1937 Fox vault fire

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1937 Fox vault fire
Little Ferry facility after fire.jpg
Piles of ruined film cans outside the fire-damaged vault building
DateJuly 9, 1937 (1937-07-09)
Location Little Ferry, New Jersey, United States
Coordinates 40°51′18″N74°02′51″W / 40.8550°N 74.0475°W / 40.8550; -74.0475 Coordinates: 40°51′18″N74°02′51″W / 40.8550°N 74.0475°W / 40.8550; -74.0475
CauseSpontaneous ignition of Nitrate film resulting from heat wave
OutcomeDestruction of archived silent films of the Fox Film Corporation and Educational Pictures
Deaths1
Non-fatal injuries2

A major fire broke out in a 20th Century-Fox film storage facility in Little Ferry, New Jersey, United States on July 9, 1937. Flammable nitrate film had previously contributed to several fires in film industry laboratories, studios, and vaults; although the precise causes were often unknown. In Little Ferry, gases produced by decaying film, combined with high temperatures and inadequate ventilation, resulted in spontaneous combustion.

Contents

One death and two injuries resulted from the fire, which also destroyed all the archived film in the vaults, resulting in the loss of most of the silent films produced by the Fox Film Corporation before 1932. Also destroyed were negatives from Educational Pictures to Belarusfilm (with which Fox was then affiliated) and films of several other studios. The fire brought attention to the potential for decaying nitrate film to spontaneously ignite, and changed the focus of film preservation efforts to include a greater focus on fire safety.

Background

Nitrate film

The early motion-picture industry primarily used film stock made of nitrocellulose, commonly called nitrate film. This film is flammable, and produces its own oxygen supply as it burns. Nitrate fires burn rapidly and cannot be extinguished, as they are capable of burning even under water. Nitrocellulose is also subject to thermal decomposition and hydrolysis, breaking down over time in the presence of high temperatures and moisture. This decaying film stock releases nitrogen oxides that themselves contribute to the decay and make the damaged film burn more easily. Under the right conditions, nitrate film can even spontaneously combust. In part because of substantial variability in the manufacturing of early film, considerable uncertainty exists about the circumstances necessary for self-ignition. [1] Sustained temperatures of 100 °F (38 °C) or higher, large quantities of nitrate film, increased humidity, poor ventilation, and aged or decaying film have all been considered risk factors. Most such fires in film archives have taken place in heat waves during summer months, in closed facilities with limited ventilation, compounding several of these variables. Especially in confined areas, such fires can result in explosions. [2]

Large and dangerous fires sometimes resulted. On May 4, 1897, one of the first major fires involving nitrate film began when a Lumière projector caught fire at the Bazar de la Charité in Paris. The resulting blaze caused 126 deaths. In the United States, a series of fires occurred at industry facilities. The Lubin Manufacturing Company's vault in Philadelphia exploded on June 13, 1914, followed on December 9 by a fire that destroyed Thomas Edison's laboratory complex in West Orange, New Jersey. [upper-alpha 1] The New York studio of the Famous Players Film Company burned in September 1915; [3] in July 1920, the shipping facility of its corporate successor, Famous Players-Lasky, was destroyed by a fire in Kansas City, Missouri, despite construction intended to minimize that risk. [4] [5] The United Film Ad Service vault, also in Kansas City, burned on August 4, 1928, and a fire was reported at Pathé Exchange nine days later. In October 1929, the Consolidated Film Industries facility was badly damaged by a nitrate fire. [6] [7] Spontaneous combustion was not proven to have occurred in any of these fires, and may not have been recognized as possible before a 1933 study determined that the temperatures necessary for nitrate film to self-ignite had been overestimated. [1]

