Location of Siirt Province in Turkey
|• Governor||Osman Hacıbektaşoğlu|
|• Total||5,406 km2 (2,087 sq mi)|
|• Density||61/km2 (160/sq mi)|
Siirt Province, (Turkish : Siirt ili, Kurdish : Parêzgeha Sêrtê ) is a province of Turkey, located in the southeast. The province borders Bitlis to the north, Batman to the west, Mardin to the southwest, Şırnak to the south, and Van to the east. It has an area of 5,406 km² and a total population of 300,695 (as of 2010). The provincial capital is the city of Siirt. The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority. The current Governor of the Siirt province is Ali Fuat Atik.
In order to Turkify the Kurds of Siirt,Law 1164 was passed in June 1927, which allowed the creation of Inspectorates-General (Umumi Müffetişlik, UM) that governed with martial law under a state of emergency. The Siirt province was included in the so called First Inspectorate General (Umumi Müfettişlik, UM) in which an Inspector General governed with wide-ranging authority of civilian, juridical and military matters. The UM covered the provinces of Hakkâri, Siirt, Van, Mardin, Bitlis, Sanlıurfa, Elaziğ and Diyarbakır. The Inspectorate Generals were dissolved in 1952 during the government of the Democrat Party. Entrance to Siirt province was forbidden to foreigners until 1965.
In July 1987, the Siirt province was included in to the state of emergency region OHAL, which was declared to counter the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), and governed by a supergovernor who was invested with additional powers than a normal governor, including the power to relocate and resettle whole settlements.In December 1990 with the Decree No. 430, the supergovernor and the provincial governors in the OHAL region received immunity against any legal prosecution in connections with actions they made due to the powers they received from Decree No. 430. In November 1999, the state of emergency under which the province was governed was finally ended.
Siirt province is divided into 7 districts (capital district in bold):
Van Province is a province in eastern Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. It is 19,069 km2 in area and had a population of 1,035,418 at the end of 2010. Its adjacent provinces are Bitlis to the west, Siirt to the southwest, Şırnak and Hakkâri to the south, and Ağrı to the north. The capital of the province is the city of Van. The province is considered part of Western Armenia by Armenians and was part of ancient province of Vaspurakan, the region is considered to be the cradle of Armenian civilization. Before Armenian Genocide, Van Province was part of six Armenian vilayets. Modern day majority of the province's population is Kurdish. The current Governor is Mehmet Emin Bilmez.
Muş Province is a province in eastern Turkey. It is 8,196 km2 in area and has a population of 406,886 according to a 2010 estimate, down from 453,654 in 2000. The provincial capital is the city of Muş. Another town in Muş province, Malazgirt (Manzikert), is famous for the Battle of Manzikert of 1071.
Diyarbakır Province, is a province in southeastern Turkey. The province covers an area of 15,355 km2 and its population is 1,528,958. The provincial capital is the city of Diyarbakır. The province has a Kurdish majority and is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan.
Elâzığ Province is a province of Turkey with its seat in the city of Elâzığ. The province had a population of 568,753 in 2014. The population of the province was 569,616 in 2000 and 498,225 in 1990. The total area of the province is 8,455 square kilometres (3,264 sq mi), 826 km2 (319 sq mi) of which is covered by reservoirs and natural lakes. The current governor of the province is Çetin Oktay Kaldirim.
Şanlıurfa Province or simply Urfa Province is a province in southeastern Turkey. The city of Şanlıurfa is the capital of the province which bears its name. The population is 1,845,667 (2014). The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority with a significant Arab and Turkish minority.
The Ağrı Province is a province in eastern Turkey, bordering Iran to the east, Kars to the north, Erzurum to the northwest, Muş and Bitlis to the southwest, Van to the south, and Iğdır to the northeast. It has an area of 11,376 km² and a population of 542,022. The province is considered part of Western Armenia by Armenians and mostly was part of ancient province of Ayrarat of Kingdom of Armenia. Before the Armenian Genocide, Modern Ağri Province was part of the six Armenian vilayets. The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority.
