Yugoslav Left

Last updated
Yugoslav Left

Jugoslovenska Levica
President Ljubiša Ristić (1995–2002)
Mirjana Marković (2002–2003)
General Secretary Ratko Krsmanović
Founded23 July 1994
Dissolved12 April 2010
HeadquartersVenizelosova 31, Belgrade
Ideology Communism [1]
Democratic socialism
Yugoslavism
Serbian nationalism [2] [3]
Political position Left-wing
Website
jul.org.yu

The Yugoslav Left (Serbo-Croatian: Југословенска Левица, ЈУЛ / Jugoslovenska Levica; JUL) was a left-wing political party in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. [4] At its peak, the party had 20 seats in Republic of Serbia's National Assembly following the 1997 general election.

Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy. It typically involves a concern for those in society whom its adherents perceive as disadvantaged relative to others (prioritarianism) as well as a belief that there are unjustified inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished. The term left-wing can also refer to "the radical, reforming, or socialist section of a political party or system".

A political party is an organized group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests.

Republic of Serbia (1992–2006) federal unit of Yugoslavia/Serbia & Montenegro between 1992 and 2006

The Republic of Serbia was a constituent state of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia between 1992 and 2003 and the Union of Serbia and Montenegro from 2003 to 2006. With Montenegro's secession from the union with Serbia in 2006, both became sovereign states in their own right.

Contents

Ideology

JUL declared itself to be a party of all "left-wing and progressive forces that believed that the general interest always comes above private interest", including communists, socialists, social democrats, and democratic socialists. [4]

Communism socialist political movement and ideology

In political and social sciences, communism is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.

Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership can be public, collective or cooperative ownership, or citizen ownership of equity. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, with social ownership being the common element shared by its various forms.

Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and a capitalist economy. The protocols and norms used to accomplish this involve a commitment to representative and participatory democracy, measures for income redistribution and regulation of the economy in the general interest and welfare state provisions. Social democracy thus aims to create the conditions for capitalism to lead to greater democratic, egalitarian and solidaristic outcomes. Due to longstanding governance by social democratic parties and their influence on socioeconomic policy development in the Nordic countries, in policy circles social democracy has become associated with the Nordic model in the latter part of the 20th century.

History

The party was formed in 1994 by merging 19 left-wing parties, led by the League of Communists – Movement for Yugoslavia (SK-PJ). It was led by Mirjana Marković, originally holding the title of President of the Directorate.

League of Communists – Movement for Yugoslavia

League of Communists – Movement for Yugoslavia was a political party formed by members of the Yugoslav People's Army in 1990 active in Serbia. The party was based on former party organizations within the army. In 1994 it joined the Yugoslav Left party led by Mirjana Marković.

Mirjana "Mira" Marković was a Serbian politician and wife of former Yugoslav and Serbian president Slobodan Milošević. She was the president of the now defunct Yugoslav Left political party from 2002 to 2003. Marković, who was wanted for fraud charges, lived under political asylum in Russia from February 2003 to her death on 14 April 2019.

Unlike the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS) and its ally the Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (DPS) which were direct descendants of the League of Communists of Serbia and Montenegro respectively, the Yugoslav Left was an all-Yugoslavian party with members from both constituent bodies. [5]

Socialist Party of Serbia political party

The Socialist Party of Serbia is a political party in Serbia that identifies as a democratic socialist and social democratic party. The Socialist Party of Serbia was the direct descendant of the League of Communists of Serbia. Throughout its existence, the party has utilised some nationalist rhetoric and themes, and has therefore been labelled a Serbian nationalist party, although the SPS has never identified itself as such.

Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro political party

The Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro is the ruling political party in Montenegro. It has been so since the introduction of a multi-party system in 1990.

League of Communists of Serbia

The League of Communists of Serbia, founded as the Communist Party of Serbia in 1945, was the Serbian branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, the sole legal party of Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1990. It changed its name from KPS to SKS in 1952. Under a new constitution ratified in 1974, greater power was devolved to the various republic level branches. In the late 1980s, the party was taken over by a faction endorsing Slobodan Milošević to become leader of the party. Milošević appeased nationalists in Serbia by promising to reduce the level of autonomy within the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. This policy increased ethnic tensions with the other republics and nationalities. During the early 1990s, the growing ethnic tensions between the republics of Yugoslavia led to the breakup of the federal party.

