|UN Security Council |
Location of Botswana
|Date||14 January 1977|
|13 voted for|
None voted against
|Security Council composition|
United Nations Security Council Resolution 403, adopted on January 14, 1977, after hearing representations from the Minister of External Affairs of Botswana, condemned attacks by the "illegal minority regime" in Southern Rhodesia. The resolution recalled previous resolutions on the topic, including the right to self-determination of the people of Southern Rhodesia.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked with maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, achieving international co-operation, and being a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. It was established after World War II, with the aim of preventing future wars, and succeeded the ineffective League of Nations. Its headquarters, which are subject to extraterritoriality, are in Manhattan, New York City, and it has other main offices in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development, and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193.
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966. Since then, it has been a representative republic, with a consistent record of uninterrupted democratic elections and the best perceived corruption ranking in Africa since at least 1998. It is currently Africa's oldest continuous democracy.
The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) was a statement adopted by the Cabinet of Rhodesia on 11 November 1965, announcing that Rhodesia, a British territory in southern Africa that had governed itself since 1923, now regarded itself as an independent sovereign state. The culmination of a protracted dispute between the British and Rhodesian governments regarding the terms under which the latter could become fully independent, it was the first unilateral break from the United Kingdom by one of its colonies since the Irish Proclamation of Independence in 1916, and the first one since the United States Declaration of Independence in 1776 to succeed. The UK, the Commonwealth and the United Nations all deemed Rhodesia's UDI illegal, and economic sanctions, the first in the UN's history, were imposed on the breakaway colony. Amid near-complete international isolation, Rhodesia continued as an unrecognised state with the assistance of South Africa and Portugal.
The Council reaffirmed the legal responsibility of the Government of the United Kingdom over Southern Rhodesia, and demanded the latter cease all hostile acts. The resolution, noting the economic hardship caused by the attacks, requested all relevant agencies of the United Nations and other member states to assist in various projects in Botswana.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is also commonly referred to as simply the UK Government or the British Government.
The resolution was adopted with 13 votes; the United Kingdom and United States abstained from voting.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea separates Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom's 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi) were home to an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 216 was adopted by the United Nations Security Council on 12 November 1965, the day after the British Dependency of Southern Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the British Empire as the state of Rhodesia. The vote was ten to none, with one member, France, abstaining.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 202, adopted on May 6, 1965, after reaffirming motions from the General Assembly, the Council requested that no member state accept a Unilateral Declaration of Independence from Southern Rhodesia and that the United Kingdom take all measures necessary to prevent it. The resolution also called on all political prisoners to be released and for the freedom of political parties to operate. The Council requested that the UK work toward and equitable constitution and for the future independence of a majority-ruled Southern Rhodesia.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 221, adopted on April 9, 1966, after recalling previous resolutions on the topic, the Council was gravely concerned that Southern Rhodesia might receive a large supply of oil as the Joanna V, an oil tanker, had already arrived at Beira.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 232, adopted on December 16, 1966, noted with concern that the efforts to break off international economic activity with Southern Rhodesia had failed to bring the rebellion to an end, the Council decided that all member states would prevent the importation of an asbestos, iron ore, chrome, pig-iron, sugar, tobacco, copper, or animal-products that had originated in Southern Rhodesia. Additionally, the activities of any of their nationals designed to promote the export of these commodities or the importation of arms, ammunition of all types, military aircraft, military vehicles and equipments and materials for the manufacture and maintenance of arms and ammunition along with a total embargo of oil and oil products, though exception was made for contracts granted before this resolution.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 277, adopted on March 18, 1970, concerned the state of Southern Rhodesia, now known as Zimbabwe. The Council reaffirmed its previous resolutions and noted with grave concern that efforts thus far to bring the rebellion to the end had failed, some countries had not been obeying the Council's resolutions and that the situation in Southern Rhodesia continued to deteriorate as a result of the regime's new measures.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 314, adopted on February 28, 1972, concerned that certain states were not complying with resolution 253, the Council decided that the sanctions against Southern Rhodesia set out in 253 would remain fully in force. It also urged all states to implement fully resolution 253 and declared that any legislation passed or act taken by any state with a view to permitting the importation of any commodity from Southern Rhodesia falling into the scope of 253 would undermine the sanctions and be contrary to the state's obligations under the United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 318, adopted on July 28, 1972, after reaffirming previous resolutions on the topic, the Council approved the recommendations of the committee established in resolution 253. The Council then condemned all acts violating the provisions of the previous resolutions, called upon all states continuing to have economic and other relations with Southern Rhodesia to stop immediately and demanded that all member states scrupulously carry out their obligations under the previous resolutions. The Resolution then requested the Secretary-General provide all appropriate assistance to the committee established in resolution 253.