The Diana fritillary (Speyeria diana) is a fritillary butterfly found in several wooded areas in southern and eastern North America (primarily in the Arkansas River valley, several counties in South Carolina, and spots along the Appalachian mountain range). The species exhibits marked sexual dimorphism, with males of the species exhibiting an orange color on the edges of their wings, with a burnt orange underwing. Females are dark blue, with dark, almost dusty underwings, and are also larger than males.
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths. Adult butterflies have large, often brightly coloured wings, and conspicuous, fluttering flight. The group comprises the large superfamily Papilionoidea, which contains at least one former group, the skippers, and the most recent analyses suggest it also contains the moth-butterflies. Butterfly fossils date to the Paleocene, which was about 56 million years ago.
The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. It generally flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U.S. states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. The river's source basin lies in the western United States in Colorado, specifically the Arkansas River Valley, where the headwaters derive from the snowpack in the Sawatch and Mosquito mountain ranges. It then flows east into the Midwest via Kansas, and finally into the South through Oklahoma and Arkansas.
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River.
The larvae feed on violet leaves. Dianas are unusual in that they do not lay their eggs directly on the host plant, instead scattering the eggs around the base of the plant. Upon hatching, larvae burrow into the ground over winter to emerge in spring. Adults feed on flower nectar and dung.
On February 28, 2007, Act 156 of the Arkansas General Assembly designated the Diana fritillary as the official state butterfly. Introduced by Representative John Paul Wells of Logan County, the legislation for making the butterfly a state symbol took note of the butterfly’s beauty, educational importance, and impact on tourism. Arkansas is the only state to designate the Diana fritillary as its state butterfly; pairing it with its state insect, the honeybee. Arkansas is the twenty-sixth state to designate a butterfly as a state symbol.
The Gulf fritillary or passion butterfly is a bright orange butterfly of the family Nymphalidae and subfamily Heliconiinae. That subfamily was formerly set apart as a separate family, the Heliconiidae. The Heliconiinae are "longwing butterflies", which have long, narrow wings compared to other butterflies. Gulf fritillary is the only member of genus Agraulis.
Argynnini is a tribe of butterflies in the subfamily Heliconiinae, containing some of the fritillaries. This group has also been classified as subtribe Argynnina of the Heliconiini, or even as a distinct subfamily Argynninae in the Nymphalidae. This group has roughly 30 species in North America with other species distributed worldwide.
Speyeria zerene, the zerene fritillary, is a species of butterfly found in the western portions of the United States and Canada.
Argynnis adippe, the high brown fritillary, is a large and brightly colored butterfly of the family Nymphalidae, native to Europe and across the Palearctic to Japan. It is known for being Great Britain's most threatened butterfly and is listed as a vulnerable species under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. Like other fritillaries it is dependent on warm climates with violet rich flora.
The Glanville fritillary is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. It is named for the naturalist who discovered it and the checkerboard pattern on its wings. These butterflies live mostly in Europe, especially Finland, and across temperate Asia.
The great spangled fritillary is a North American butterfly of the family Nymphalidae.
Speyeria hydaspe, the Hydaspe fritillary, is a species of orange-brown butterfly found in the western portions of the United States and Canada. A small fritillary, it usually has cream-colored underwing spots, but the Vancouver Island subspecies has silver spots. It is similar to S. zerene and S. atlantis, but may be distinguished by the smooth and even appearance of its postmedian spotband. The caterpillars feed on violets including Viola glabella. A single brood flies from July through September and feeds on flower nectar. They may be found in moist forests, in clearings and subalpine meadows.
The scarce fritillary is a species of butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. It is found in Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, and Sweden.
The callippe silverspot butterfly is a federal endangered species in the brush-footed butterfly family Nymphalidae. This is a subspecies. It is a member of the Heliconiinae, the subfamily known as longwings. The adult has a wingspan of just over two inches. The wings are eyecatching with a brown, tan, and black scalloped pattern on their surfaces and orange-brown with characteristic silver spots on the undersides. The wings and abdomen are hairy. The larvae are spiny, dark-colored caterpillars.
