Burdur

Last updated
Burdur
Municipality

Namik Kemal Street, Burdur.jpg

Namık Kemal Avenue in central Burdur
Turkey adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Burdur
Coordinates: 37°43′00″N30°17′00″E / 37.71667°N 30.28333°E / 37.71667; 30.28333 Coordinates: 37°43′00″N30°17′00″E / 37.71667°N 30.28333°E / 37.71667; 30.28333
Country Turkey
Province Burdur
Government
  Mayor Ali Orkun Ercengiz (CHP)
Area [1]
  District 1,450.98 km2 (560.23 sq mi)
Population (2012) [2]
   Urban 72,377
  District 96,816
  District density 67/km2 (170/sq mi)
Website www.burdur-bld.gov.tr

Burdur is a city southwestern Turkey and the seat of the Burdur Province of Turkey. It is located at 37°43′13″N30°17′27″E / 37.7202778°N 30.2908333°E / 37.7202778; 30.2908333 , on the shore of Lake Burdur. Its estimated 2010 population is 78,389. [3]

Burdur Province Province of Turkey in Mediterranean

Burdur Province is a province of Turkey, located in the southwest and bordering Muğla and Antalya to the south, Denizli to the west, Afyon to the north, and Isparta to the east. It has an area of 6,887 km2 and a population of 258,868. The provincial capital is Burdur city.

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Ankara is its capital but Istanbul is the country's largest city. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Lake Burdur lake

Lake Burdur is a large saline lake of tectonic origin, positioned at the frontier between Burdur and Isparta provinces, in southwestern Turkey. It is located at around 37.75°N 30.18°E. It has an area of 250 km2 and maximum depth variously reported at between 50 and 110 m. Water level in the lake fluctuates. Lake Burdur is also an important wetland site for many bird species and is designated a Ramsar site.

Contents

History

Ancient history

Whilst there is evidence of habitation in the province dating back to 6500 BC, the earliest sign of habitation in the city itself dates to Early Bronze Age. Artifacts from this period have been found in the site of today's railway station. In antiquity, the area was part of the region of Pisidia. It has been proposed that the city of Burdur has changed location a number of times; the ancient city of Limnombria ("Lake City") was closer to Lake Burdur than the modern city. It is known that in the Byzantine era, the city existed with the name Polydorion (Greek : Πολυδώριον), from which the current name is derived. [4] No remains of Polydorion survive to this day. [5]

Bronze Age Prehistoric period and age studied in archaeology, part of the Holocene Epoch

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies.

Pisidia region of ancient Asia Minor

Pisidia was a region of ancient Asia Minor located north of Lycia, bordering Caria, Lydia, Phrygia and Pamphylia, and corresponding roughly to the modern-day province of Antalya in Turkey. Among Pisidia's settlements were Antioch(ia in Pisidia), Termessos, Cremna, Sagalassos, Etenna, Neapolis, Selge, Tyriacum, Laodiceia Katakekaumene and Philomelium.

Byzantine Empire Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical exonyms; its citizens continued to refer to their empire simply as the Roman Empire, or Romania (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans".

Turkish settlement and the Hamidids

The history of the urban development of Burdur is generally held to begin with the Turkish settlement after the Seljuq victory at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. In the late 11th century, the Kınalı tribe of the Oghuz Turks captured the Burdur area and settled there. Turks became the majority of the population of the area after 1211, establishing a number of villages in addition to expanding the town. [6] The first Turkish settlement was in an area known as Hamam Bendi that had a lower elevation than today's city but was farther to the lake than the ancient town of Limnombria. These residents used the site of today's Grand Mosque of Burdur as an open marketplace, known as Alanpazarı. Realising the high incidence of malaria in the area they had settled, these residents then moved uphill, away from the lake. [4] These first residents had not submitted to any state, but Kilij Arslan II, the Seljuq Sultan of Rum, captured the area in 1177 and imposed his sovereignty over the local tribes. [7] The town remained under the undisputed sovereignty of the Sultanate of Rum between 1206 and 1260, when it was captured by the Mongol Empire. Developing commerce in the port of Antalya increased the significance of Burdur as a centre of commerce. Tragacanth obtained from the mountains of Psidia, wine from Kütahya, wax, wood and tar from many parts of Anatolia passed through Burdur, in exchange of which Egyptian spices, cotton and sugar was traded. [6]

Battle of Manzikert battle between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuq Turks of 1071

The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on 26 August 1071 near Manzikert, theme of Iberia. The decisive defeat of the Byzantine army and the capture of the Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes played an important role in undermining Byzantine authority in Anatolia and Armenia, and allowed for the gradual Turkification of Anatolia. Many of the Turks, who had been, during the 11th century, travelling westward, saw the victory at Manzikert as an entrance to Asia Minor.

