Eucalypt

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A Eucalypt in the morning at Coolagolite Valley Australia Sunrise at Santosha.jpg
A Eucalypt in the morning at Coolagolite Valley Australia

Eucalypt is a descriptive name for woody plants with capsule fruiting bodies belonging to seven closely related genera (of the tribe Eucalypteae) found across Australasia: Eucalyptus , Corymbia , Angophora , Stockwellia , Allosyncarpia , Eucalyptopsis and Arillastrum . [1]

Contents

Taxonomy

For an example of changing historical perspectives, in 1991, largely genetic evidence indicated that some prominent Eucalyptus species were actually more closely related to Angophora than to other eucalypts; they were accordingly split off into the new genus Corymbia.

Although separate, all of these genera and their species are allied and it remains the standard to refer to the members of all seven genera Angophora, Corymbia, Eucalyptus, Stockwellia, Allosyncarpia, Eucalyptopsis and Arillastrum as "eucalypts" or as the eucalypt group. [1] [2] [3] [4]

The extant genera Stockwellia, Allosyncarpia, Eucalyptopsis and Arillastrum comprise six known species, restricted to monsoon forests and rainforests in north-eastern Australia, the Arnhem Land plateau, New Guinea, the Moluccas and New Caledonia. These genera are recognised as having evolved from ancient lineages of the family Myrtaceae. According to genetic, fossil and morphological evidence, it is hypothesised that they evolved into separate taxa before the evolution of the more widespread and well-known genera Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora, and all of their many species. [1]

Eucalyptus deglupta has naturally spread the furthest from the Australian geographic origin of the genus Eucalyptus, being the only species known growing naturally in the nearby northern hemisphere, from New Guinea to New Britain, Sulawesi, Seram Island to Mindanao, Philippines. [1] Eucalyptus urophylla also grows naturally as far west as the Flores and Timor islands. [1]

Adaptations

Epicormic regrowth from eucalypt bark, four months after Black Saturday bushfires, Strathewen, Victoria CSIRO ScienceImage 10646 Eucalypt regrowth after Black Saturday bushfires.jpg
Epicormic regrowth from eucalypt bark, four months after Black Saturday bushfires, Strathewen, Victoria

Eucalypts from fire-prone habitats are attuned to withstand fire in several ways:

Epicormic buds under the often thick bark of the trunk and branches are ready to sprout new stems and leaves after a fire.


These advantages work well in areas affected by long dry spells.

Over 700 eucalypt species dominate landscapes all over Australia, but diversity is reduced in rainforests and arid environments.

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>Corymbia</i> Genus of trees

Corymbia is a genus of about one hundred species of tree that, along with Eucalyptus, Angophora and several smaller groups, are referred to as eucalypts. Until 1990, corymbias were included in the genus Eucalyptus and there is still considerable disagreement among botanists as to whether separating them is valid. As of January 2020, Corymbia is an accepted name at the Australian Plant Census.

<i>Corymbia ficifolia</i> Species of plant

Corymbia ficifolia (syn. Eucalyptus ficifolia, commonly known as the red flowering gum, is a species of small tree that is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It has rough, fibrous bark on the trunk and branches, egg-shaped to broadly lance-shape adult leaves, flower buds in groups of seven, bright red, pink or orange flowers and urn-shaped fruit. It has a restricted distribution in the wild but is one of the most commonly planted ornamental eucalypts.

Myrtaceae Myrtle family of plants

Myrtaceae or the myrtle family is a family of dicotyledonous plants placed within the order Myrtales. Myrtle, pōhutukawa, bay rum tree, clove, guava, acca (feijoa), allspice, and eucalyptus are some notable members of this group. All species are woody, contain essential oils, and have flower parts in multiples of four or five. The leaves are evergreen, alternate to mostly opposite, simple, and usually entire. The flowers have a base number of five petals, though in several genera the petals are minute or absent. The stamens are usually very conspicuous, brightly coloured and numerous.

<i>Metrosideros</i> Genus of trees

Metrosideros is a genus of approximately 60 trees, shrubs, and vines mostly found in the Pacific region in the family Myrtaceae. Most of the tree forms are small, but some are exceptionally large, the New Zealand species in particular. The name derives from the Ancient Greek metra or "heartwood" and sideron or "iron". Perhaps the best-known species are the pōhutukawa, northern and southern rātā of New Zealand, and ʻōhiʻa lehua, from the Hawaiian Islands.

<i>Angophora</i> Genus of flowering plants

Angophora is a genus of nine species of trees and shrubs in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Endemic to eastern Australia, they differ from other eucalypts in having juvenile and adult leaves arranged in opposite pairs, sepals reduced to projections on the edge of the floral cup, four or five overlapping, more or less round petals, and a papery or thin, woody, often strongly ribbed capsule. Species are found between the Atherton Tableland in Queensland and south through New South Wales to eastern Victoria, Australia.

Allosyncarpia ternata, commonly known as an-binik, is a species of rainforest trees constituting part of the botanical family Myrtaceae and included in the eucalypts group. The only species in its genus, it was described in 1981 by Stanley Blake of the Queensland Herbarium. They grow naturally into large, spreading, shady trees, and are endemic to the Northern Territory of Australia. They grow in sandstone gorges along creeks emerging from the Arnhem Land plateau.

<i>Arillastrum</i> Genus of flowering plants

Arillastrum is a monotypic genus of trees in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, containing the single species Arillastrum gummiferum. It is endemic to southern New Caledonia. It is related to Eucalyptus, but more closely to Angophora and Corymbia.

