Niger Delta Avengers

Last updated
Niger Delta Avengers
Participant in Conflict in the Niger Delta
ActiveJanuary 2016 – present
Ideology Regionalism
Headquarters Delta State (allegedly)
Area of operations Niger Delta
Allies Red Egbesu Water Lions
Joint Niger Delta Liberation Force
Niger Delta Red Square
Niger Delta Greenland Justice Mandate [1]
Opponent(s)Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria
Battles and war(s) Conflict in the Niger Delta
Website Official website

The Niger Delta Avengers (NDA) is a militant group in Nigeria's Niger Delta. [2] The group publicly announced their existence in March 2016. [3]

Nigeria Federal republic in West Africa

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. The federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular state.

Niger Delta delta of the Niger River in Nigeria

The Niger Delta is the delta of the Niger River sitting directly on the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean in Nigeria. It is typically considered to be located within nine coastal southern Nigerian states, which include: all six states from the South South geopolitical zone, one state (Ondo) from South West geopolitical zone and two states from South East geopolitical zone. Of all the states that the region covers, only Cross River is not an oil-producing state.

Contents

The NDA have attacked oil producing facilities in the delta, causing the shutdown of oil terminals and a fall in Nigeria's oil production to its lowest level in twenty years. [3] The attacks caused Nigeria to fall behind Angola as Africa's largest oil producer. [4] The reduced oil output has hampered the Nigerian economy and destroyed its budget, [5] since Nigeria depends on the oil industry for nearly all its government revenues. [6]

The NDA's declared aims are to create a sovereign state in the Niger Delta and have threatened to disrupt Nigeria's economy if their aims are not met. The NDA claims its members are "young, educated, well travelled...and educated in east Europe". The group have criticised the President of Nigeria, Muhammadu Buhari, for having never visited the delta and his detention of the Biafran independence activist Nnamdi Kanu. [3]

President of Nigeria Head of state and head of Nigerian government

The President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is the head of state and head of government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The President of Nigeria is also the commander-in-chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces. The President is elected in national elections which take place every four years. The first President of Nigeria was Nnamdi Azikiwe, who took office on October 1, 1963. However, Shehu Shagari is the First Executive President of Nigeria elected Democratically in 1979. The current President, Muhammadu Buhari took office on May 29, 2015 as the 15th President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

Muhammadu Buhari Nigerian president

Muhammadu Buhari is a Nigerian politician currently serving as the President of Nigeria, in office since 2015. He is a retired major general in the Nigerian Army and previously served as the nation's head of state from 31 December 1983 to 27 August 1985, after taking power in a military coup d'état. The term Buharism is ascribed to the Buhari military government.

Nnamdi Kanu Mazi Nnamdi Kanu

Nnamdi Okwu Kanu is a British-Nigerian political activist. He is the leader of the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB). IPOB is agitating for the "Independence and Restoration of the defunct state of Biafra". Nnamdi Kanu is the director of a UK registered radio station named Radio Biafra. Nnamdi Kanu was arrested on treason charges in Lagos Nigeria on 14 October 2015 and was detained for more than a year, despite various court orders that ruled for his release. When in court, Kanu appeared regularly wearing a Jewish prayer shawl and head covering. He said in court, that he "believes in Judaism" and considers himself a Jew. On 28 April 2017 Kanu was released from prison on bail.

Organization

The leadership of the organization is not understood, as many local leaders have acted as the spokesperson to the government. This has made it difficult for the government to make meaningful contact with the group. Nigerian officials are also disorganized when speaking with the members, as many have found it their duty to make contact. [7]

Timeline of activities

2016

Warri South West is a Local Government Area in Delta State, Nigeria. It was created in 1997 and has its headquarters in the town of Ogbe-Ijoh. It has an estimated land area of 1,722 km² and a population of 116,681 from the census of 2006 but this population has grown since then.

