Haveli

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Patwon Ji Ki Haveli, Jaisalmer, Rajasthan, India Patwon ki haveli 18.jpg
Patwon Ji Ki Haveli, Jaisalmer, Rajasthan, India

A haveli is a traditional townhouse or mansion in the Indian subcontinent, usually one with historical and architectural significance. The word haveli is derived from Arabic hawali, meaning "partition" or "private space", popularised under the Mughal Empire, and was devoid of any architectural affiliations. [1] [2] Later, the word haveli came to be used as a generic term for various styles of regional mansions, townhouse and temples found in the Indian subcontinent. [3]

Townhouse type of medium-density house

A townhouse, townhome, or town house as used in North America, Asia, Australia, South Africa and parts of Europe, is a type of terraced housing. A modern town house is often one with a small footprint on multiple floors. In British usage, the term originally referred to the city residence of someone whose main or largest residence was a country house.

Mansion large dwelling house

A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French from the Latin word mansio "dwelling", an abstract noun derived from the verb manere "to dwell". The English word manse originally defined a property large enough for the parish priest to maintain himself, but a mansion is no longer self-sustaining in this way. Manor comes from the same root—territorial holdings granted to a lord who would "remain" there.

Indian subcontinent Peninsular region in south-central Asia south of the Himalayas

The Indian subcontinent, is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically, it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east. Politically, the Indian subcontinent includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Contents

History

Multistorey structures and balconies during Mauryan Empire, 3rd century BCE Sanchi stupa fort.jpg
Multistorey structures and balconies during Mauryan Empire, 3rd century BCE

Courtyards are a common feature of houses in the Indian subcontinent, whether they are mansions or farmhouses. [4] The traditional courtyard homes of the Indian subcontinent were influenced by the ancient principles of Vastu Shastra, [5] which state that all spaces emerge from a single point that is the center of the house.

The earliest archaeological evidence of courtyard homes in the region dates back to 3300 BCE. [6] [7] Traditional homes in the Indian subcontinent are built around a courtyard, and all family activities revolved around this chowk or courtyard. Additionally, the courtyard serves as a lightwell and helps ventilate the house in the hot and dry climates of the region.

Lightwell

In architecture a lightwell, light well or air shaft is an unroofed external space provided within the volume of a large building to allow light and air to reach what would otherwise be a dark or unventilated area. Lightwells may be lined with glazed bricks to increase the reflection of sunlight within the space.

Ventilation (architecture) intentional introduction of outside air into a space

Ventilation is the intentional introduction of outdoor air into a space and is mainly used to control indoor air quality by diluting and displacing indoor pollutants; it can also be used for purposes of thermal comfort or dehumidification.

During the medieval period, the term Haveli was first applied in Rajputana by the Vaishnava sect to refer to their temples in Gujarat under the Mughal Empire and Rajputana kingdoms. The generic term haveli eventually came to be identified with townhouses and mansions of the merchant class. [8]

Rajputana

Rājputāna, meaning "Land of the Rajputs", was a region in India that included mainly the present-day Indian state of Rajasthan, as well as parts of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat, and some adjoining areas of Sindh in modern-day southern Pakistan.

Gujarat State in India

Gujarat is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of 1,600 km (990 mi) – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area and the ninth largest state by population. Gujarat is bordered by Rajasthan to the northeast, Daman and Diu to the south, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Maharashtra to the southeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and the Arabian Sea and the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west. Its capital city is Gandhinagar, while its largest city is Ahmedabad. The Gujarati-speaking people of India are indigenous to the state. The economy of Gujarat is the fifth-largest state economy in India with 14.96 lakh crore (US$220 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of 157,000 (US$2,300).

Mughal Empire dynastic empire extending over large parts of the Indian subcontinent

The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by the Timurid dynasty, with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan and Timur, and with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; the first two Mughal emperors had both parents of Central Asian ancestry, while successive emperors were of predominantly Persian and Rajput ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its court culture and administrative customs.

Characteristics

Townhouse Haveli with Jharokha windows Patwa Haveli, Jaisalmer.jpg
Townhouse Haveli with Jharokha windows

All these elements join to form an enclosure and give the chowk a composed, secured feel. The architectural form of havelis has evolved in response to the climate, lifestyle, and availability of material. In hot climates where cooling is a necessity, buildings with internal courtyards for airflow and cooling were considered the most appropriate; in rainy places the houses were built to be kept dry from humid air. It provided shade while also allowing light inside. The arcade along the court, or the high wall around it, kept the interiors cool.

