a protein capsid which protects the inner viral RNA. First described on squash in Florida, WMV arose from a unique recombination of genetic material contributed by Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) along with Peanut Stripe virus (PSV).
Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) is a virus that belongs to the genus Gammacarmovirus of the family Tombusviridae. It has been observed in several countries of the Americas, Africa, Asia, and Europe. It is considered to be an endemic virus in greenhouses and field productions of Cucurbitaceae crops, including melon, cucumber, and watermelon. MNSV is mainly spread through infected soil, seedlings, insects, and by the root-inhabiting fungus vector Olpidium bornovanus. Symptoms vary between Curbitaceae crops, but generally consist of chlorosis, brown necrotic lesions, leaf wilt, fruit decay, and plant death. Management of the disease consists of preventing infection by rotating fields and crops, steam sterilization, and disposal of infected plants. Also, treated seeds with heat or chemicals are efficient in preventing infection. MNSV is important in melon plants as it causes vast economical damage worldwide reducing significant yields.
Cocoa necrosis virus (CoNV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the genus nepovirus that infects Theobroma cacao en natura causing cacao necrosis disease. CoNV is considered synonymous with Strain S of cacao swollen shoot virus. Unlike Cacao swollen shoot virus, it is not transmitted by mealybugs nor vectored by aphids, beetles, or leafhoppers that also commonly infest cacao. It is serologically, distantly related to Tomato black ring virus and very distantly related to Grapevine chrome mosaic virus.