|Purpose||Diagnose shoulder instability|
|Test of||Shoulder joint|
Jobe's test, also known as the relocation test and empty can test, is an orthopedic examination used to test stability of the shoulder.
The purpose of this test is to determine instability for the shoulder. This tests should be performed bilateral to compare stability of both right and left shoulder joints. [ full citation needed ]
The patient is to lie supine on the table. They are to place their shoulder at 90° abduction. The elbow should be flexed at 90°. The examiner should stand beside the patient with distal hand holding the patient's wrist and hand. The examiner's proximal hand is to be placed over the patient's humeral head.The examiner applies a posterior force to the humeral head and externally rotates the patients humerus.
The examiner applies a posterior force to the humeral head and externally rotates the patients humerus.
A decrease in pain or apprehension or an increase in range of motion is a positive sign for anterior instability.Anterior pain may be caused by laxity in anterior ligaments or capsular structures or a tear of the labrum. Posterior pain may be caused from internal impingement of the posterior capsular or labrum.
Jobe's test is a physical exam test that is used to detect anterior shoulder instability. It is used to distinguish between anterior instability and primary shoulder impingement. This test should be performed after the Apprehension test.This test was named for Christopher Jobe.
The humerus is a long bone in the arm that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. It connects the scapula and the two bones of the lower arm, the radius and ulna, and consists of three sections. The humeral upper extremity consists of a rounded head, a narrow neck, and two short processes. The body is cylindrical in its upper portion, and more prismatic below. The lower extremity consists of 2 epicondyles, 2 processes, and 3 fossae. As well as its true anatomical neck, the constriction below the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus is referred to as its surgical neck due to its tendency to fracture, thus often becoming the focus of surgeons.
In anatomy, the rotator cuff is a group of muscles and their tendons that act to stabilize the shoulder. Of the seven scapulohumeral muscles, four make up the rotator cuff. The four muscles are the supraspinatus muscle, the infraspinatus muscle, teres minor muscle, and the subscapularis muscle.
Shoulder problems including pain, are one of the more common reasons for physician visits for musculoskeletal symptoms. The shoulder is the most movable joint in the body. However, it is an unstable joint because of the range of motion allowed. This instability increases the likelihood of joint injury, often leading to a degenerative process in which tissues break down and no longer function well.
The human shoulder is made up of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula, and the humerus as well as associated muscles, ligaments and tendons. The articulations between the bones of the shoulder make up the shoulder joints. The shoulder joint, also known as the glenohumeral joint, is the major joint of the shoulder, but can more broadly include the acromioclavicular joint. In human anatomy, the shoulder joint comprises the part of the body where the humerus attaches to the scapula, and the head sits in the glenoid cavity. The shoulder is the group of structures in the region of the joint.
The teres minor is a narrow, elongated muscle of the rotator cuff. The muscle originates from the lateral border and adjacent posterior surface of the corresponding right or left scapula and inserts at both the greater tubercle of the humerus and the posterior surface of the joint capsule.
The shoulder joint is structurally classified as a synovial ball and socket joint and functionally as a diarthrosis and multiaxial joint. It involves articulation between the glenoid cavity of the scapula and the head of the humerus.
The Apley grind test or Apley test is used to evaluate individuals for problems in the meniscus of the knee. The Apley grind test has a reported sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 87%.
A SLAP tear or SLAP lesion is an injury to the glenoid labrum. SLAP is an acronym for "superior labral tear from anterior to posterior".
The glenoid labrum is a fibrocartilaginous structure rim attached around the margin of the glenoid cavity in the shoulder blade. The shoulder joint is considered a ball and socket joint. However, in bony terms the 'socket' is quite shallow and small, covering at most only a third of the 'ball'. The socket is deepened by the glenoid labrum.
A dislocated shoulder is when the head of the humerus is out of the shoulder joint. Symptoms include shoulder pain and instability. Complications may include a Bankart lesion, Hill-Sachs lesion, rotator cuff tear, or injury to the axillary nerve.
Shoulder surgery is a means of treating injured shoulders. Many surgeries have been developed to repair the muscles, connective tissue, or damaged joints that can arise from traumatic or overuse injuries to the shoulder.
A Hill–Sachs lesion, or Hill–Sachs fracture, is a cortical depression in the posterolateral head of the humerus. It results from forceful impaction of the humeral head against the anteroinferior glenoid rim when the shoulder is dislocated anteriorly.
Shoulder impingement syndrome is a syndrome involving tendonitis of the rotator cuff muscles as they pass through the subacromial space, the passage beneath the acromion. It is particularly associated with tendonitis of the supraspinatus muscle. This can result in pain, weakness and loss of movement at the shoulder.
The drop arm test is designed to determine a patient's ability to sustain humeral joint motion through eccentric contraction as the arm is taken through the full motion of abduction to adduction. It will determine if the patient has an underlying rotator cuff dysfunction.
A Shoulder examination is a portion of a physical examination used to identify potential pathology involving the shoulder. It should be conducted with both shoulders exposed to assess for asymmetry and muscle wasting.
Posterolateral corner injuries of the knee are injuries to a complex area formed by the interaction of multiple structures. Injuries to the posterolateral corner can be debilitating to the person and require recognition and treatment to avoid long term consequences. Injuries to the PLC often occur in combination with other ligamentous injuries to the knee; most commonly the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). As with any injury, an understanding of the anatomy and functional interactions of the posterolateral corner is important to diagnosing and treating the injury.
Humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (HAGL) is defined as an avulsion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament from the anatomic neck of the humerus. In other words, it occurs when we have disruption of the ligaments that join the humerus to the glenoid. HAGL tends to occur in 7.5-9.3% of cases of anterior shoulder instability. Making it an uncommon cause of anterior shoulder instability. Avulsion of this ligamentous complex may occur in three sites: glenoid insertion (40%), the midsubstance (35%) and the humeral insertion (25%). Bony humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (BHAGL) refers when we have HAGL with bony fracture.
Yergason's test is a special test used for orthopedic examination of the shoulder and upper arm region, specifically the biceps tendon.
The Hawkins–Kennedy Test is a test used in the evaluation of orthopedic shoulder injury. It was first described in the 1980s by American Drs. R. Hawkins and J. Kennedy, and a positive test is most likely indicative of damage to the tendon of the supraspinatus muscle.