A Lambeth degree is an academic degree conferred by the Archbishop of Canterbury under the authority of the Ecclesiastical Licences Act 1533 (25 Hen VIII c 21) (Eng) as successor of the papal legate in England. The degrees conferred most commonly are DD (Doctor of Divinity), DCL (Doctor of Civil Law), DLitt (Doctor of Letters), DMus (Doctor of Music), DM (Doctor of Medicine), BD (Bachelor of Divinity) and MA (Master of Arts). The relatively modern degree of MLitt (Master of Letters) has been conferred in recent years, and the MPhil (Master of Philosophy) and PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) are now available. The degrees awarded (and their letters) are dependent on which of the two ancient universities, Oxford or Cambridge, the archbishop chooses as his model. This is also related to the nature of the academic dress used.
The continued authority of the archbishop to confer degrees is recognised in accordance with section 216(1) of the Education Reform Act 1988 by the Education (Recognised Bodies) (England) Order 2013.There are two types of degrees awarded: those for the recognition of service to the church and those for which an examination is required.
Though Lambeth degrees awarded in recognition of service to the church are similar to honorary degrees, they are legally substantive degrees and are awarded only to those individuals deemed to have met the requirements for the degree in some way. They are awarded in recognition of prior learning or experience, but also serve as a form of church honours system.The extent of a person's learning is taken into account when it is being decided what degree should be conferred. An eminent and much-published scholar may be considered suitable for a doctorate, an experienced cleric or lay minister may be awarded the MA, and a senior figure with some published work may be considered for the BD. For some time in the 19th and 20th centuries, new diocesan bishops traditionally received the DD on appointment, but since 1961 this has not been the custom and all awards are made on an individual basis.
Because they are substantive degrees, holders of Lambeth doctorates are able to use the title "Doctor" (for example as "Dr John Smith") without the restrictions that sometimes apply to honorary degrees. The Latin designation of Canterbury, Cantuar, is used to explain the origin of the degree (for example "John Smith DD (Cantuar)" in the case of a Doctor of Divinity).
A Lambeth DD was awarded in 1987 to Chief Rabbi Sir Immanuel Jakobovits and others to Chief Rabbi Jonathan Sacks in 2001 and Rabbi Tony Bayfield in 2006, thus it is not a requirement to be either an Anglican or other Christian.
Degrees by examination are awarded by the archbishop at an annual service in the chapel at Lambeth Palace, in the framework of Evening Prayer - held separately from the service for the more "honorary" Lambeth degrees.
The archbishop's power to grant degrees did, and still does, require confirmation by the Crown and so the degrees are known as "degrees of the realm". All recipients have to be able to swear an oath to the monarch of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth realms, since the act of 1533 speaks of the monarch conferring degrees on his subjects.Applicants must fall into one of these categories (according to the Handbook for Students and Supervisors (2014)):
The degrees for which examination is required fall under the ambit of the Archbishop of Canterbury’s Examination in Theology (AET). There were two grades, the STh and the MA. The first was the Lambeth Diploma of Student in Theology (STh). The Lambeth Diploma was established in 1905 to provide a means of scholarly theological study and to encourage women to study theology. It was originally for women only and only since 1944 has it been for men also. It might be conducted by examination (part one in three biblical studies subjects, part two in four doctrine and optional subjects) or, since 1913, by a 30,000-40,000 words thesis for suitably qualified candidates (originally with a theology degree but, since 1969, other suitable theological qualifications).
Whether by examination or by thesis a candidate must have passed, or be exempted from, a paper in New Testament Greek. The standard was that of an honours degree. Successful candidates might join an association of Lambeth diploma holders. Most awards were by thesis alone in the latter years of the qualification.
A limited number of candidates with good theology qualifications might apply for a Lambeth Master of Arts degree by thesis, with the period of registration being usually between two and five years. Theses were limited to a maximum of 50,000 words, excluding the bibliography and bibliographic references, and a 1000 word abstract. The degree is styled MA Lambeth or MA Cantuar or (much more rarely) MA Canterbury. There might be no more than thirty candidates on the books at any one time.
MA examinations were introduced by Archbishop Tait in the late nineteenth century, but were brought to an end in the early part of the twentieth century by Archbishop Davidson. The MA degree was reinstated by Archbishop Runcie at the request of the Lambeth Diploma Committee to meet a need to provide for the possibility for theological study at a more advanced level than that offered by the diploma. The first award of the new degree was in 1993.
Candidates must have had at least a second class first division honours degree in theology or a subject related to the proposed thesis topic or, alternatively, a STh with distinction or another equivalent qualification. Applications were considered twice yearly by a committee appointed by the archbishop. Applicants were then interviewed by the director or a nominated member of the committee. The thesis was written under the direction of a supervisor appointed by the committee. It was examined by at least two examiners and the degree of MA awarded if the candidate's work was approved by both examiners and endorsed by the committee.