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 320, adopted on 29 September 1972, after reaffirming previous resolutions, the Council expressed concern that despite the previous resolutions, several states were covertly and overtly violating the sanctions on Southern Rhodesia. The Council requested that the committee which had been established in resolution 253, consider the type of action which should be taken "in view of the open and persistent refusal of South Africa and Portugal to implement sanctions" and asked for the report no later than 31 January 1973.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 326, adopted on February 2, 1973, concerned with provocative and aggressive acts committed by Southern Rhodesia against Zambia and disturbed by the continued military intervention of South Africa in Rhodesia, the Council condemned all acts of provocation and harassment against Zambia.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 328, adopted on March 10, 1973, after receiving a report from the Special Mission established under resolution 326 and reaffirming previous statements the Council encouraged the United Kingdom, as the administering power, to convene a national constitutional conference where the "genuine representatives of the people of Zimbabwe" could work out a settlement relating to the future of the country.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 333, adopted on May 22, 1973, after reiterating previous statements and admitting that previous measures had yet failed to bring about the end of the "illegal regime in Southern Rhodesia" the Council condemned South Africa and Portugal for failing to co-operate with the implementation of sanctions and requested that urgent action be taken to implement them. The Council then requested that states with legislation permitting importation from Rhodesia repeal it immediately and called upon states to enact and enforce legislation against any person who tries to evade of commit a breach of sanctions by:
United Nations Security Council Resolution 406, adopted on May 25, 1977, after reaffirming resolutions 403 (1977), 232 (1966) and 258 (1965) and reading a report from the Mission in Botswana, the Council expressed its full support to the Government of Botswana against continued attacks and provocations by the "illegal racist regime" in Southern Rhodesia.
In United Nations Security Council Resolution 423, adopted on March 14, 1978, after recalling its resolutions on Southern Rhodesia, particularly 415 (1977), the Council condemned attempts by the "illegal racist regime" in Southern Rhodesia to retain power and prevent the independence of Zimbabwe. It also criticised the country's executions of political prisoners and actions against neighbouring countries.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 424 was adopted unanimously on March 17, 1978; after hearing representations from Zambia, the Council expressed concern at unprovoked attacks against the country by the "illegal racist regime" in Southern Rhodesia, which resulted in deaths and destruction of property in Zambia. The Rhodesian Security Forces maintained that they had been attacking guerrilla bases in the country.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 437, adopted on October 10, 1978, after recalling Resolution 253 (1968) which prevented Member States from allowing those connected to the regime in Southern Rhodesia to enter their territory, the Council noted with regret the decision by the United States to allow Ian Smith other members of the "illegal regime" to enter the country. Therefore, the resolution considered this action to be in violation of Resolution 253.
United Nations Security Council resolution 445, adopted on 8 March 1979, after recalling resolutions 253 (1968), 403 (1977), 411 (1977), 423 (1978), 424 (1978) and 437 (1978), and hearing representations from various countries, the Council expressed its concern about the military operations undertaken by the "illegal regime" against countries both bordering and non-contiguous with Southern Rhodesia. The Council was also indignant at the execution and sentences against persons under repressive laws.
United Nations Security Council resolution 448, adopted on 30 April 1979, after recalling resolutions 253 (1968), 403 (1977), 411 (1977), 423 (1978), 424 (1978), 437 (1978) and 445 (1979), the Council declared that the recent "sham" elections held in Southern Rhodesia by the "illegal racist regime" were illegal and the results thereof would be null and void.
United Nations Security Council resolution 455, adopted on 23 November 1979, after taking note of representations from Zambia and recalling Resolution 424 (1978), the Council expressed concern and condemned the "illegal racist regime" in Southern Rhodesia for its "sustained pattern of violations aimed at destroying the economic infrastructure" of Zambia and causing a number of deaths.
United Nations Security Council resolution 460, adopted on 21 December 1979, after taking note of the Lancaster House Agreement, the Council decided to terminate measures taken against Southern Rhodesia in resolutions 232 (1966) and 253 (1968) and any subsequent resolutions. The resolution deplored the "loss of life, waste and suffering" over the past 14 years caused by the rebellion in Southern Rhodesia.
United Nations Security Council resolution 463, adopted on 2 February 1980, after considering the latest developments in Southern Rhodesia and Resolution 460 (1979) in which it was noted that an agreement had produced a Constitution for a free and independent Zimbabwe and majority rule, the Council called on all parties to comply with the Lancaster House Agreement and the administering power, the United Kingdom, to fully implement the agreement.