Dwitiya

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Dwitiya also referred to as Beej and Dooj is the Sanskrit word for "second", and is the second day in the lunar fortnight ( Paksha ) of the Hindu calendar. Each month has two Dwitiya days, being the second day of the "bright" (Shukla) and of the "dark" (Krishna) fortnights respectively. Thus Dwitiya occurs on the second and the seventeenth day of each month.

Sanskrit language of ancient India

Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions.

Paksha refers to a fortnight or a lunar phase in a month of the Hindu lunar calendar.

Hindu calendar is a collective term for the various lunisolar calendars traditionally used in the Indian subcontinent. They adopt a similar underlying concept for timekeeping, but differ in their relative emphasis to moon cycle or the sun cycle and the names of months and when they consider the New Year to start. Of the various regional calendars, the most studied and known Hindu calendars are the Shalivahana Shaka found in South India, Vikram Samvat (Bikrami) found in North and Central regions of India, Tamil calendar used in Tamil Nadu, and the Bengali calendar used in the Bengal – all of which emphasize the lunar cycle. Their new year starts in spring, with their heritage dating back to 1st millennium BCE. In contrast, in regions such as Kerala, the solar cycle is emphasized and this is called the Malayalam calendar, their new year starts in autumn, and these have origins in the second half of the 1st millennium CE. A Hindu calendar is sometimes referred to as Panchanga (पञ्चाङ्ग).

Festivals

Diwali Hindu festival of lights

Diwali, Deepavali or Dipavali is Hindu, Sikh and Jain festival of lights, which is celebrated every autumn in the northern hemisphere. One of the most popular festivals of Hinduism, Diwali symbolises the spiritual "victory of light over darkness, good over evil and knowledge over ignorance." Light is a metaphor for knowledge and consciousness. During the celebration, temples, homes, shops and office buildings are brightly illuminated. The preparations, and rituals, for the festival typically last five days, with the climax occurring on the third day coinciding with the darkest night of the Hindu lunisolar month Kartika. In the Gregorian calendar, the festival generally falls between mid-October and mid-November.

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Chaitra is a month of the Hindu calendar.

Ashadha or Aashaadha is a month of the Hindu calendar that corresponds to June/July in the Gregorian calendar. In India's national civil calendar, Āsāṛh is the third month of the year, beginning on 15 June and ending on 16 July. In Vedic Jyotish, Āsāṛh begins with the Sun's entry into Gemini. It is the first of the two months that comprise the monsoon season.

Bhai Dooj festival celebrated by Hindus

Bhai Dooj / Bhau-Beej / Bhai Tika / Bhai Phonta (ভাইফোঁটা) is a festival celebrated by Hindus of the Indian subcontinent, notably India and Nepal, on the second lunar day of Shukla Paksha in the Vikram Samvat Hindu calendar or of Shalivahan Shaka calendar month of Kartika. It is celebrated during the Diwali or Tihar festival and Holi festival.

Bhadra or Bhadrapada or Bhaado or Bhadraba is a month of the Hindu calendar that corresponds to August/September in the Gregorian calendar. In India's national civil calendar, Bhadra is the sixth month of the year, beginning on 17 August and ending on 16 September. In Vedic Jyotish, Bhadra begins with the Sun's entry into Leo, and is usually the month of the year. In Nepal's Bikram Sambat, Bhadra is the fifth month.

Ekādaśī, also spelled as Ekādaśi, is the eleventh lunar day (tithi) of each of the two lunar phases which occur in a Hindu calendar month - the Sukla Paksha and the Krishna Paksha.

Chaturthi or Chaviti, is the fourth day (Tithi) of any lunar month in the Hindu calendar.

Panchami is the fifth day (tithi) of the fortnight (paksha) in Hindu lunar calendar.

Saptami is the seventh day (tithi) of the fortnight (paksha) in Hindu lunar calendar.

In the Hindu calendar, Chaturdashi is the 14th day (Tithi) of the waxing phase or waning phase of the moon. This is the day prior to new moon (Amavasya) or full moon (Pournami). It has a great significance to Bengalis, as goddess Tara appeared to rishi vasistha on this tithi.

Bhai Phota or Bhai Phonta is a Hindu festival. The Bhai Phota ritual begins at the moment when Amavasya ends. Protipod and Dwitiya are the tithes next to Amavasya. Similar to the Bhai Dooj festival of north India, it takes place during Diwali on the second or third day of the month of Kartik. The festival is centred on rituals where brothers and sisters honour each other.

Dwadashi is the twelfth lunar day (Tithi) of the shukla (bright) or krishna (dark) fortnight of every lunar month in the Hindu calendar.

Purnima last day of the bright lunar fortnight

Purnima is the Indian and Nepali word for full moon, while in Indonesian it is known as Purnama. The day of Purnima is the day (Tithi) in each month when the full moon occurs, and marks the division in each month between the two lunar fortnights (Paksha).

Prathama is the Sanskrit word for "first", and is the first day in the lunar fortnight (Paksha) of the Hindu calendar. Prathama is also known as Pratipada in West Bengal, Odisha and western India. Each month has two Prathama days, being the first day of the "bright" (Shukla) and of the "dark" (Krishna) fortnights respectively. Thus Prathama occurs on the first and the sixteenth day of each month. It is also known as Pratipad or Pratipada.

Tritiya is the third day in the lunar fortnight (Paksha) of the Hindu calendar. Each month has two Tritiya days, being the third day of the "bright" (Shukla) and of the "dark" (Krishna) fortnights respectively. Thus Tritiya occurs on the third and the eighteenth day of each month.

Dashami is the Sanskrit word for "ten", and is the tenth day in the lunar fortnight (Paksha) of the Hindu calendar. Each month has two Dashami days, being the tenth day of the "bright" (Shukla) and of the "dark" (Krishna) fortnights respectively. Thus Dashami occurs on the tenth and the twenty-fifth day of each month.

Thrayodashi is the Sanskrit word for "thirteen", and is the thirteenth day in the lunar fortnight (Paksha) of the Hindu calendar. Each month has two Thrayodashi days, being the thirteenth day of the "bright" (Shukla) and of the "dark" (Krishna) fortnights respectively. Thus Thrayodashi occurs on the thirteenth and the twenty-eighth day of each month.

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