Many of the havelis of India and Pakistan were influenced by Rajasthani architecture. They usually contain a courtyard, often with a fountain in the center. The old cities of Agra, Lucknow, Jaisalmer and Delhi in India and Lahore, Multan, Peshawar, Hyderabad in Pakistan have many fine examples of Rajasthani-style havelis. Havelis in Nepal were built in the Newari architectural style; houses in old markets and bazaars in Kathmandu, Kritipur, Bhakthapur and Patan are built in this style.

Architecture of Rajasthan

Māru-Gurjara architecture originated in the sixth century in and around areas of the state of Rajasthan in India during Gurjara Pratihara Empire.

Agra City in Uttar Pradesh, India

Agra is a city on the banks of the Yamuna river in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is 378 kilometres (235 mi) west of the state capital, Lucknow, 206 kilometres (128 mi) south of the national capital New Delhi, 58 kilometres (31 mi) south of Mathura and 125 kilometres (78 mi) north of Gwalior. Agra is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh, and the 24th most populous in India.

Lucknow Metropolis in Uttar Pradesh, India

Lucknow is the capital city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous district and division. It is the eleventh most populous city and the twelfth most populous urban agglomeration of India. Lucknow has always been known as a multicultural city that flourished as a North Indian cultural and artistic hub, and the seat of power of Nawabs in the 18th and 19th centuries. It continues to be an important centre of governance, administration, education, commerce, aerospace, finance, pharmaceuticals, technology, design, culture, tourism, music and poetry.

Notable havelis in India

In the northern part of India, havelis for Lord Krishna with huge mansion-like constructions are prevalent. These havelis are noted for their frescoes depicting images of gods, goddesses, animals, scenes from the British colonization, and the life stories of Lords Rama and Krishna. The music here was known as Haveli Sangeet.

Later on, these temple architectures and frescoes were imitated while building huge individual mansions and now the word is popularly associated with the mansions themselves. Between 1830 and 1930, Marwaris erected [9] buildings in their homeland, Shekhawati and Marwar. These buildings were called havelis. The Marwaris commissioned artists to paint those buildings, which were heavily influenced by the Mughal architecture. Nangal Sirohi in Mahendragarh district, 130 km from Delhi, is popular for its havelis and architecture within NCR. [10]

The havelis served as status symbols for the Marwaris as well as homes for their extended families, providing security and comfort in seclusion from the outside world. The havelis were designed to be closed from all sides with one large main gate.

The typical havelis in Shekhawati incorporated two courtyards — an outer one for the men which served as an extended threshold, and the inner one, the domain of the women. The largest havelis could have up to three or four courtyards and were two to three stories high. Most of the havelis are empty nowadays or are maintained by a watchman, while others have been converted into hotels and tourist attractions.

The towns and villages of Shekhawati are famous for the embellished frescoes on the walls of their grandiose havelis, to the point of becoming popular tourist attractions.

The havelis in and around Jaisalmer Fort (also known as the Golden Fort), situated in Jaisalmer, Rajasthan, of which the three most impressive are Patwon Ki Haveli, Salim Singh Ki Haveli, and Nathmal-Ki Haveli, deserve special mention. These were the elaborate homes of Jaisalmer's rich merchants. The ostentatious carvings, etched in sandstone with great detail and then painstakingly pieced together in lavish patterns, were commissioned to put on show the owner's status and wealth. Around Jaisalmer, they are typically carved from yellow sandstone. They are often characterized by wall paintings, frescoes, jharokhas (balconies) and archways. [11] [12]

The Patwon Ji ki Haveli was the first erected in Jaisalmer. It is not a single haveli but a cluster of five small havelis. The first in the row is the most popular, and is also known as Kothari's Patwa Haveli. Commissioned and constructed in the year 1805 by Guman Chand Patwa, then a rich trader of jewellery and fine brocades, it is the biggest and the most ostentatious of the five. Patwa was a rich man and a renowned trader of his time and he could afford and thus order the construction of separate stories for each of his five sons. These were completed in a span of 50 years. All five houses were constructed in the first 60 years of the 19th century. [13] Patwon Ji Ki is renowned for its ornate wall paintings, intricate yellow sandstone-carved jharokhas (balconies), gateways and archways. Although the building itself is made from yellow sandstone, the main gateway is brown. Another notable haveli is Seth ji ri Haveli in Udaipur city; now known as Shree Jagdish Mahal, it is 250 years old.

