European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System

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The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) is a standard means for comparing academic credits, i.e., the "volume of learning based on the defined learning outcomes and their associated workload" for higher education across the European Union and other collaborating European countries. [1] For successfully completed studies, ECTS credits are awarded. One academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS credits that are normally equivalent to 1500–1800 hours of total workload, irrespective of standard or qualification type.[ citation needed ] ECTS credits are used to facilitate transfer and progression throughout the Union. ECTS also includes a standard grading scale, intended to be shown in addition to local (i.e. national) standard grades. [2]


Current systems

List of credits given in one year in European countries [3]
CountryCredit points per yearHours per credit pointCredit point name
European Union (EU)6025-30 [4] ECTS credits
EU Member States
Austria 6025ECTS (also ECTS-Punkte, ECTS credits)
Belgium 6025-30ECTS (also studiepunten, ECTS)
Bulgaria 6025-30кредити
Croatia 6025-30ECTS bodovi
Cyprus 6030ECTS
Czech Republic 6026kredity
Denmark 6028ECTS-point
Estonia 6026ainepunkt (EAP). Currently because many students are still used to the older system the longer name 'euroopa ainepunkt' is more often used for clarity's sake
Finland 6027opintopiste (op) / studiepoäng (Swedish) (lit. study point)
France 6025-30 [5] crédits ECTS
Germany 6025-30ECTS, Leistungspunkte (LP), Kreditpunkte (KP), Credit Points (CP) or Credits
Greece 6030ECTS, Credit Points (CP), Μονάδες Φόρτου Εργασίας (Διδακτικές Μονάδες - Δ.Μ) or Credits
Hungary 6030kredit(pont)
Ireland 60ECTS
Italy 6025-30crediti formativi universitari (CFU)
Latvia 6030ECTS kredītpunkts (1 "Latvian" credit point (kredītpunkts) equals 1.5 ECTS) [6] [7]
Lithuania 6028kreditai; ECTS kreditai
Luxembourg 60ECTS
Malta 6025ECTS-credits
Netherlands 6028studiepunten (ECTS or EC)
Poland 6025-30punkty ECTS, eceteesy
Portugal 6028créditos ECTS
Romania 6030credite (SECTS)
Slovakia 6025kredity
Slovenia 6025-30kreditne točke
Spain 6025-30créditos (ECTS)
Sweden 6026.667högskolepoäng (Used from July 2007)
EFTA Member States
Iceland 6025-30 einingar (units)
Liechtenstein 60
Norway 6025-30studiepoeng
Switzerland 6025-30 [8] ECTS-credits, Kreditpunkte (KP)
Other European Countries
Albania 6030Pikët ECTS
Bosnia and Herzegovina 6025ECTS bodovi
England, Wales and Northern Ireland 120 (60 ECTS)10 (20 hours per ECTS)Credits. One ECTS credit is equivalent to two UK credits. [9] [10]
Georgia 6030კრედიტები (kreditebi)
Montenegro 60ECTS-krediti
North Macedonia 60кредити (ECTS)
Russia 6030credits
Scotland 120 (60 ECTS)10 (20 hours per ECTS) [11] SCQF credit points (2 SCQF points equal 1 ECTS point [12] )
Serbia 6030ЕСПБ бодови / ESPB bodovi
Turkey 6025-30AKTS - kredi [13]
Ukraine 6030кредити

See also

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  1. "ECTS Users' Guide". Publications Office of the European Union. 2015. p. 10.
  2. "European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) - Education and training - European Commission". Education and training.
  3. "ECTS User's guide". Publications Office of the European Union. 2015.
  4. typical values which can vary between national systems, "academic year" is normative
  5. "Article 8 - Arrêté du 22 janvier 2014 fixant le cadre national des formations conduisant à la délivrance des diplômes nationaux de licence, de licence professionnelle et de master" [Article 8 - Order of 22 January 2014 establishing the national framework for courses leading to the award of national bachelor's, professional bachelor's and master's degrees]. Légifrance (in French). 22 January 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  6. "Credit point system" . Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  7. "Law of Higher education (in Latvian)". 1 January 1995. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  8. "Richtlinien des Hochschulrates für die koordinierte Erneuerung der Lehre an den universitären Hochschulen der Schweiz im Rahmen des Bologna-Prozesses" . Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  9. "Erasmus Mundus credits" (PDF). University of Salford. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
  10. "Higher education credit framework for England: guidance on academic credit arrangements in higher education in England" (PDF). Quality Assurance Agency.
  11. "SCQF Credit Points" (PDF). Scottish Credit and Qualification Framework. p. 3. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  12. "SCQF Credit Points" (PDF). Scottish Credit and Qualification Framework. p. 3. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  13. "ECTS and Course Load - Yükseköğretim Kurulu". Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2016.