Lagos Metropolis in Nigeria

Lagos is a city in the Nigerian state of the same name. The city, with its adjoining conurbation, is the most populous in Nigeria and on the African continent. It is one of the fastest growing cities in the world and one of the most populous urban areas. Lagos is a major financial centre in Africa; the megacity has the fourth-highest GDP in Africa and houses one of the largest and busiest seaports on the continent.

Government Ekpemupolo ("Tompolo")(born 1971) is a Nigerian militant commander of the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta.

Related Research Articles

The Escravos River is a river in southern Nigeria. "Escravos" is a Portuguese word meaning "slaves" and the area was one of the main conduits for slave trade between Nigeria and the United States in the 18th century. The Escravos is a distributary of the Niger River, it flows for 57 kilometres (35 mi), ending at the Bight of Benin of the Gulf of Guinea where it flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Chevron, a major US oil company, has its main Nigerian oil production facility at the mouth of the Escravos River. This oil terminal pumps approximately 460,000 bbl/d (73,000 m3/d).

Petroleum industry in Nigeria Largest oil and gas producer in Africa.

Nigeria is the largest oil and gas producer in Africa. Crude oil from the delta basin comes in two types: light, and comparatively heavy – the lighter around 36 gravity and the heavier, 20–25 gravity. Both types are paraffinic and low in sulfur.

Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta militant group in Nigeria

The Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) is one of the largest militant groups in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

Shell Nigeria is the common name for Royal Dutch Shell's Nigerian operations carried out through four subsidiaries—primarily Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited (SPDC). Royal Dutch Shell's joint ventures account for more than 21% of Nigeria's total petroleum production(629,000 barrels per day in 2009) from more than eighty fields.

Conflict in the Niger Delta

The current conflict in the Niger Delta first arose in the early 1990s over tensions between foreign oil corporations and a number of the Niger Delta's minority ethnic groups who feel they are being exploited, particularly the Ogoni and the Ijaw. Ethnic and political unrest has continued throughout the 1990s despite the conversion to democracy and the election of the Obasanjo government in 1999. Competition for oil wealth has fueled violence between ethnic groups, causing the militarization of nearly the entire region by ethnic militia groups, Nigerian military and police forces, notably the Nigerian Mobile Police. The violence has contributed to Nigeria's ongoing energy supply crisis by discouraging foreign investment in new power generation plants in the region.

Chanomi Creek is a body of water in the Niger Delta in Delta State, Nigeria.

The Bassan tribe (Basan) of the Ijaw people lives in western Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Bassan settlements include: Ezetu, Koloama, Sangana, Foropah, Ukubie, Lubia, Azuzuama, Akparatubo, and Ekeni.

The Engenni people (Egeni) are considered by themselves and some to be a distinct ethnic nationality and by others to be a branch of the Urhobo-Isoko ethnic group. They primarily live in Ahoada West Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Although they are erroneously viewed as Ijaw, the Engenni speak an Edoid language. The Engenni have close relations with a neighboring Ijaw tribe such as the Zarama as well as a fellow edoid tribe Epie-Atissa.

Nigerian Ports Authority

The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) is a federal government agency that governs and operates the ports of Nigeria. The major ports controlled by the NPA include: the Lagos Port Complex and Tin Can Island Port in Lagos; Calabar Port, Delta Port, Rivers Port at Port Harcourt, and Onne Port. Operations of the NPA are carried out in affiliation with the Ministry of Transport and the Nigerian Shippers' Council. The Head office of the Nigerian Ports Authority is located in Marina, Lagos.

Escravos GTL is a gas to liquids (GTL) project based in Escravos region, Nigeria. It is located in the Niger Delta about 100 kilometres (62 mi) southeast of Lagos. The plant converts natural gas into liquid petroleum products.

Oloibiri Oilfield

Oloibiri Oilfield is an onshore oilfield located in Oloibiri in Ogbia LGA of Bayelsa State, Nigeria, about 45 miles (72 km) east of Port Harcourt in the Niger Delta. Oloibiri field is about 13.75 square kilometres (5.31 sq mi) and lies in a swamp within OML 29. Oloibiri Oilfield is named after Oloibiri, a small, remote creek community, where it is located. In Nigeria, oilfields are usually named after the host community where it is located or a local landmark. Sometimes, oilfields are also given names taken from indigenous languages.