Notable havelis of Pakistan

A number of historically and architecturally significant havelis survive in Pakistan, most of which are situated in the Punjab province. The most significant in Lahore, the Haveli of Nau Nihal Singh, dates from the Sikh era of the mid-19th century, and is considered to be one of the finest examples of Sikh architecture in Lahore. [14] It is the only Sikh-era haveli that preserves its original ornamentation and architecture. [15]

Some other historically and architecturally significant havelis in Pakistan:

Haveli is also a novel by Suzanne Fisher Staples and is a sequel to her Newbery Award-winning novel Shabanu: Daughter of the Wind. The story takes place in an old-fashioned haveli in Lahore, Pakistan.

See also

Related Research Articles

Rajasthan State in India

Rajasthan is a state in northern India. The state covers an area of 342,239 square kilometres (132,139 sq mi) or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the largest Indian state by area and the seventh largest by population. Rajasthan is located on the northwestern side of India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus river valley. Elsewhere it is bordered by five other Indian states: Punjab to the north; Haryana and Uttar Pradesh to the northeast; Madhya Pradesh to the southeast; and Gujarat to the southwest.

Walled City of Lahore Municipality in Punjab, Pakistan

The Walled City of Lahore, also known as Old City, forms the historic core of Lahore, Pakistan. The city was established around 1000 CE in the western half of the Walled City, which was fortified by a mud wall during the medieval era.

Jaisalmer City in Rajasthan, India

Jaisalmerpronunciation , nicknamed "The Golden city", is a city in the Indian state of Rajasthan, located 575 kilometres (357 mi) west of the state capital Jaipur. The town stands on a ridge of yellowish sandstone, and is crowned by the ancient Jaisalmer Fort. This fort contains a royal palace and several ornate Jain temples. Many of the houses and temples of both the fort, and of the town below, are built of finely sculptured sandstone. The town lies in the heart of the Thar Desert and has a total population, including the residents of the fort, of about 78,000. It is the administrative headquarters of Jaisalmer District.

Shekhawati town and region of Rajasthan

Shekhawati is a semi-arid historical region located in the northeast part of Rajasthan, India.

Fatehpur, Rajasthan town in Rajasthan, India

Fatehpur is a town in the Sikar district of Indian state Rajasthan. It is part of the Shekhawati region. It is midway between Jaipur and Bikaner on National Highway 52.

Chhatri

Chhatris are elevated, dome-shaped pavilions used as an element in Indian architecture. The word Chhatri means "canopy" or "umbrella." In the context of architecture, the word is used to refer to two different things. The usual and more widely understood meaning is of a memorial, usually very ornate, built over the site where the funeral (cremation) of an important personage was performed. Such memorials usually consist of a platform girded by a set of ornate pillars which hold up a stone canopy. The word chhatri is also used to refer to the small pavilions that mark the corners and roof of the entrance of a major building. These pavilions are purely decorative and have no utility, but are a classic folly displaying the status and wealth of the owner.

Marwar princely state of the British Raj

Marwar is a region of southwestern Rajasthan state in North Western India. It lies partly in the Thar Desert. The word 'maru' is Sanskrit for desert. In Rajasthani dialect, "wad" means a particular area. English translation of the word 'marvar' is 'the region of desert.'

Dundlod town in Rajasthan, India

Dundlod is a town in Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan in India. It is situated in the Shekhawati region of Rajasthan. Best known for its fort and havelis, it extends between latitude 28°.06’ in the north and longitude 75°.20’ in the east. It is located about seven kilometers north of Nawalgarh in the center of the Shekhawati region.

Mandawa Town in Rajasthan, India

Mandawa is a town in Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan in India. It is part of Shekhawati region. Mandawa is situated 190 km off Jaipur in the north. The town lies between latitude 28° 06’ in the north and longitude 75° 20’ in the east. Mandawa is known for its fort and havelis. The fort town of Mandawa is well connected with the other places in region through a good network of roads.