Despite these differences, the JUL and the SPS collaborated closely. The JUL generally did not take part in elections separately. Several members of the SPS crossed the floor to JUL at some stage. [6]

Crossing the floor political term

In politics, crossing the floor is when a politician changes their allegiance or votes against their party in a Westminster system parliament. Crossing the floor may be voting against the approved party lines, or changing to another party after being elected while a member of a first party. While these practices are legally permissible, crossing the floor can lead to controversy and media attention. As well, voting against party lines may lead to consequences such as losing a position or being ejected from the party caucus.

On 24 and 25 March 1995, the party held its 1st Congress at the Sava Center in Belgrade, and theatre director Ljubiša Ristić was elected President. [7]

Belgrade City in Serbia

Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkan Peninsula. The urban area of the City of Belgrade has a population of 1.23 million, while nearly 1.7 million people live within its administrative limits.

In 1996, the JUL joined the Left Coalition with the SPS and New Democracy. Following the 1997 election, the party had 20 MPs and representatives in various local assemblies. It held five ministerial posts in the second cabinet of Mirko Marjanović.

At the 2nd Congress in Kragujevac on 6 April 2002, Marković was elected President of the Yugoslav Left. [8]

It had a minimal presence in Montenegrin politics. At its peak, the JUL was part of the Patriotic Coalition for Yugoslavia in the 2002 election with the People's Socialist Party of Montenegro, and the Serbian Radical Party. The coalition won less than 3% of the vote and no seats.

In the 2003 election in Serbia, the JUL received only 0.1% of the vote. [9]

The party officially ceased to exist on 12 April 2010. Its properties and some activities are carried on by the Better Serbia non-governmental organization, led by Dragana Kuzmanović-Janičić. [10]

International cooperation

The JUL visited the gatherings of several left-wing political groups in Europe and worldwide. It held ties with the Communist Party of China, the Communist Party of Cuba and the Workers' Party of Korea. [6]

Voter base

Its social base was mainly amongst peasants and pauperized workers, but it also had members from the so-called nouveau riche of Serbia during Slobodan Milošević's terms in office, and many high-ranked civil servants and army staff. During the 1990s, opponents of Milošević's government sometimes referred to the JUL "a branch of Communist Party of China in Yugoslavia". [6]

Presidents of the Yugoslav Left (1994–2003)

No.PresidentBirth–DeathTerm startTerm end
1 Nenad Đorđević 1949–23 July 199425 March 1995
2 Ljubiša Ristić 1947–25 March 19954 April 2002
3 Mirjana Marković 1942–20194 April 2002March 2003
(de facto)

Electoral results

Serbian Parliamentary elections

YearPopular vote% of popular vote# of seatsSeat changeCoalitionsGovernment
1997 1,418,03634.26%
20 / 250
Increase2.svg 20 Left Coalition government
2000 14,3240.38%
0 / 250
Decrease2.svg 20non-parliamentary
2003 3,7710.09%
0 / 250
Steady2.svgnon-parliamentary

Montenegrin Parliamentary elections

YearPopular vote% of popular vote# of seatsSeat changeCoalitionsGovernment
1996 1,6680.55%
0 / 250
Steady2.svgnon-parliamentary
1998 3450.10%
0 / 250
Steady2.svgnon-parliamentary
2001 1900.05%
0 / 250
Steady2.svgnon-parliamentary
2002 9,9112.84%
0 / 250
Steady2.svg Patriotic Coalition for Yugoslavia non-parliamentary

Related Research Articles

Politics of Serbia and Montenegro

The Politics of Serbia and Montenegro took place in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic with a multi-party system, and after 2003, in the context of a confederation. The president was both head of state and, following constitutional reforms in 2003, head of government. Executive power was exercised by the Council of Ministers. Federal legislative power was vested in the Yugoslav Parliament

Parliamentary elections were held in Serbia on 28 December 2003 to elect members of the National Assembly. Serbia was one of the two federal units of Serbia and Montenegro, formerly known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Socialist Peoples Party of Montenegro

The Socialist People's Party of Montenegro is a socially conservative social-democratic opposition political party in Montenegro. It is part of the Key Coalition, an opposition political alliance in Montenegro. It has 2 of 3 MPs which it won in the 2016 parliamentary election. The party is pro-European Union and anti-NATO.

Vuk Drašković Serbian politician

Vuk Drašković is Serbian writer and politician. He is the leader of the Serbian Renewal Movement, and served as the Deputy Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of both Serbia and Montenegro and Serbia.

Ivica Dačić Serbian politician

Ivica Dačić is a Serbian politician who has been the Minister of Foreign Affairs since April 2014. He is the leader of the Socialist Party of Serbia.