Oloibiri is a small community in Ogbia LGA located in Bayelsa State, in the eastern Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The inhabitants of Oloibiri community are mainly fishermen and farmers. This is the first place Oil was first discovered in Nigeria.

The Niger Delta Liberation Front (NDLF) is a militant group in Nigeria's Niger Delta. The group's former leader John Togo claims that their main goal is to secede from Nigeria and gain independence from Nigeria. The group is best known for their notorious leader John Togo who is known throughout Nigeria as a fierce soldier. Although Togo is the NDLF's most notorious member he was killed on July 19, 2011 by a Nigerian air strike near Warri in Delta State. The group is closely linked to the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta and fight side by side against the Nigerian Army. In early 2013 war erupted within the NDLF after 2 different commanders claimed to be leader. It ended after one was killed in March 2013.

The 2016 Niger Delta conflict is an ongoing conflict around the Niger Delta region of Nigeria in a bid for the secession of the region, which was a part of the breakaway state of Biafra. It follows on-and-off conflict in the Christian-dominated southern Niger Delta in the preceding years, as well as an insurgency in the Muslim-dominated northeast.

The Niger Delta Greenland Justice Mandate (NDGJM) is a militant group operating in Nigeria's Niger Delta region. The group was founded on August 2, 2016 in Delta State and is composed mainly of ethnic Urhobos, and a fairly large number of members belonging to the Isoko ethnic group.

Chevron Nigeria Limited is a subsidiary of Chevron Corporation and it is one of the largest oil producers in Nigeria. It was previously operating in Nigeria under the business name of Gulf Oil Company until merger activities changed its name to Chevron Nigeria. After another merger by the parent company with Texaco, the Nigerian oil and gas assets of Texaco Overseas Petroleum Company of Nigeria were merged into Chevron.

Oil theft in Nigeria is considered to be the illegal appropriation of crude or refined oil products from the pipelines of multinational oil companies. Oil theft in Nigeria is facilitated by the extensive corruption between security forces, militia organizations, the local population, and oil company employees who use a variety of methods to steal oil from the multinational oil corporations that are stationed within the country. Currently, Exxon Mobil, Chevron, Statoil, Shell, and Agip are the five largest multinational oil companies present in Nigeria. Due to the lack of federal oversight and a large network of corruption, oil theft is primarily cellular rather than hierarchical and requires frequent collaboration between a variety of random players depending on the level of oil theft being committed. Each group maintains a specific role in the oil theft trade in Nigeria. These key players use methods such as hot-tapping and cold-tapping to perform oil bunkering and steal thousands of barrels of oil per day from established oil pipelines. In addition to stealing oil from the pipelines, oil theft can also occur during the transportation of the crude oil product to the oil shipping terminals for export.

References

  1. "PressTV-Militants blow up pipeline in Nigeria". presstv.com. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  2. "18 new armed groups spring up in Nigeria". Premium Times Nigeria. 2016-10-18. Retrieved 2018-12-11.
  3. 1 2 3 "Nigeria arrests 'Avengers' oil militants". BBC News Online. 16 May 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  4. Elena Holodny (16 May 2016). "Africa's largest oil producer has been dethroned". Business Insider. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  5. "The Niger Delta Avengers: Danegeld in the Delta". The Economist . 25 June 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
  6. "Avengers unite! Violence in the Delta has cut oil output by a third. It may get even worse". The Economist . 25 June 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
  7. DiChristopher, Tom (2016-10-26). "The Niger Delta Avengers are back — and they've got big oil in their crosshairs". www.cnbc.com. Retrieved 2018-12-11.
  8. "Militants Bomb Nnpc Pipelines Same Day Chevron Gas Line In Delta Was Attacked". The Nigerian Voice . 8 May 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  9. "We Didn't attack any Military Houseboat". NDA. 2 June 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  10. "STRIKE TEAM THREE STRIKES".