Denizli

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Denizli
Coque de Denizli.jpg
Ceramic statue of Denizli's Rooster, symbol of the city
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Denizli
Location of Denizli
Coordinates: 37°46′N29°05′E / 37.767°N 29.083°E / 37.767; 29.083 Coordinates: 37°46′N29°05′E / 37.767°N 29.083°E / 37.767; 29.083
Country Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
Region Aegean Region
Province Denizli Province
Government
   Mayor Osman Zolan (AKP)
Area
[1]
  District798.75 km2 (308.40 sq mi)
Elevation
324 m (1,063 ft)
Population
(2012) [2]
  Total557,300
  District
554,424
  District density690/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
20x xx
Area code(s) (0090) 258
Licence plate 20
Website [3]

Denizli is an industrial city in the southwestern part of Turkey and the eastern end of the alluvial valley formed by the river Büyük Menderes, where the plain reaches an elevation of about three hundred and fifty metres (1,148 ft). Denizli is located in the country's Aegean Region.

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Contents

The city has a population of about 577,000 (2013 census). This is a jump from 389,000 in 2007, due to the merger of 13 municipalities and 10 villages when the area under Denizli Municipality jurisdiction increased almost fivefold and the population around 50 percent. Denizli (Municipality) is the capital city of Denizli Province.

Denizli Province Province of Turkey in Aegean

Denizli Province is a province of Turkey in Western Anatolia, on high ground above the Aegean coast. Neighbouring provinces are Uşak to the north, Burdur, Isparta, Afyon to the east, Aydın, Manisa to the west and Muğla to the south. It is located between the coordinates 28° 30’ and 29° 30’ E and 37° 12’ and 38° 12’ N. It covers an area of 11,868 km2, and the population is 931,823. The population was 750,882 in 1990. The provincial capital is the city of Denizli.

Provinces of Turkey first-level administrative division of Turkey

Turkey is divided into 81 provinces. Each province is divided into a number of different districts. Each provincial government is seated in the central district. The central district usually bears the name of the province. There are only three exceptions to this naming scheme:

Denizli has seen economic development in the last few decades, mostly due to textile production and exports. [4] [5]

Denizli also attracts visitors to the nearby mineral-coated hillside hot spring of Pamukkale, and with red color thermal water spa hotels Karahayıt, just 5 kilometres (3 miles) north of Pamukkale. Recently, Denizli became a major domestic tourism destination due to the various types of thermal waters in Sarayköy, Central/Denizli (where Karahayıt and Pamukkale towns are located), Akköy (Gölemezli), Buldan (Yenicekent), and Çardak districts.

Pamukkale natural site in Denizli Province in southwestern Turkey

Pamukkale, meaning "cotton castle" in Turkish, is a natural site in Denizli in southwestern Turkey. The area is famous for a carbonate mineral left by the flowing water. It is located in Turkey's Inner Aegean region, in the River Menderes valley, which has a temperate climate for most of the year.

Sarayköy Place in Denizli, Turkey

Sarayköy is a town and district of Denizli Province in Turkey, 20 km west of the city of Denizli, on a plain between mountains and watered by Büyük Menderes River. The area is around 470 km², and the population (2010) is 29,854 of which 18,510 live in the town of Sarayköy, and the rest in surrounding villages.

Akköy, Denizli Place in Denizli, Turkey

Akköy was a town and a district of Denizli Province in the inner Aegean region of Turkey. A large part of the borders of Akköy district are surrounded by the area of the province seat Denizli's central district, to the south and to the east, and Akköy itself was a township depending Denizli directly until 1991, when it was made into a district center by its own right. To the west and the north Akköy district area neighbors those of three other districts of the same province, namely Sarayköy, Buldan and Güney clockwise.

The ancient ruined city of Hierapolis, as well as ruins of the city of Laodicea on the Lycus, the ancient metropolis of Phrygia. Also in the depending of Honaz, about 10 mi (16 km) west of Denizli is, what was, in the 1st century AD, the city of Colossae.

Hierapolis ancient city in Phrygia (now Pamukkale, Turkey)

Hierapolis was an ancient city located on hot springs in classical Phrygia in southwestern Anatolia. Its ruins are adjacent to modern Pamukkale in Turkey and currently comprise an archaeological museum designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Laodicea on the Lycus ancient town in Phrygia, Asia Minor, now Turkey

Laodicea on the Lycus was an ancient city built on the river Lycus (Çürüksu). It was located in the Hellenistic regions of Caria and Lydia, which later became the Roman Province of Phrygia Pacatiana. It is now situated near the modern city of Denizli, Turkey In 2013 the archaeological site was inscribed in the Tentative list of World Heritage Sites in Turkey.