Coalition for a European Montenegro was the ruling political alliance in Montenegro headed by Milo Đukanović's Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS).

Serbian Renewal Movement political party

The Serbian Renewal Movement is a national liberal and monarchist political party in Serbia.

Socialist Republic of Serbia federated state of Yugoslavia 1943 and 1992

The Socialist Republic of Serbia, previously known as Federal State of Serbia and People’s Republic of Serbia, commonly referred to as Socialist Serbia, or simply as Serbia, was one of the six constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It was the largest constituent republic in terms of population and territory. Its capital, Belgrade, was also the federal capital of Yugoslavia.

Radoman Božović is a Serbian politician and former Prime Minister of Serbia.

Together for Change was a populist political alliance in Montenegro that existed from 2001 to 2006, originally known as Together for Yugoslavia. It based itself upon the necessity for a united Yugoslav state with Serbia. Predrag Bulatović was its wingleader. The pro-European semi-conservative coalition also based itself on economic and democratic reforms, bringing down of the authoritarian regime of Milo Đukanović.

Nikola Šainović is a Serbian politician. Being a close associate of Slobodan Milošević, he held several important state functions of Serbia and FR Yugoslavia during the 1990s. He has been a member of the Socialist Party of Serbia since the party's foundation.

Slobodan Milošević Yugoslavian and Serbian politician

Slobodan Milošević was a Yugoslav politician and the President of Serbia from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000. He also led the Socialist Party of Serbia from its foundation in 1990. He rose to power as Serbian President after he and his supporters claimed the need to reform the 1974 Constitution of Yugoslavia due to both the marginalization of Serbia and its political incapacity to deter Albanian separatist unrest in the Serbian province of Kosovo.

The Left Coalition was a coalition of left-wing political parties in Serbia for the 1996 Yugoslavian parliamentary election and then for the 1997 Serbian general election. The coalition was made up of the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS), Yugoslav Left (JUL) and New Democracy (ND). It was led by Slobodan Milošević the leader of SPS, but also main actors were Mirjana Marković the leader of Yugoslav Left and Dušan Mihajlović the leader of New Democracy. Following the 1997 election, it formed a coalition government with the Serbian Radical Party (SRS). In 1998 ND left the coalition and after the defeat in the 2000 Yugoslavian general election the Left Coalition was disbanded.

Dušan Bajatović Serbian politician

Dušan Bajatović is a politician, entrepreneur, and administrator in Serbia. He has served in the National Assembly of Serbia since 2007 as a member of the Socialist Party of Serbia and is a former member of both the Assembly of Serbia and Montenegro and the Assembly of Vojvodina. Once an ally of Slobodan Milošević, he was later a prominent advocate of moving the Socialist Party away from Milošević's legacy. Since 2008, he has been the general manager of the powerful public utility Srbijagas.

Nada Kostić is a medical doctor, academic, and politician in Serbia. She briefly served as Serbia's minister of health in the transitional government that was established after the fall of Slobodan Miloševic's administration in 2000. Kostić was awarded a mandate for the National Assembly of Serbia on 17 April 2018. She is a member of the Democratic Party but serves in parliament as an independent deputy.

Dijana Vukomanović is a politician in Serbia. She has served in the National Assembly of Serbia since 2012, initially as a member of the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS) and subsequently with the People's Party. She also serves on the Assembly of the City of Belgrade.

References

  1. Steele, Jonathon (2000). "Yugoslavia's hated regime crumbles". Guardian. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  2. Breuilly, John (2013). The Oxford Handbook of the History of Nationalism. OUP Oxford. p. 527.
  3. Golubović, Zagorka (2003). Politika i svakodnevni život: Srbija 1999-2002. IFDT. p. 225.
  4. 1 2 Janusz Bugajski. Political Parties of Eastern Europe: A Guide to Politics in the Post-Communist Era. Armonk, New York, USA: The Center for Strategic and International Studies. p. 407.
  5. Yugoslav Left leader: "All people in Yugoslavia should live together" [ permanent dead link ]
  6. 1 2 3 "Yugoslav Left". Free Serbia. 10 December 1999. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  7. Thomas 1999, pp. 225-6.
  8. "MIRJANA MARKOVIC IZABRANA ZA PREDSEDNICU JUL-A" (in Serbian). B92. 6 April 2002. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  9. Broad Left entry on JUL Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  10. "Mira Marković danas nema šanse kao politički lider". srbijadanas.com. Srbija Danas. 28 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2018.

Sources