Trithionate hydrolase

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trithionate hydrolase
Identifiers
EC number 3.12.1.1
CAS number 115004-90-5
Databases
IntEnz IntEnz view
BRENDA BRENDA entry
ExPASy NiceZyme view
KEGG KEGG entry
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / QuickGO

In enzymology, a trithionate hydrolase (EC 3.12.1.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction [1] [2]

trithionate + H2O thiosulfate + sulfate + 2 H+

Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are trithionate and H2O, whereas its 3 products are thiosulfate, sulfate, and H+.

This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on sulfur-sulfur bonds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is trithionate thiosulfohydrolase. This enzyme participates in sulfur metabolism.

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Sodium thiosulfate chemical compound

Sodium thiosulfate (sodium thiosulphate) is an inorganic compound with the formula Na2S2O3.xH2O. Typically it is available as the white or colorless pentahydrate, Na2S2O3·5H2O. The solid is an efflorescent (loses water readily) crystalline substance that dissolves well in water.

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Thiosulfate chemical compound

Thiosulfate is an oxyanion of sulfur.

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Thermithiobacillus tepidarius is a member of the Acidithiobacillia isolated from the thermal groundwaters of the Roman Baths at Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom. It was previously placed in the genus Thiobacillus. The organism is a moderate thermophile, 43–45 °C (109–113 °F), and an obligate aerobic chemolithotrophic autotroph. Despite having an optimum pH of 6.0–7.5, growth can continue to an acid medium of pH 4.8. Growth can only occur on reduced inorganic sulfur compounds and elementary sulfur, but unlike some species in other genus of the same family, Acidithiobacillus, Thermithiobacillus spp. are unable to oxidise ferrous iron or iron-containing minerals.

Sulfur is metabolized by all organisms, from bacteria and archaea to plants and animals. Sulfur is reduced or oxidized by organisms in a variety of forms. The element is present in proteins, sulfate esters of polysaccharides, steroids, phenols, and sulfur-containing coenzymes.

Acidithiobacillus caldus formerly belonged to the genus Thiobacillus prior to 2000, when it was reclassified along with a number of other bacterial species into one of three new genera that better categorize sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles. As a member of the Gammaproteobacteria class of Proteobacteria, A. caldus may be identified as a Gram-negative bacterium that is frequently found in pairs. Considered to be one of the most common microbes involved in biomining, it is capable of oxidizing reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs) that form during the breakdown of sulfide minerals. The meaning of the prefix acidi- in the name Acidithiobacillus comes from the Latin word acidus, signifying that members of this genus love a sour, acidic environment. Thio is derived from the Greek word thios and describes the use of sulfur as an energy source, and bacillus describes the shape of these microorganisms, which are small rods. The species name, caldus, is derived from the Latin word for warm or hot, denoting this species' love of a warm environment.

Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, formerly known as Thiobacillus thiooxidans until its reclassification into the newly designated genus Acidithiobacillus of the gamma subclass of Proteobacteria, is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that uses sulfur as its primary energy source. It is mesophilic, with a temperature optimum of 28 °C. This bacterium is commonly found in soil, sewer pipes, and cave biofilms called snottites. A. thiooxidans is used in the mining technique known as bioleaching, where metals are extracted from their ores through the action of microbes.

The genus Annwoodia was named in 2017 to circumscribe an organism previously described as a member of the genus Thiobacillus, Thiobacillus aquaesulis - the type and only species is Annwoodia aquaesulis, which was isolated from the geothermal waters of the Roman Baths in the city of Bath in the United Kingdom by Ann P. Wood and Donovan P. Kelly of the University of Warwick - the genus was subsequently named to honour Wood's contribution to microbiology. The genus falls within the family Thiobacillaceae along with Thiobacillus and Sulfuritortus, both of which comprise autotrophic organisms dependent on thiosulfate, other sulfur oxyanions and sulfide as electron donors for chemolithoheterotrophic growth. Whilst Annwoodia spp. and Sulfuritortus spp. are thermophilic, Thiobacillus spp. are mesophilic.

Microbial oxidation of sulfur

Microbial oxidation of sulfur is the oxidation of sulfur by microorganisms to produce energy. The oxidation of inorganic compounds is the strategy primarily used by chemolithotrophic microorganisms to obtain energy in order to build their structural components, survive, grow and reproduce. Some inorganic forms of reduced sulfur, mainly sulfide (H2S/HS) and elemental sulfur (S0), can be oxidized by chemolithotrophic sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes, usually coupled to the reduction of oxygen (O2) or nitrate (NO3).

References

  1. Lu WP, Kelly DP (1988). "Cellular location and partial purification of the 'thiosulphate-oxidizing enzyme' and 'trithionate hydrolase' from Thiobacillus tepidarius". J. Gen. Microbiol. 134: 877–885. doi: 10.1099/00221287-134-4-877 .
  2. Trudinger PA (1964). "The metabolism of trithionate by Thiobacillus X". Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 17: 459–468.