Little Ferry

In the earlier 20th century nearby Fort Lee on the Hudson Palisades was home to many film studios of America's first motion picture industry. [8] When Little Ferry, New Jersey, contractor William Fehrs was hired to construct a film storage facility in 1934, he designed the structure to be fireproof. The building had 12-inch (30 cm) brick outer walls and a reinforced concrete roof. Internally, it was divided into 48 individual vaults, [9] each enclosed behind a steel door and separated by 8-inch (20 cm) brick interior walls. [10] The local fire department confirmed Fehrs's fireproofing. [11] However, it had neither a fire sprinkler system nor mechanical ventilation, and no security guard was employed to watch the facility. [9] [10] Despite the potential fire danger of stored film, the building was located in a residential neighborhood. [10]

Film processing company DeLuxe Laboratories owned the building [12] and rented it to 20th Century-Fox to store the silent films acquired from Fox Film Corporation after its merger with Twentieth Century Pictures. [13]

Fire

Footage of the fire, taken by the chief of the Little Ferry Fire Department

Northern New Jersey experienced a heat wave in July 1937, with daytime temperatures of 100 °F (38 °C) and warm nights. The sustained heat contributed to nitrate decomposition in the film vaults, and the building's ventilation was inadequate to prevent a dangerous buildup of gases. At some time shortly after 2:00 a.m. on July 9, spontaneous ignition occurred in the vault at the building's northwest corner. [10] Local truck driver Robert Davison observed flames coming from one of the structure's window vents, and within five minutes, used a municipal fire alarm call box to report the fire. [10] [11]

Davison then attempted to awaken the residents of the surrounding houses, many of whom were already alerted to the situation by the noise and intense heat. [10] [11] As the contents of additional vaults ignited, bursts of flame shot out 100 feet (30 m) horizontally across the ground from the windows, and a similar distance into the air from the building's roof vents. [10] [13] When the fire spread to the vaults in the south and east of the building, they exploded, damaging the brickwork and blowing out window frames. [10] Anna Greeves and her two sons, John and Charles, [11] were caught in a "sheet of flame" while attempting to flee the area. All three were seriously burned; 13-year-old Charles eventually died from his injuries on July 19. [10] Other families were able to escape unharmed as the fire spread to five neighboring residences and destroyed two vehicles. [11] [14]

Little Ferry firefighters first arrived at 2:26, followed by companies from Hawthorne, Ridgefield Park, River Edge, and South Hackensack. [10] [11] It took 150 men employing 14 hose streams to put the fire out by 5:30. [10] All the film in the facility was destroyed; more than 40,000 reels of negatives and prints burned to ashes inside their film cans. [9] [10] The building was also badly damaged. Exploding vaults had destroyed segments of both the exterior walls and interior partitions and had deformed the structure's concrete roof. [10] Total property damage was estimated at $150,000–200,000. [upper-alpha 2] [10] [14] Fifty-seven truckloads of burned film were hauled from the site to have their silver content extracted. Each can contained about five cents' worth of silver; [13] the salvaged metal returned $2,000. [upper-alpha 3] [9]

Legacy

Damage to 361 Main Street, the residence closest to the vaults 361 Main Street following the Fox vault fire.jpg
Damage to 361 Main Street, the residence closest to the vaults

Although 20th Century-Fox officials at the time remarked that "only old films" were destroyed, [14] the fire is now understood as a significant loss of American film heritage. Motion picture historian Anthony Slide called the destruction of the Fox vault "the most tragic" American nitrate fire. [13] The highest-quality examples of every Fox film produced prior to 1932 were destroyed; all known copies of many movies had been stored in the facility. [9] Films lost to the fire include pictures starring Theda Bara, Shirley Mason, William Farnum, and many others. [15] Tom Mix made eighty-five pictures with Fox, most of which were archived exclusively at Little Ferry. [16] The grandfather of director Blake Edwards, J. Gordon Edwards, had directed all the highest grossing epics for Fox and all the masters for his films were lost (though a few survive as low quality prints which were housed elsewhere). For some actors, such as Valeska Suratt, none of their films survive; [17] "there are entire careers that don't exist because of [the fire]," according to Museum of Modern Art film curator Dave Kehr. [18] Because some copies were located elsewhere, some of Fox's silent films survive as lower-quality prints or fragments but more than 75% of Fox's feature films from before 1930 are completely lost. [15]