Oghuz Turks

The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family. In the 8th century, they formed a tribal confederation conventionally named the Oghuz Yabgu State in central Asia. The name Oghuz is a Common Turkic word for "tribe". Byzantine sources call the Oghuz the Uzes. By the 10th century, Islamic sources were calling them Muslim Turkmens, as opposed to shamanist or Buddhist. By the 12th century this term had passed into Byzantine usage and the Oghuzes were overwhelmingly Muslim.

Malaria mosquito-transmitted disease

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, tiredness, vomiting, and headaches. In severe cases it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma, or death. Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. If not properly treated, people may have recurrences of the disease months later. In those who have recently survived an infection, reinfection usually causes milder symptoms. This partial resistance disappears over months to years if the person has no continuing exposure to malaria.

In 1300, the Hamidids under Dündar Bey captured Burdur. Dündar Bey had the Grand Mosque of Burdur built around a hilly area in 1300, and the town subsequently developed around the mosque. The Hamidids administered Burdur as a district under the town of Eğirdir. The Ilkhanate then captured Burdur in 1324 under the governor of Anatolia, Timurtash. Dündar Bey's son, İshak Çelebi, recaptured Burdur in 1328. [4] Traveller Ibn Battuta visited the town in 1330. In the account of his visit, he described Burdur as a town blessed with natural beauty and a number of orchards and farms, centred around the Burdur Castle near the Grand Mosque. No trace of the castle remains today except for the names of some of the streets, indicating that with the lack of a strategic requirement for a castle, it was gradually destroyed. The account also indicates the presence of a guild of ahis controlling commerce and production. By comparing the description of Burdur with the presentation of other cities such as Eğirdir, Isparta and Denizli, it can be deduced that Burdur was a relatively minor urban centre with limited commerce. [6] It was, nevertheless, still a stop on the trade route between Konya, the cities of the Black Sea and the ports of the Aegean Sea. [8]

Hamidids 14th century Anatolian beylik

Hamidids or Hamed Dynasty also known as the Beylik of Hamid, was one of the 14th century Anatolian beyliks that emerged as a consequence of the decline of the Sultanate of Rum and ruled in the regions around Eğirdir and Isparta in southwestern Anatolia.

Dündar Bey was the founder of Hamidoğlu Beylik, an Anatolian beylik in the 14th century.

Eğirdir District of Isparta Province in Turkey

Eğirdir is a town and district of Isparta Province in the Mediterranean region of Turkey.

Burdur was captured by the Ottoman Empire in 1391, when Bayezid I conquered the Hamidids. It was initially a district centre and a small town under the Sanjak of Hamid. As of 1478, Burdur had four quarters, three being Muslim and one being Christian. The largest of these was the Cami ("Mosque") quarter of the Muslims. [4]

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Asia, Europe and Africa

The Ottoman Empire, also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Bayezid I Ottoman sultan

Bayezid I was the Ottoman Sultan from 1389 to 1402. He was the son of Murad I and Gülçiçek Hatun. He built one of the largest armies in the known world at the time and unsuccessfully besieged Constantinople. He adopted the title of Sultan-i Rûm, Rûm being an old Islamic name for the Roman Empire. He decisively defeated the Crusaders at Nicopolis in 1396, and was himself defeated and captured by Timur at the Battle of Ankara in 1402 and died in captivity in March 1403.

The Sanjak of Hamid was a second-level province (sanjak) of the Ottoman Empire.

Climate

Burdur has a continental Mediterranean climate with cold, snowy winters and very hot, long and dry summers.

Mediterranean climate climate zone

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers, with less than 40 mm of precipitation for at least three summer months. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, these are generally located on the western coasts of continents, between roughly 30 and 43 degrees north and south of the equator, typically between oceanic climates towards the poles, and semi-arid and arid climates towards the equator.

