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A Justice of the High Court, commonly known as a ‘High Court judge’, is a judge of the High Court of Justice of England and Wales, and represents the third highest level of judge in the courts of England and Wales. High Court judges are referred to as puisne (pronounced puny) judges. High Court Judges wear red and black robes.
Upon appointment, all male High Court judges are appointed Knights Bachelor and female judges made Dames Commander of the Order of the British Empire.
In court, a High Court judge is referred to as My Lord or Your Lordship if male, or as My Lady or Your Ladyship if female. High Court judges use the title in office of Mr Justice for men or, normally, Mrs Justice for women, even if unmarried. When Alison Russell was appointed in 2014, she took the title "Ms Justice Russell". The style of The Honourable (or The Hon) is also used during office. For example, Sir Joseph Bloggs would be referred to as The Hon Mr Justice Bloggs Kt. and Dame Jane Bloggs DBE as The Hon Mrs Justice Bloggs DBE. When there is already or has until recently been a judge with the same (or a confusingly similar) surname as a new appointee, the new judge will often use a first name as part of his or her official title. Many judges have done this, such as Mr Justice Christopher Clarke (Sir Christopher Simon Courtenay Stephenson Clarke) and Mr Justice Roderick Evans (Sir David Roderick Evans).
When referring to a High Court judge in a legal context, the judge is identified by use of the surname (or first name and surname if appropriate), followed by the letter 'J'. For example, Mr Justice Bloggs or Mrs Justice Bloggs would be referred to as "Bloggs J". When two or more judges are listed the letters 'JJ' are used; for example, "Bloggs, Smith and Jones JJ".
High Court judges are appointed by The Queen on the advice of the Lord Chancellor. Under the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 the Judicial Appointments Commission has removed the appointment of judges from the overtly political arena. High Court judges, as with other judges, are appointed on open competition.
High Court judges, as with all judges in England and Wales, hold office during good behaviour; this is laid down in the Bill of Rights 1689. This gives them greater security of tenure than if they held office during His or Her Majesty's pleasure and is designed to protect their independence. A High Court judge can only be removed by the Queen upon an Address of both Houses of Parliament.
Formerly, High Court judges could only be appointed from among barristers of at least 10 years' standing.Before the qualifications changed, a typical appointee had in the region of twenty to thirty years' experience as a lawyer. Only four solicitors had been appointed as puisne judges – Michael Sachs in 1993, Lawrence Collins in 2000, Henry Hodge in 2004, and Gary Hickinbottom in 2008. Collins was elevated further to the Court of Appeal in 2007 and became a law lord in 2009. Occasionally more junior members of the judiciary are elevated to this rank, such as Mr Justice Crane who was formerly a Circuit Judge and Mrs Justice Butler-Sloss (now Baroness Butler-Sloss) who was previously a Registrar in the Principal Registry of the Family Division of the High Court. A few distinguished academics have also made it on to the High Court bench, including Mrs Justice Hale (now Baroness Hale of Richmond) and, more recently, Mr Justice Beatson. In 2004, calls for increased diversity among the judiciary were recognised and the qualification period was changed so that, as of 21 July 2008, a potential High Court Judge must satisfy the judicial-appointment eligibility condition on a seven-year basis.
While High Court judges all have the same jurisdiction, an appointee is in practice allocated to one of the High Court's three divisions: The Chancery Division, the Queen's Bench Division and the Family Division.
As of 2019, Puisne Judges of the High Court received a salary of £185,197 per year, the Chancellor of the High Court of £221,757 per year.
A puisne judge or puisne justice is a dated term for an ordinary judge or a judge of lesser rank of a particular court.
Ann Elizabeth Oldfield Butler-Sloss, Baroness Butler-Sloss, GBE, PC, is a retired English judge. She was the first female Lord Justice of Appeal and, until 2004, was the highest-ranking female judge in the United Kingdom. Until June 2007, she chaired the inquests into the deaths of Diana, Princess of Wales, and Dodi Fayed. She stood down from that task with effect from that date, and the inquest was conducted by Lord Justice Scott Baker.
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Heather Carol Hallett, Baroness Hallett is a retired English judge of the Court of Appeal and a crossbench life peer. She was the fifth woman to sit in the Court of Appeal after Dame Elizabeth Butler-Sloss (1988), Dame Brenda Hale (1999), Dame Mary Arden (2000) and Dame Janet Smith (2002).
Sir Adrian Bruce Fulford, styled The Rt Hon. Lord Justice Fulford, is a Lord Justice of Appeal and became, in 2017, the first Investigatory Powers Commissioner, a post he held until October 2019, when he became Vice-President of the Court of Appeal, in succession to Lady Justice Hallett DBE.
Dame Ann Marian Ebsworth, DBE was an English barrister and judge. In 1992, she became the sixth female High Court judge, and the first to be assigned to the Queen's Bench Division.
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Dame Julia Wendy Macur, DBE is a British judge of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales. Between April 2017 and December 2019, she was the Senior Presiding Judge for England and Wales.
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