Hakkâri Province, is a province in the southeast of Turkey. The administrative centre is the city of Hakkâri. The province covers an area of 7,121 km² and had a population of 286,470 in 2018. The province was created in 1936 out of Van Province and borders Şırnak Province to the west, Van Province to the north, Iran to the east, and Iraq to the south. The current Governor is İdris Akbıyık. The province is a stronghold for Kurdish nationalism and a hotspot in the Kurdish–Turkish conflict.
Mardin Province, is a province of Turkey with a population of 809,719 in 2017, slightly down from the population of 835,173 in 2000. Kurds form the majority of the population followed closely by Arabs who represent 40% of the province's population.
Bingöl Province is a province of Turkey in Eastern Anatolia. The province was known as Çapakçur Province until 1945 when it was renamed as Bingöl province. Its neighboring provinces are Tunceli, Erzurum, Muş, Diyarbakır, Erzincan and Elazığ. The province covers an area of 8,125 km2 and has a population of 255,170. The capital is Bingöl. As the current Governor of the province, Kadir Ekinci was appointed by the president on the 5 November 2018.
Bitlis Province is a province of eastern Turkey, located to the west of Lake Van. The province is considered part of Western Armenia by Armenians. The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority. The current Governor of the province is Oktay Çağatay.
Erzincan Province is a province in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. In Turkey, its capital is also called Erzincan. The population was 224,949 in 2010.
Şırnak Province is a province of Turkey in the Southeastern Anatolia Region. Şırnak Province was created in 1990, with areas that were formerly part of the Siirt and Mardin Provinces. It borders both Kurdistan Region of Iraq and Syria. The current Governor of the province is Ali Hamza Pehlivan. As of 2013, the province had an estimated population of 475,255 people.
Inspectorates-General or General Inspectorates was a regional governorship whose authorities prevailed over civilian, military and judicial institutions under their domain of the direct command of Mustafa Kemal in order to establishing authoritarian rule and to consolidate the authority in the process of Turkification of religious and ethnic minorities.
The OHAL region was a "super-region" created in Turkey under state of emergency legislation, as part of its approach to the Kurdish–Turkish conflict. From 1994 onwards the scope of the OHAL super-region was gradually narrowed, with provinces being downgraded to "neighbouring province" and then removed from OHAL altogether. The state of emergency was extended 46 times, for four months each time. OHAL was finally discontinued on 30 November 2002.
Tunceli Province, formerly Dersim Province, is located in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. The least densely-populated province in Turkey, it was originally named Dersim Province, then demoted to a district and incorporated into Elâzığ Province in 1926. The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has Zazas and Kurdish majority. It is moreover the only province in Turkey with an Alevi majority.
In Turkey, a Governor is an official responsible for the implementation of legislation, constitutional and government decisions in individual provinces. There are 81 Governors in Turkey, one for each province, appointed ceremonially by the President on the recommendation of the Interior Ministry. Governors are legally required to be politically neutral and have power over public offices within their Province, including the provincial police force. They also have a certain role in local government, though mayors and councillors are elected to these roles in local elections. The Provincial head of security also concurrently serves as Deputy Governor.
During World War I, several Kurdish rebellions took place within the Ottoman Empire. These revolts were encouraged by the western allies, particularly Britain, who promised the Kurds an independent state. The first Kurdish rebellion was launched in August 1914, before the Ottoman entry into World War I. From 1915 to 1916, further Kurdish rebellions took place in Botan, Dersim, and south of Kiğı. 1917 saw 2 additional rebellions, the latter of which received Russian military support. Shortly before the Armistice of Mudros in October 1918, Mahmud Barzanji broke away from the Ottoman Empire and established a quasi-independent Kurdish state under British supervision.
The First Inspectorate-General refers to a former regional administrative area in Turkey. The First Inspectorate-General span over the provinces Hakkari, Siirt, Şırnak, Mardin, Şanlıurfa, Bitlis, Elazığ and Van.
The Fourth Inspectorate-General refers to a regional administrative subdivision in the Dersim region.
The Principality of Zirqan (1335-1835) was a Kurdish principality founded in the north of Mardin in 1335.During the Aq Qoyunlu period, they controlled the Bitlis, Diyarbakır and Mardin regions. Zirqan principality consisted of Ataq, Tercil, Gürdükan and Mihrani regions.