<i>Angophora costata</i> Species of tree

Angophora costata, commonly known as Sydney red gum, rusty gum or smooth-barked apple, is a species of tree that is endemic to eastern Australia. Reaching 30 m (100 ft) in height, the species has distinctive smooth bark that is pinkish or orange-brown when new and fades to grey with age. Its lance-shaped leaves are arranged in opposite pairs along the stems, with white or creamy white flowers appearing from October to December. The flower buds are usually arranged in groups of three, followed by ribbed, oval or bell-shaped fruit.

<i>Angophora hispida</i> Species of tree

Angophora hispida grows as a mallee, or as a tree to about 7 m (25 ft) in height. A. hispida's small size, especially when compared to its Angophora and Eucalyptus relatives, leads to it being known by the common name dwarf apple. It is native to a relatively small patch of central New South Wales – from just south of Sydney up to the Gosford area. The plant's leaves are sessile (stalk-less) and hug the stem with heart-shaped bases. Its previous name – A. cordifolia – referred to these cordate leaves. Another distinctive feature are the red bristly hairs that cover the branchlets, flower bases and new growth. This leads to the specific epithet hispida.

<i>Corymbia intermedia</i> Species of plant

Corymbia intermedia, commonly known as the pink bloodwood, is a species of medium to tall tree that is endemic to north-eastern Australia. It has rough, tessellated bark on the trunk and branches, flower buds in groups of seven, white flowers and oval to barrel-shaped fruit.

<i>Corymbia opaca</i> Species of plant

Corymbia opaca, also known as the desert bloodwood, is a species of tree that is endemic to northern Australia. It has rough bark on part or all of the trunk, lance-shaped leaves, club-shaped flower buds and urn-shaped fruit. Several parts of this plant are used by Aboriginal Australians in traditional medicine.

<i>Corymbia eximia</i> Species of plant

Corymbia eximia, commonly known as the yellow bloodwood, is a bloodwood native to New South Wales. It occurs around the Sydney Basin often in high rainfall areas on shallow sandstone soils on plateaux or escarpments, in fire prone areas. Growing as a gnarled tree to 20 m (66 ft), it is recognisable by its distinctive yellow-brown tessellated bark. The greyish green leaves are thick and veiny, and lanceolate spear- or sickle-shaped. The cream flowerheads grow in panicles in groups of seven and appear in spring. Known for many years as Eucalyptus eximia, the yellow bloodwood was transferred into the new genus Corymbia in 1995 when it was erected by Ken Hill and Lawrie Johnson. It is still seen under the earlier name in some works.

Corymbia papuana, commonly known as ghost gum, is a species of evergreen tree native to New Guinea, some Torres Strait Islands and the northern part of the Cape York Peninsula in Australia. It has smooth whitish bark, lance-shaped adult leaves, flower buds in groups of three or seven, creamy white flowers and barrel-shaped or urn-shaped fruit.

Stockwellia is a monotypic genus in the flowering plant family Myrtaceae. The sole species in the genus, Stockwellia quadrifida, is endemic to Queensland.

Corymbia hamersleyana is a species of small tree or mallee that is endemic to the Pilbara region of Western Australia. It has rough, flaky bark on part or all of the trunk, smooth cream-coloured bark above, lance-shaped adult leaves, flowers buds in groups of seven or nine, creamy white flowers and urn-shaped fruit.

Corymbia brachycarpa is a species of tree that is endemic to central Queensland. It has rough, tessellated bark on the trunk and branches, lance-shaped adult leaves, flower buds in groups of seven, creamy white flowers and urn-shaped to barrel-shaped fruit.

Corymbia stockeri, commonly known as the blotchy bloodwood, is a species of small tree that is endemic to Cape York Peninsula in Queensland. It has rough, tessellated bark on the trunk and branches, lance-shaped adult leaves, flower buds in groups of seven, creamy white flowers and barrel-shaped to urn-shaped fruit.

Corymbia novoguinensis is a species of tree that is native to New Guinea, some Torres Strait Island and the Cape York Peninsula. It has rough bark on the trunk and branches, lance-shaped adult leaves, flower buds in groups of seven, creamy white flowers and urn-shaped to barrel-shaped fruit.

Eucalypteae Tribe of flowering plants

Eucalypteae is a large tribe of flowering plants in the family Myrtaceae; members of this tribe are known as eucalypts. In Australia the genera Angophora, Corymbia, and Eucalyptus are commonly known as gum trees, for the sticky substance that exudes from the trunk of some species. As of 2020, the tribe comprised around 860 species, all native to Southeast Asia and Oceania, with a main diversity center in Australia.

Frank Udovicic Australian botanist

Frank Udovicic is an Australian botanist who specialises in molecular systematics and phytogeography.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Ladiges, Pauline Y.; Udovicic, Frank; Nelson, Gareth (2003). "Australian biogeographical connections and the phylogeny of large genera in the plant family Myrtaceae". Journal of Biogeography. 30 (7): 989–998. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2699.2003.00881.x. ISSN   1365-2699. S2CID   85895271.
  2. Lyne, A. 1996 "An Introduction to the Eucalypts The Genera Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora" Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research and Australian National Herbarium. Canberra
  3. Carr, Denis J.; Carr, S.G.M.; Hyland, Bernie P.M.; Wilson, Paul G.; Ladiges, Pauline Y. (2002). "Stockwellia quadrifida (Myrtaceae), a new Australian genus and species in the eucalypt group". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 139 (4): 415–421. doi: 10.1046/j.1095-8339.2002.00062.x .
  4. Costermans, L. 2006 "Trees of Victoria and adjoining areas".6th ed. ISBN   0-9599105-4-9