Myrtle's silverspot is a medium-sized butterfly in the brush foot family (Nymphalidae), an endangered subspecies of the zerene fritillary. It is endemic to California, where it is known from only about four locations just north of the San Francisco Bay Area, including two at Point Reyes National Seashore. Its wingspan is approximately 2.2 inches (56 mm). The upper surfaces of the wings are golden brown with numerous black spots and lines. The undersides are brown, orange and tan with black lines and silver and black spots. Larvae are dark colored with many sharp branching spines on their backs. Myrtle's silverspot is larger and paler than the closely related Behrens' silverspot, which is now limited to the vicinity of Point Arena in Mendocino County.
The regal fritillary is a striking nymphalid butterfly found among some of the remaining tallgrass and mixed-grass prairies in the east-central United States. This prairie-specialist butterfly has a characteristic deep orange color and unmistakable dark hindwings with two bands of spots. On the female, both bands of spots are white. However, on the male, the outer band of spots is orange in color. Females also tend to be slightly larger than males. The ventral surface of the hindwings is olive brown to black in color with bold silvery white spots. The wingspan of S. idalia usually measures 68–105 millimetres (2.7–4.1 in). Flight is in the summertime from approximately June to September and adults tend to be swift in flight, coasting close to the ground. It is listed as a species of special concern and believed extirpated in the US state of Connecticut.
Boloria chariclea, the Arctic fritillary or purplish fritillary, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. It is found in the northern part of the Palearctic ecozone and the Nearctic ecozone.
Euptoieta claudia, the variegated fritillary, is a North and South American butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. Even though the variegated fritillary has some very different characteristics from the Speyeria fritillaries, it is still closely related to them. Some of the differences are: variegated fritillaries have two or three broods per year vs. one per year in Speyeria; they are nomadic vs. sedentary; and they use a wide range of host plants vs. just violets. And because of their use of passionflowers as a host plant, variegated fritillaries also have taxonomic links to the heliconians. Their flight is low and swift, but even when resting or nectaring, this species is extremely difficult to approach, and, because of this, its genus name was taken from the Greek word euptoietos meaning "easily scared".
The Aphrodite fritillary is a fritillary butterfly, from North America.
Speyeria atlantis, the Atlantis fritillary, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae of North America. It is from the Avalon Peninsula of Newfoundland and Labrador to northern British Columbia, across the northern United States south as far as Colorado and West Virginia. It resides as far north as James Bay. The species is listed as endangered in Connecticut.
Speyeria coronis, the Coronis fritillary, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae of North America. It is common from Baja California to Washington and east to Colorado and western South Dakota and once reported in Alberta.
Speyeria mormonia, commonly known as the Mormon Fritillary, is a North American butterfly belonging to the family Nymphalidae. It is highly diverse, having differentiated into several subspecies which occupy a wide geographic range. S. mormonia exhibits extreme protandry, which is the emergence of male adults before female adults. This has several consequences on male and female behavior. Habitat specificity is still being investigated, as there are few known environmental predictors, and S. mormonia appears to be associated with a wide range of habitats. This species is not under threat, and conservation efforts are generally not necessary.
Speyeria adiaste, the unsilvered fritillary or adiaste fritillary, is a species of butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. It is found in California north to San Mateo County and east to north Los Angeles County and Kern County.
Speyeria egleis, commonly known as the Great Basin fritillary or egleis fritillary, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. It is found in North America, where it has been recorded from North Dakota southwest through Oregon to California and south to Colorado. The habitat consists of mountain meadows, forest openings and exposed rocky ridges.
Speyeria carolae, or Carole's fritillary, is a butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. It was described by Cyril Franklin dos Passos and Lionel Paul Grey in 1942 and is found in North America, where it has only been recorded from the Charleston Mountains of Clark County, Nevada. The habitat consists of mountain slopes, foothills and forest openings.
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