Climate data for Burdur
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F) 16.6
(61.9)
19.4
(66.9)
27.8
(82)
30.7
(87.3)
33.5
(92.3)
38.1
(100.6)
40.7
(105.3)
41.0
(105.8)
37.0
(98.6)
32.4
(90.3)
25.6
(78.1)
20.5
(68.9)
41
(105.8)
Average high °C (°F) 6.9
(44.4)
8.5
(47.3)
12.8
(55)
17.6
(63.7)
23.1
(73.6)
28.2
(82.8)
32.0
(89.6)
32.2
(90)
27.8
(82)
21.4
(70.5)
14.0
(57.2)
8.2
(46.8)
19.4
(66.9)
Average low °C (°F) −1.1
(30)
−0.7
(30.7)
1.9
(35.4)
5.9
(42.6)
9.9
(49.8)
13.9
(57)
17.0
(62.6)
16.8
(62.2)
12.7
(54.9)
8.2
(46.8)
3.5
(38.3)
0.6
(33.1)
7.4
(45.3)
Record low °C (°F) −14.0
(6.8)
−13.0
(8.6)
−11.6
(11.1)
−7.0
(19.4)
−0.4
(31.3)
5.2
(41.4)
9.7
(49.5)
10.2
(50.4)
4.4
(39.9)
−2.0
(28.4)
−9.9
(14.2)
−11.0
(12.2)
−14
(6.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 51.1
(2.012)
39.3
(1.547)
45.0
(1.772)
50.4
(1.984)
39.6
(1.559)
26.0
(1.024)
17.6
(0.693)
9.2
(0.362)
17.8
(0.701)
35.8
(1.409)
42.2
(1.661)
59.1
(2.327)
433.1
(17.051)
Average rainy days 11.0 9.7 10.0 10.7 9.4 5.6 3.5 2.5 3.6 6.3 7.9 10.9 91.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 114.7 137.2 182.9 204 275.9 330 359.6 337.9 273 217 156 93 2,681.2
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [9]

Education

Mehmet Akif Ersoy University campus Mehmet Akif Ersoy University.jpg
Mehmet Akif Ersoy University campus

Mehmet Akif Ersoy University is located in Burdur.

Notable residents

Related Research Articles

Orhan bey of the nascent Ottoman Empire

Orhan Gazi was the second bey of the nascent Ottoman Sultanate from 1323/4 to 1362. He was born in Söğüt, as the son of Osman Gazi and Malhun Hatun. His grandfather was Ertuğrul.

Karamanids former country

The Karamanids or Karamanid dynasty, also known as the Principality of Karaman and Beylik of Karaman, was one of the Islamic Anatolian beyliks, centered in south-central Anatolia around the present-day Karaman Province. From the 13th century until its fall in 1487, the Karamanid dynasty was one of the most powerful Turkish beyliks in Anatolia.

Sultanate of Rum Seljuq Sultanate in Western Anatolia

The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate, Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State or Turkey Seljuk State was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks. The name Rûm was a synonym for Greek, as it remains in modern Turkish, although it derives from the Arabic name for Romans, الرُّومُ ar-Rūm, itself a loan from Greek Ῥωμαῖοι, "Romans"; ie. citizens superordinately to Latin-speakers.

Anatolian beyliks

Anatolian beyliks, sometimes known as Turkmen beyliks, were small principalities in Anatolia governed by Beys, the first of which were founded at the end of the 11th century. A second more extensive period of foundations took place as a result of the decline of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm in the second half of the 13th century.

Isparta Municipality in Turkey

Isparta is a city in western Turkey and the capital of Isparta Province. The city's population was 222,556 in 2010 and its elevation is 1035 m. It is known as the "City of Roses".

Trabzon Province Province of Turkey in East Black Sea

Trabzon Province is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. Located in a strategically important region, Trabzon is one of the oldest trade port cities in Anatolia. Neighbouring provinces are Giresun to the west, Gümüşhane to the southwest, Bayburt to the southeast and Rize to the east. The provincial capital is Trabzon city, and the traffic code is 61. The major ethnic groups are Turks, but the province is also home to a minority of Muslim Pontic Greek speakers, though younger speakers are not always fluent in this language.