The Little Ferry vaults also held works by other film studios that had contracted with Fox for distribution. Educational Pictures lost more than two thousand silent negatives and prints; [12] [19] the company's sound films survived. Also present was the original negative of D. W. Griffith's Way Down East (which Fox had purchased with the intent of remaking), [9] the negative for the controversial Christie Productions sponsored film The Birth of a Baby [20] and films produced by Sol Lesser under his imprints Atherton Productions, Peck's Bad Boy Corporation, and Principal Pictures. Archival material intended for the Museum of Modern Art's Film Library was lost as well. [21]

Map of the area involved in the fire, including neighboring dwellings (marked "Dwg") Diagram of the 1937 Fox vault fire.jpg
Map of the area involved in the fire, including neighboring dwellings (marked "Dwg")

The destruction of the Little Ferry facility spurred an interest in fire safety as an aspect of film preservation. [1] Unlike previous large nitrate-film fires, investigators determined that the spontaneous combustion of decomposing film stock was responsible. They suggested that the older nitrocellulose film in the archive was of lower quality than their current film, and thus more unstable. [1] The Society of Motion Picture Engineers' Committee on Preservation of Film, three months after the vault fire, cited "recent and rather extensive film fires" as evidence that existing preservation efforts had failed to adequately address the risk of fire. [22] More heavily reinforced film vaults were suggested, to prevent fires in a single vault from destroying entire archival facilities. Film storage cabinets with ventilation and cooling systems were also proposed, as was further research into improving the quality of cellulose acetate film to encourage its use as a safer replacement for nitrate film. [23] [24] By the 1950s, the use of nitrate film in the United States had been essentially eliminated. [25]

See also

Notes

  1. Now the site of the Thomas Edison National Historical Park
  2. Approximately $2.67 million 3.56 million in 2019 dollars
  3. About $35.6 thousand in 2019 dollars

Related Research Articles

The Fox Film Corporation was an American company that produced motion pictures, formed by William Fox on February 1, 1915. It was the corporate successor to his earlier Greater New York Film Rental Company and Box Office Attractions Film Company.

Silent film Film with no synchronized recorded dialogue

A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound. In silent films for entertainment, the plot may be conveyed by the use of title cards, written indications of the plot and key dialogue lines. The idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, the introduction of synchronized dialogue became practical only in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the advent of the Vitaphone system.

Nitrocellulose Highly flammable compound

Nitrocellulose is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid, or to a mixture of nitric acid and another acid, usually either hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid, or to another powerful nitrating agent. One of its first major uses was as guncotton, a replacement for gun powder as propellant in firearms. It was also used to replace gunpowder as a low-order explosive in mining and other applications.

Film preservation

Film preservation, or film restoration, describes a series of ongoing efforts among film historians, archivists, museums, cinematheques, and non-profit organizations to rescue decaying film stock and preserve the images they contain. In the widest sense, preservation assures that a movie will continue to exist in as close to its original form as possible.

Lost film Feature or short film that is no longer known to exist

A lost film is a feature or short film that is no longer known to exist in any studio archives, private collections, or public archives, such as the U.S. Library of Congress.

Preservation of documents, pictures, recordings, digital content, etc., is a major aspect of archival science. It is also an important consideration for people who are creating time capsules, family history, historical documents, scrapbooks and family trees. Common storage media are not permanent, and there are few reliable methods of preserving documents and pictures for the future.

Packard Humanities Institute American non-profit foundation

The Packard Humanities Institute (PHI) is a non-profit foundation, established in 1987, and located in Los Altos, California, which funds projects in a wide range of conservation concerns in the fields of archaeology, music, film preservation, and historic conservation, plus Greek epigraphy, with an aim to create tools for basic research in the Humanities.