Jaisalmer district district of Rajasthan, India

Jaisalmer District, is a district of Rajasthan state in western India. The city of Jaisalmer is the administrative headquarters of the district.it is appx 289 km from the Jodhpur city and 559 km from the Jaipur city.

Shahpura, Jaipur Town in Rajasthan, India

Shahpura is a town and a municipality in Jaipur district in the Indian state of Rajasthan.

Ramgarh, Sikar Town in Rajasthan, India

Ramgarh or Ramgarh Shekhawati is a city and a municipality in Ramgarh tehsil of Sikar district in the Indian state of Rajasthan.

Culture of Rajasthan

Rajasthan has artistic and cultural traditions which reflect the ancient Indian way of life.

The Rajasthani people are the native inhabitants of Rajasthan region of India. Their language Rajasthani is a part of the western group of Indo-Aryan languages.

Tourism in Rajasthan

Rajasthan is one of the most popular tourist destinations in India, for both domestic and international tourists. Rajasthan attracts tourists for its historical forts, palaces, art and culture with its slogan 'Padharo mahare desh'. Every third foreign tourist visiting India travels to Rajasthan as it is part of the Golden Triangle for tourists visiting India.

Badshahi Mosque mosque in Pakistan

The Badshahi Mosque is a Mughal era masjid in Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, Pakistan. The mosque is located west of Lahore Fort along the outskirts of the Walled City of Lahore, and is widely considered to be one of Lahore's most iconic landmarks.

Haveli of Nau Nihal Singh

The Haveli of Nau Nihal Singh is a haveli mansion located in Lahore, Pakistan. Dating from the Sikh era of the mid-19th century, the haveli is considered to be one of the finest examples of Sikh architecture in Lahore, and is the only Sikh-era haveli that preserves its original ornamentation and architecture.

Lakhori bricks

Lakhori bricks or Badshahi bricks or Kakaiya bricks, are flat thin red colored burnt clay bricks, originating from the Indian subcontinent, that became increasingly popular element of Mughal architecture during Shah Jahan; and remained so till early 20th century when lakhori bricks and similar Nanak Shahi bricks were replaced by the larger standard 9"x4"x3" bricks called ghumma bricks introduced by the colonial British India.

References

  1. "haveli - definition of haveli in English from the Oxford dictionary". Oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
  2. Sarah, Tillotson (1998). Indian Mansions: A Social History of the Haveli. Orient longman. p. 72. ISBN   0-900891-91-2.
  3. Bahl, Vani. "Haveli — A Symphony of Art and Architecture". The New Indian Express . Retrieved 2016-01-19.
  4. Herbert J. M. Ypma (1994) "India modern: traditional forms and contemporary design", p.24
  5. Jagdish, Gautam (2012). Disenchanting India: Organized Rationalism and Criticism of Religion in India. abhinav publications. p. 72. Retrieved 17 August 2006.
  6. Lal, B. B. (1997). The Earliest Civilisation of South Asia (Rise, Maturity and Decline).
  7. Morris, A.E.J. (1994). History of Urban Form: Before the Industrial Revolutions (Third ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. p. 31. ISBN   978-0-582-30154-2 . Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  8. Bahl, Vani. "Haveli — A Symphony of Art and Architecture". The New Indian Express . Retrieved 2016-01-19.
  9. "> History > Chittorgarh". Rajasthan Infoline. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
  10. Magnificent havelis of Nangal-Sirohi, The Tribune, 22 June 2002.
  11. "Havelis of Jaisalmer - Havelis in Jaisalmer Rajasthan - Jaisalmer India Havelis". Rajasthan-tourism.org. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
  12. "Jaisalmer Havelis, Famous Haveli in Rajasthan India, Heritage Haveli Tours in Rajasthan India". Shubhyatra.com. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
  13. "Patwon Ki Haveli - Patwonji Ki Haveli Jaisalmer - Patwon Ki Haveli In Jaisalmer Rajasthan". Jaisalmer.org.uk. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
  14. Hashid (3 September 2016). "Haveli Nau Nihal Singh: Searching for Vernacular in Lahore". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
  15. The Free Library. S.v. Hindu symbolism in Sikh art brickwork in Haveli Naunihal Singh.." Retrieved Oct 08 2017 from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Hindu+symbolism+in+sikh+art+brickwork+in+Haveli+Naunihal+Singh.-a0389937207