Phrygia ancient kingdom in Anatolia

In classical antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River. After its conquest, it became a region of the great empires of the time.

The weather is hot in Denizli in summers, whereas in winters, it may occasionally be very cold with snow on the mountains that surround the city. Some years, snow can be observed in the urban areas. Springs and autumns are rainy, mild climate, warm.

History

In antiquity, it was an important Greek town, called Attouda (Αττούδα), that existed through the ancient Greek and Roman eras; it was near the cities (Hierapolis and Laodicea on the Lycus) and flourished through the Byzantine period.

Ancient Greek Version of the Greek language used from roughly the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, and Hellenistic period. It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek.

Ancient Rome History of Rome from the 8th-century BC to the 5th-century

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.

The city was conquered by the Turks. The inhabitants of Laodicea were also resettled here in the Seljuk period. [6]

Ibn Battuta visited the city, noting that "In it there are seven mosques for the observance of Friday prayers, and it has splendid gardens, perennial streams, and gushing springs. Most of the artisans there are Greek women, for in it are many Greeks who are subject to the Muslims and who pay dues to the sultan, including the jizyah , and other taxes." [7]

In the 17th century, the Turkish traveler Evliya Çelebi visited Denizli and recorded the town as follows: "The city is called by Turks as (Denizli) (which means has abundant of water sources like sea in Turkish) as there are several rivers and lakes around it. In fact it is a four-day trip from the sea. Its fortress is of square shape built on flat ground. It has no ditches. Its periphery is 470 steps long. It has four gates. These are: painters gate in North, saddle-makers gate in the East, new Mosque gate in the South, and vineyard gate in the West. There are some fifty armed watchmen in the fortress, and they attend the shop. The main city is outside the fortress with 44 districts and 3600 houses. There are 57 small and large mosques and district masjids, 7 madrasahs, 7 children's schools, 6 baths and 17 dervish lodges. As everybody lives in vineyards the upper classes and ordinary people do not flee from each other."[ citation needed ]

The city lived in peace for centuries without being involved in wars in a direct manner. Following World War I during the Independence War, the Greek forces managed to come as close as Sarayköy, a small town 20 km (12 mi) northwest of Denizli, but did not venture into Denizli. The most widespread symbols of Denizli province are of textile industry.[ citation needed ]

Administration

List of districts and 2016 census. [8]

DistrictPopulation (2016)
Merkezefendi 287,852
Pamukkale 337,444
Acıpayam 55,279
Babadağ 6,498
Baklan 5,632
Bekilli 7,045
Beyağaç 6,611
Bozkurt 12,715
Buldan 27,335
Çal 19,431
Çameli 18,238
Çardak 8,798
Çivril 60,721
Güney 10,197
Honaz 32,136
Kale 20,465
Sarayköy 30,173
Serinhisar 14,600
Tavas 44,517
Grand total1,005,687

Climate

Denizli is located in Aegean region of Turkey, where the climate is not uniform. The inland areas, like Çardak, Bozkurt, Çivril, and Çal districts/counties of the province are cooler and have a higher elevation than the seaside, western part of the Province. Therefore, there are climatic differences within the province and even in the Denizli urbanized area. The land is open to winds coming from the Aegean Sea because the mountains are perpendicular to the sea. Winters are rainy or sometimes snowy, but generally mild. [9]