Film base

A film base is a transparent substrate which acts as a support medium for the photosensitive emulsion that lies atop it. Despite the numerous layers and coatings associated with the emulsion layer, the base generally accounts for the vast majority of the thickness of any given film stock. Since the late 19th century, there have been three major types of film base in use: nitrate, acetate, and polyester.

<i>The Queen of Sheba</i> (1921 film) 1921 film directed by J. Gordon Edwards

The Queen of Sheba (1921) is a silent drama film produced by Fox studios about the story of the ill-fated romance between Solomon, King of Israel, and the Queen of Sheba. Written and directed by J. Gordon Edwards, it starred Betty Blythe as the Queen and Fritz Leiber Sr. as King Solomon. The film is well known amongst silent film buffs for the risqué costumes worn by Blythe, as evidenced by several surviving stills taken during the production. Only a short fragment of the film survives.

Spontaneous combustion

Spontaneous combustion or spontaneous ignition is a type of combustion which occurs by self-heating, followed by thermal runaway and finally, autoignition.

Cosmopolitan Productions, also often referred to as Cosmopolitan Pictures, was an American film company based in New York City from 1918 to 1923 and Hollywood until 1938.

Upstream is a 1927 American comedy film directed by John Ford. A "backstage drama", the film is about a Shakespearean actor and a woman from a knife-throwing act. The film was considered to be a lost film, but in 2009 a print was discovered in the New Zealand Film Archive.

The 1965 MGM vault fire was a fire that erupted in Vault 7, a storage facility, at the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studio (MGM) backlot in Culver City, California, in 1965. It was caused by an electrical short explosively igniting stored nitrate film. The initial explosion reportedly killed at least one person, and the resulting fire destroyed the entire contents of the vault, archived prints of silent and early sound films produced by MGM and its predecessors. The only known copies of hundreds of films were destroyed.

<i>The Soul of Broadway</i>

The Soul of Broadway is a 1915 American silent crime drama film produced and distributed by the Fox Film Corporation and directed by Herbert Brenon. Popular vaudeville performer Valeska Suratt starred in the film which was also her silent screen debut. The Soul of Broadway is now considered lost. It is one of many silent films that were destroyed in a fire at Fox's film storage facility in Little Ferry, New Jersey in July 1937.

<i>A Rich Mans Plaything</i>

A Rich Man's Plaything is a 1917 American silent drama film produced and distributed by the Fox Film Corporation. The film starred Valeska Suratt in her final film role. A Rich Man's Plaything is now considered lost. It is one of many silent films that were destroyed in a fire at Fox's film storage facility in Little Ferry, New Jersey in July 1937.

<i>Lifes Shop Window</i> 1914 silent drama film directed by J. Gordon Edwards

Life's Shop Window is a 1914 American silent drama film directed by J. Gordon Edwards and starring Claire Whitney and Stuart Holmes. It is a film adaptation of the 1907 novel of the same name by Annie Sophie Cory. The film depicts the story of English orphan Lydia Wilton (Whitney), and her husband Bernard Chetwin (Holmes). Although Wilton's marriage is legitimate, it was conducted in secret, and she is accused of having a child out of wedlock. Forced to leave England, she reunites with her husband in Arizona. There, she is tempted by infidelity with an old acquaintance, Eustace Pelham, before seeing the error of her ways and returning to her family.

<i>It Is the Law</i> 1924 film by J. Gordon Edwards

It Is the Law is a 1924 American silent mystery film directed by J. Gordon Edwards and starring Arthur Hohl, Herbert Heyes, and Mona Palma. It is a film adaptation of the 1922 Broadway play of the same name by Elmer Rice, itself based on a novel by Hayden Talbot. The film depicts the story of Ruth Allen (Palma), who marries Justin Victor (Heyes) over competing suitor Albert Woodruff (Hohl). Seeking revenge for this slight, Woodruff fakes his own death by killing a drifter who resembles him, and frames Victor for the murder. Woodruff attempts to renew his courtship of Allen by using an assumed identity, but she sees through his disguise. Once Victor is freed from prison, he kills Woodruff and goes free because a conviction would constitute double jeopardy.