On 11 September 2007 the then Archbishop of Canterbury announced a new higher degree programme as an expansion of the Archbishop’s Examination in Theology. Applications for PhD and MPhil degrees in theology were accepted from early 2008 with the first awards of the new MPhil degrees anticipated in 2012 and doctorates shortly afterwards. The MA was to be phased out, but the STh would continue. However, in 2009 it was decided to also phase out the STh and focus entirely on the new research degrees.
The first two PhDs were awarded in 2012, to the Reverend Canon Les Oglesby and the Reverend Canon Robert Reiss. Canon Oglesby's thesis was titled: "God's involvement with evil: a dialogue between psychology and theology constructed from the works of Carl Gustav Jung and Hans Urs von Balthasar". Canon Reiss's thesis title was: "The testing of vocation: the twentieth century history of the Central Advisory Council for the Training of the Ministry and its successors".
The Archbishop's Examination in Theology is run by a committee, and the key office holders are the Reverend Jeremy Morris (director), the Reverend Canon Les Oglesby (academic registrar) and the Reverend Cortland Fransella (Lambeth awards officer).
In March 2016 on the third anniversary of his installation, the Archbishop of Canterbury announced a new set of non-academic Lambeth Awards, to be made annually, to recognise outstanding service in various fields. The new suite of awards consist of three existing Lambeth Awards – the Lambeth Cross, the Canterbury Cross and the Cross of St Augustine – and six new awards named after previous holders of the office of Archbishop of Canterbury. Each recognises outstanding service in different fields, including those of the archbishop’s ministry priorities: prayer and the religious life; reconciliation; and evangelism and witness. In view of these awards and the establishment of the AET, the current archbishop does not plan to award Lambeth degrees in the short term, so such nominations are not currently invited.
As with many degrees from elsewhere, holders of a Lambeth degree are entitled to wear academic dress. However, the academic dress worn is not unique, original or exclusive. The tradition is to wear the academic dress of the institution from which the archbishop graduated, which has always been either Oxford or Cambridge except for George Carey, who is a graduate of the University of London but followed tradition and chose Oxford dress. The then Vice-Chancellor of the University of London, Graham Zellick, attempted to see if London academic dress could be used but his attempt proved fruitless. It is uncertain whether robes from a university other than Oxford or Cambridge can be used when the archbishop is not an Oxford or Cambridge graduate.
There has been talk of whether holders of Lambeth degrees should have distinctive academic dress and some Lambeth degree holders have designed their own dress to wear, for example, Dr Turpin who commissioned an Oxford and Cambridge hybrid DMus robe.
However, the Lambeth STh Diploma has a distinctive academic dress. The hood is of black stuff of full Cambridge shape with the lining divided horizontally. The lower half is of light blue silk and the upper half is of white silk, so that the lining appears white over blue when worn. This is an unusual pattern for academic hoods in the UK so some STh hoods have been made of black stuff of full Cambridge shape, lined with mid-blue silk, and the cowl faced with eight inches of white silk. The gown is of the London BA pattern but with blue cords and buttons on the sleeves. 50–51:
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury. The current archbishop is Justin Welby, who was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 21 March 2013. Welby is the 105th in a line which goes back more than 1400 years to Augustine of Canterbury, the "Apostle to the English", sent from Rome in the year 597. Welby succeeded Rowan Williams.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, usually including bachelor's, master's and doctorates, often alongside other academic certificates and professional degrees. The most common undergraduate degree is the bachelor's degree, although in some countries there are lower level higher education qualifications that are also titled degrees.
A doctorate or doctor's degree or doctoral degree, is an academic degree awarded by universities, derived from the ancient formalism licentia docendi. In most countries, it is a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession. There are a number of doctoral degrees; the most common is the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), which is awarded in many different fields, ranging from the humanities to scientific disciplines.
Academic dress is a traditional form of clothing for academic settings, mainly tertiary education, worn mainly by those who have obtained a university degree, or hold a status that entitles them to assume them. It is also known as academical dress, academicals, subfusc and, in the United States, as academic regalia.
The academic dress of the former University of Wales was designed for the first graduations in 1893, and has as its main identifying feature a faculty colour scheme involving 'shot silks'.
Degree abbreviations are used as an alternative way to specify an academic degree instead of spelling out the title in full, such as in reference books such as Who's Who and on business cards. Many degree titles have more than one possible abbreviation, with the abbreviation used varying between different universities. In the UK it is normal not to punctuate abbreviations for degrees with full stops, although this is done at some universities.