Isparta Province Province of Turkey in Mediterranean

Isparta Province is a province in southwestern Turkey. Its adjacent provinces are Afyon to the northwest, Burdur to the southwest, Antalya to the south, and Konya to the east. It has an area of 8,993 km² and a population of 448,298 up from 434,771 (1990). The provincial capital is Isparta.

Aksaray Municipality in Central Anatolia, Turkey

Aksaray is a city in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey and the capital district of Aksaray Province. According to 2009 census figures, the population of the province is 376 907 of which 171,423 live in the city of Aksaray. The district covers an area of 4,589 km2 (1,772 sq mi), and the average elevation is 980 m (3,215 ft), with the highest point being Mt. Hasan at 3,253 m (10,673 ft).

Kırklareli Municipality in Turkey

Kırklareli is a city in the European part of Turkey.

Kütahya Municipality in Aegean, Turkey

Kütahya is a city in western Turkey with 237,804 inhabitants, lying on the Porsuk river, at 969 metres above sea level. It is the capital of Kütahya Province, inhabited by some 564,294 people. The region of Kütahya has large areas of gentle slopes with agricultural land culminating in high mountain ridges to the north and west. The city's Greek name was Kotyaion, Latinized in Roman times as Cotyaeum.

Malkara Place in Tekirdağ, Turkey

Malkara is a town and district of Tekirdağ Province in the Marmara region of Turkey. It is located at 55 km west of Tekirdağ and 190 km from Istanbul. It covers an area of 1,225 km², which makes the district the largest in Tekirdağ. Population of the town is 25,000 with another 36,000 residing in surrounding villages. The mayor is Ulaş Yurdakul (CHP).

Pertek Place in Tunceli, Turkey

Pertek, is a small city and its surrounding district in Tunceli Province of modern Turkey. Pertag, means "tiny fortress" in Armenian.

Beylik of Teke former country

The Anatolian beylik of Teke (1321–1423), with its capital at Antalya, was one of the frontier principalities established by Oghuz Turkish clans after the decline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm.

The Ramadanids, also known as the Ramadanid dynasty, Emirate of Ramadan, Beylik of Adana, and Ramadanid principality, was one of the Anatolian beyliks. Its capital was in Adana. It was one of the frontier emirates established by Oghuz Turkish clans after the decline of Seljuk Sultanate of Rum.

Develi Place in Kayseri, Turkey

Develi is a town and district in Kayseri Province in Central Anatolia Region, Turkey.

Bor, Niğde Place in Niğde, Turkey

Bor is a town and district of Niğde Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey, 14 km (8.7 mi) north of the city of Niğde, on a high plain. The district's population is 59,919 of which 38,320 live in the town of Bor.

Alaiye city-state in modern-day Turkey (1293-1471)

Alaiye (علائیه) is the medieval Seljuq name for Alanya. It refers to the city-state in a specific period and the beylik which developed around there, at times under the Karamanid dynasty. After the 1242 Battle of Köse Dağ, the Seljuqs lost control of the city, and it became semi-autonomous.

Chobanids (beylik)

Chobanids was an Anatolian beylik founded by the dynasty of the same name and controlled the region in and around the northern Central Anatolian city of Kastamonu in the 13th century, ruling as an independent entity in intervals.

Seljuk architecture comprises the building traditions used by the Seljuq dynasty, when it ruled most of the Middle East and Anatolia during the 11th to 13th centuries. After the 11th century, the Seljuks of Rum emerged from the Great Seljuk Empire developing their own architecture, though they were influenced and inspired by the Armenian, Byzantine and Persian architectural traditions.

References

  1. "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. Statistical Institute [ permanent dead link ].
  4. 1 2 3 4 "Burdur". İslam Ansiklopedisi . 6. Türk Diyanet Vakfı. 1992. pp. 426–429.
  5. "Burdur". Büyük Larousse. 4. Milliyet. p. 2012.
  6. 1 2 3 Çetin, Bayram (2007), Burdur kent coğrafyası (PhD thesis) (in Turkish), Atatürk University, pp. 68–74
  7. Atasoy, Sertan (2013), Burdur'un ilçelerindeki Türk dönemi eserleri (Master's thesis) (in Turkish), Pamukkale University, pp. 3–6
  8. Eskikurt, Adnan (2014). "Ortaçağ Anadolu Ticaret Yolları". Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University Journal of the Institute of Social Sciences (33): 15–40.
  9. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-04-30. Retrieved 2011-04-13.