Climate data for Denizli
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)22.6
(72.7)
25.9
(78.6)
30.8
(87.4)
35.8
(96.4)
37.0
(98.6)
42.4
(108.3)
43.9
(111.0)
44.4
(111.9)
41.6
(106.9)
34.4
(93.9)
29.9
(85.8)
26.6
(79.9)
44.4
(111.9)
Average high °C (°F)10.5
(50.9)
12.1
(53.8)
15.8
(60.4)
20.7
(69.3)
26.3
(79.3)
31.2
(88.2)
34.4
(93.9)
34.4
(93.9)
29.9
(85.8)
23.7
(74.7)
17.3
(63.1)
12.2
(54.0)
22.4
(72.3)
Average low °C (°F)2.3
(36.1)
2.8
(37.0)
5.2
(41.4)
9.0
(48.2)
13.2
(55.8)
17.3
(63.1)
20.0
(68.0)
19.7
(67.5)
15.7
(60.3)
11.3
(52.3)
7.0
(44.6)
4.0
(39.2)
10.6
(51.1)
Record low °C (°F)−10.5
(13.1)
−11.4
(11.5)
−7.0
(19.4)
−2.0
(28.4)
2.7
(36.9)
7.9
(46.2)
12.6
(54.7)
11.6
(52.9)
6.6
(43.9)
−0.8
(30.6)
−4.5
(23.9)
−10.4
(13.3)
−11.4
(11.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches)90.3
(3.56)
74.5
(2.93)
63.7
(2.51)
54.2
(2.13)
42.3
(1.67)
25.4
(1.00)
13.4
(0.53)
8.1
(0.32)
13.6
(0.54)
35.0
(1.38)
55.7
(2.19)
89.9
(3.54)
566.1
(22.3)
Average rainy days11.610.811.110.28.64.82.01.73.05.87.612.289.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 114.7120.4176.7204.0282.1336.0365.8341.0276.0204.6141.0102.32,664.6
Source #1: Turkish State Meteorological Service [10]
Source #2: Weather2 [11]

Denizli today

An old house/restaurant in Denizli Denizli evi.jpg
An old house/restaurant in Denizli

Aside from its visitor's attractions, the city of Denizli is known for its textile industry, outlet shopping for clothing, and for connected fields of activity such as the dye industry.[ citation needed ]

Economy

During World War I, Denizli mined chromium. [12]

The textile industry in Denizli grew rapidly in the 1980s and 1990s, both as a domestic market and for exports. Towels, bathrobes, and other home textiles are products associated with Denizli. The biggest firms in the city include Değirmenci and Funika (especially for bathrobes).[ citation needed ]

Denizli, Turkey Akarsu.jpg
Denizli, Turkey

Lifestyle

Denizli is a town with tree-lined main avenues and views of the surrounding mountains from many locations. As the city grew in the 1990s, new compounds of villas have sprung up on the city's outskirts in areas like Çamlık.

In the city itself, air pollution from coal-fired central-heating become a problem in winter. However, with the expanding usage of natural gas, air pollution problem has declined in the elevated parts of the city.

Pamukkale University opened in the 1990s, and now has more than 28,000 students. Many young people still leave to go to university in İzmir, Ankara, or Istanbul.

Culture and entertainment

There are large shops, bars and cafes, and live music, although this is a city that grew recently and is located deep in the countryside. The presence of Pamukkale University improves the cultural amenities of the city.

The region's inhabitants have been influenced by the production of grapes and the wine throughout history. The new wealth in Denizli has been much more rapid than many other places in Turkey in investing in developing an urban culture. Many private clubs and associations are opening up including: The Society for the Protection of the Environment and History of Denizli; The Poets and Poetry Lovers Association; the Pizza Appreciation Group; and the Jazz-rock Local. There is an annual amateur theater festival, attended by groups from Turkey and overseas. Denizli has the second-largest number of ranking chess-players in Turkey, after Istanbul. Also, inspired by the unusually high reports of UFO sightings in the region over the years, one of the world's handful of museums dedicated to ufology was recently opened in Denizli.

Gazi Mustafa Kemal Elementary School Denizli 6581.jpg
Gazi Mustafa Kemal Elementary School

Transportation

Denizli Çardak Airport is about 45 minutes drive from the city center.

The extension of İzmir-Aydın highway to Denizli has been announced for several years. Initial infrastructure was laid in Aydın, but the rest is still forthcoming. The present Aydın-Denizli road, has a very high level of traffic, especially trucks, with each town along the road possessing its own industrial zone.

Places of interest

Notable people

Ancient sites of Denizli

International relations

Twin towns — sister cities

Denizli is twinned with:

See also

Related Research Articles

Colossae was an ancient city of Phrygia in Asia Minor, and one of the most celebrated cities of southern Anatolia. The Epistle to the Colossians, an early Christian text traditionally attributed to Paul the Apostle, is addressed to the church in Colossae. A significant city from the 5th Century BC onwards, it had dwindled in importance by the time of Paul, but was notable for the existence of its local angel cult. It was part of the Roman – and then Byzantine – province of Phrygia Pacatiana, before being destroyed in 1192/3 and its population relocating to nearby Chonai.