Milt Shefter

Milton R. Shefter is a Los Angeles-based film and media-asset archivist and preservationist. He is best known for the creation, design, and management of the extensive Paramount Pictures Asset Protection Program, and for co-authoring the 2007 report from the Science and Technology Council of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, The Digital Dilemma, as well as its 2012 followup, The Digital Dilemma 2.

The conservation and restoration of film is the physical care and treatment of film-based materials. These include photographic film and motion picture film stock.

<i>The Net</i> (1923 film) 1923 American silent film

The Net is a 1923 American silent melodrama film directed by J. Gordon Edwards and starring Barbara Castleton, Raymond Bloomer, and Albert Roscoe. It is a film adaptation of the 1919 Broadway play of the same name, itself based on the novel The Woman's Law by Maravene Thompson. The film depicts the story of Allayne Norman (Castleton) and her husband Bruce (Bloomer). Bruce commits murder and convinces Allayne to help him blame the crime on a man suffering from amnesia (Roscoe). After Bruce dies and the man recovers, he marries Allayne.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Heckman, Heather (2010). "Burn after viewing, or, fire in the vaults: nitrate decomposition and combustibility". American Archivist. 73 (2): 483–506. doi: 10.17723/aarc.73.2.n2746075wr84356t .
  2. Hudson, M. C.; MacLaren, Robert (August 31, 1979). Nitrate film testing for the National Archives: December 1978 fire investigation (Report). Naval Ordnance Station, Indian Head, Maryland. NOS-IHTR-567.
  3. "Players' Film fire lessons". The Weekly Underwriter. 93 (18): 562. October 30, 1915.
  4. "Fire losses of the week". Fire and Water Engineering. 68 (5): 252. August 4, 1920.
  5. Scanlan, Ernest A. (August 25, 1920). "Film fire in 12-Story Kansas City building". Fire and Water Engineering. 68 (8): 401, 403.
  6. Slide 2000, pp. 11–13.
  7. "Crafting a new exhibit: Edison's fire companies and the Great Fire of 1914". Thomas Edison National Historical Park. September 8, 2013. Archived from the original on April 25, 2015. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
  8. Koszarski, Richard (2004), Fort Lee: The Film Town, John Libbey Publishing, ISBN   0-86196-653-8
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Pierce, David (1997). "The legion of the condemned – why American silent films perished". Film History. 9 (1): 5–22.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 "Fox Film storage fire". Quarterly of the National Fire Protection Agency. 31 (2): 136–142. 1937.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "$45,000 fire drives families from homes in Little Ferry". Bergen Evening Record. 48 (28): 1–2. July 9, 1937. Archived from the original on January 26, 2019.
  12. 1 2 "Trustee asks $500,000 for films lost in fire". The Film Daily. 79 (66): 2. April 4, 1941. Archived from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
  13. 1 2 3 4 Slide 2000, p. 13.
  14. 1 2 3 "Fox N. J. film storage plant swept by flames". The Film Daily. 72 (8): 2. July 10, 1937. Archived from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
  15. 1 2 Solomon 2011, p. 1.
  16. Birchard 1993, p. 133.
  17. Pratt 1982, p. 3.
  18. Jones, Kristin M. (June 21, 2018). "'William Fox Presents: Restorations and Rediscoveries from the Fox Film Corporation' review". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on November 10, 2018. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
  19. Neibaur 2010, p. 80.
  20. "'Life' banned for "Birth of a Baby" pictures". Motion Picture Herald. 131 (3): 18. April 16, 1938. Archived from the original on April 27, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
  21. Koszarski 2005, p. 339.
  22. "Report of the Committee on Preservation of Film". Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers. 30 (3): 300–302. 1938. doi: 10.5594/J14681 .
  23. Bradley, John G. (1938). "Changing aspects of the film-storage problem". Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers. 30 (3): 303–317. doi:10.5594/J14682.
  24. Maines 2013, p. 66.
  25. Harvey & Mahard 2014, p. 186.

Bibliography