The system of academic degrees at the University of Oxford can be confusing to those not familiar with it. This is not merely because many degree titles date from the Middle Ages, but also because many changes have been haphazardly introduced in recent years. For example, the (medieval) BD, BM, BCL, etc. are postgraduate degrees, while the (modern) MPhys, MEng, etc. are undergraduate degrees.
Doctor of Divinity is an advanced or honorary academic degree in divinity.
A licentiate is a degree below that of a PhD given by universities in some countries. The term is also used for a person who holds this degree. The term derives from Latin licentia, "freedom", which is applied in the phrases licentia docendi meaning permission to teach and licentia ad practicandum signifying someone who holds a certificate of competence to practise a profession. Many countries have degrees with this title, but they may represent different educational levels.
In the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin, Bachelors of Arts of these universities are promoted to the title of Master of Arts or Master in Arts (MA) on application after six or seven years' seniority as members of the university. As such, it is an academic rank, and not a postgraduate qualification. No further examination or study is required for this promotion.
The Associateship or Associate of King's College (AKC) award was the degree-equivalent qualification of King's College London from 1833. It is the original qualification that King's awarded to its students. In current practice, it is an optional award that students can study in addition to their degree proper. According to the Department of Theology & Religious Studies, the Associateship is considered a degree based in the Department of Theology & Religious Studies. After successfully completing the AKC course, participants may apply to be elected by the Dean's office as Associates, whereafter they are permitted to use the post-nominal letters AKC along with their main qualification.
The Master of Philosophy is an advanced postgraduate degree. An MPhil typically includes a taught portion and a significant research portion, during which a thesis project is conducted under supervision. An MPhil may be awarded to postgraduate students after completing taught coursework and one to two years of original research, which may also serve as a provisional enrollment for a PhD programme.
Doctor of Sacred Theology is the final theological degree in the pontifical university system of the Roman Catholic Church.
John Geoffrey Inge is a bishop in the Church of England. He is currently the Bishop of Worcester in the Diocese of Worcester. From 2003 to 2008, he was Bishop of Huntingdon, a suffragan bishop in the Diocese of Ely.
The Master of Sacred Theology is a graduate-level, North American, academic degree in theology equivalent to ThM. The Roman Catholic equivalent is the Licentiate in Sacred Theology (STL). An honorary title of STM is also awarded within the Dominican Order.
Master of Arts is a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries. The degree is usually contrasted with the Master of Science. Those admitted to the degree typically study linguistics, history, communication studies, diplomacy, public administration, political science, or other subjects within the scope of the humanities and social sciences; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the natural sciences and mathematics. The degree can be conferred in respect of completing courses and passing examinations, research, or a combination of the two.
The Bologna process for standardisation of European higher education specified an undergraduate degree of at least three years called the "licence" or bachelor's degree, followed by a two-year diploma called the master's degree, then a doctorate, meant to be obtained in at least three years. Because of these indicated schedules, the reform is sometimes (erroneously) referred to as "3-5-8". The system applies to the European Higher Education Area.
The academic dress of the University of Kent is normally only worn at graduation ceremonies. In common with most British universities a graduand begins the ceremony wearing the dress of the degree to which they are being admitted. This is in contrast to the practice at some universities such as Oxford where a graduand only dons the dress of a degree after it has been conferred.
A Doctor of Philosophy is the highest university degree that is conferred after a course of study by universities in most countries. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. As an earned research degree, those studying for a PhD are usually required to produce original research that expands the boundaries of knowledge, normally in the form of a thesis or dissertation, and defend their work against experts in the field. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree may, in many jurisdictions, use the title Doctor with their name, although the proper etiquette associated with this usage may also be subject to the professional ethics of their own scholarly field, culture, or society. Those who teach at universities or work in academic, educational, or research fields are usually addressed by this title "professionally and socially in a salutation or conversation." Alternatively, holders may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD", or "DPhil". It is, however, considered incorrect to use both the title and post-nominals at the same time.
Graduate of the Royal Schools of Music (GRSM) was a professional diploma of graduate status that was open to both internal students of the Royal Academy of Music and the Royal College of Music after joint examination. Candidates followed a three-year course including: first and second instrumental or vocal studies, harmony and counterpoint, aural training, history and analysis, conducting, composition and arrangement, and an academic thesis. The former Royal Manchester College of Music, now the Royal Northern College of Music, also awarded the diploma GRSM (Manchester). The graduate diploma awarded in London was phased out in the 1990s. When the Royal Academy became a full college of the University of London, the GRSM, along with the non-graduate Performers' Course, was replaced by the award of the BMus (London) for all successful undergraduate students. The Royal College of Music devised its own BMus course which it was entitled by Royal Charter to award. The other mainline British music colleges followed a similar model: Trinity College of Music awarded the GTCL graduate diploma and the Guildhall School of Music and Drama the GGSM diploma. Like the GRSM, they have been replaced.