Nazilli Place in Aydın, Turkey

Nazilli is the second largest town in Aydın Province in the Aegean region of western Turkey, 47 km (29 mi) east of the city of Aydın, on the road to Denizli.

Kuyucak Place in Aydın, Turkey

Kuyucak is a town and a district of Aydın Province in the Aegean region of Turkey, 58 km (36 mi) from the city of Aydın on the E24 highway that connects İzmir and Denizli, 180 km (112 mi) east of İzmir. Kuyucak is near the larger town of Nazilli.

Güney Place in Denizli, Turkey

Güney is a town and district of Denizli Province in the inner Aegean region of Turkey. Güney district area neighbors those of four other districts of the same province from east to west, clockwise Buldan, Akköy, Denizli central district and Çal and ranges Eşme district of Uşak Province in the north.

Honaz Place in Denizli, Turkey

Honaz is a town and a district of Denizli Province in the Aegean Region. It covers an area of 504 km2 (195 sq mi). The population was 9,830 and 30,530.

Sarıgöl District in Aegean, Turkey

Sarıgöl is a town and district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey. According to the 2000 census, population of the district is 35,621 of which 12,043 live in the town of Sarıgöl. The district covers an area of 357 km2 (138 sq mi), and the town lies at an elevation of 194 m (636 ft).

Acıpayam Place in Denizli, Turkey

Acıpayam is a town and a rural district of Denizli Province in high country between the Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. A plain, watered by two reservoirs, known for growing melons and watermelons, on the road between the city of Denizli and Antalya. It covers an area of 1700 km², and the altitude is 895 m. The district has a population of 57,533 of which 13,700 live in the city of Acipayam.

Babadağ, Denizli Place in Denizli, Turkey

Babadağ, formerly Kadıköy, is a highland town and district of Denizli Province in the Aegean region of Turkey, reached by a steep, winding road uphill from the town of Sarayköy. It was known in antiquity as Salbacos.

Bozkurt, Denizli Town in Aegean, Turkey

Bozkurt is a town and a rural district of Denizli Province in the Aegean Region of Turkey. The town is situated on a plain 52 km (32 mi) east of the city of Denizli. The altitude of the town is 866.8 m, and the district area is around 400 km2 (150 sq mi). The population is 11,738 of which 4,589 live in the small town of Bozkurt itself. It is quite close to the Lake Acıgöl and the neighboring town of Çardak and İnceler Kasabası

Buldan Place in Denizli, Turkey

Buldan is a town and a district of Denizli Province in the inner Aegean Region of Turkey. Buldan district area neighbors to the east and the south three other districts of the same province, namely Güney, Akköy and Sarayköy, and to the west by the areas of three districts of Aydın Province, Buharkent, Kuyucak and Karacasu, and to the northwest by Sarıgöl district of Manisa Province.

Mount Honaz mountain

Mount Honaz, is a mountain and a national park, located in southwestern Turkey, 17 km (11 mi) east of the province seat of Denizli. On April 21, 1995, it was proclaimed as a protected area. Honaz, Denizli's depending township that carries the same name as the mountain, is situated on the mountain slopes. At 2,571 m (8,435 ft), it is the highest mountain in Turkey's Aegean Region.

Attuda, whose site was at present-day Hisarköy, Sarayköy District, Denizli Province, Turkey, was a city in the Roman province of Phrygia Pacatiana.

Ottoman Railway Company

The Ottoman Railway Company, commonly referred to as the İzmir–Aydın Railway, is the oldest railway in Anatolia and second oldest railway in the Ottoman Empire. The railway was built by a British company to transport mineral and fruit from the Aydın plain to the Port of İzmir to be exported.

Ploutonion at Hierapolis

The Ploutonion at Hierapolis or Pluto's Gate was a ploutonion in the ancient city of Hierapolis near Pamukkale in modern Turkey's Denizli Province. The site was discovered in 1965 by Italian archaeologists, who published reports on their excavations throughout the decade. In 2013, it was further explored by Italian archaeologists led by Francesco D'Andria, a professor of archaeology at the University of Salento. As part of a restoration project, a replica of the marble statue of Hades and Cerberus has been placed in its original place. The statue is known to have been there in ancient times.

References

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  13. "Kardeş Şehirler". Bursa Büyükşehir Belediyesi Basın Koordinasyon Merkez. Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
  1. "December 2013 address-based calculation of the Turkish Statistical Institute as presented by citypopulation.de".