Republic of West Papua

Last updated

Coordinates: 4°16′00″S136°09′00″E / 4.2667°S 136.1500°E / -4.2667; 136.1500

Contents

Republic of West Papua
Republik Papua Barat
Motto: One People One Soul
Anthem:  Hai Tanahku Papua   (Indonesian)
(English: "Oh My Land Papua")
LocationWestPapua.svg
Status Unrecognized proposed state
Capital Jayapura
Common languages Indonesian, Dutch, English and Papuan languages
Demonym(s) Papuan
Government Provisional government [1] [2]
Establishment
27 December 1949
1 October 1962
1 May 1963
19 November 1969
  Free Papua Movement proclaimed republic
1 July 1971
  Dr. Thomas Wainggai proclaimed republic
14 December 1988
 West Papua National Authority proclaimed federal republic [3]
19 October 2011

The Republic of West Papua (Indonesian : Republik Papua Barat) is a proposed state consisting of the Western New Guinea region. The region has been administered by Indonesia since 1 May 1963 under several names in the following order: West Irian, Irian Jaya, and Papua. Today the region comprises two Indonesian provinces: Papua and West Papua.

The proposal is supported by Solomon Islands and Vanuatu with the Parliament of Vanuatu passing the Wantok Blong Yumi Bill (Our Close Friends) in 2010 officially declaring that Vanuatu's foreign policy is to support the achievement of the independence of West Papua. [4] [5] [6] The parliament has proposed requesting that West Papua be granted observer status at the Melanesian Spearhead Group and Pacific Island Forum. [7] [8] [9]

The Republic of West Papua was formerly a member state of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) since the organization's founding in 1991. [10]

History

The region was previously mostly unclaimed, with the coastal regions and surrounding islands having a trading relationship with both the Sultanate of Tidore and the Sultanate of Ternate. Under the 1660 treaty between the Sultanate of Tidore and the Sultanate of Ternate which was under Dutch colony the Papuan people are recognized as subjects of Tidore sultanate. Under the 1872 treaty, the Sultanate of Tidore recognized Dutch control over its entire territory, which was used by the Kingdom of the Netherlands to establish West Papua as a formal colony part of the Dutch East Indies. For most of the colonial rule, there was no distinction made between Moluccans and Papuan. With parts of New Guinea is ruled administratively under Residentie Amboina. In 1922, Residentie Ternate was combined with Residentie Amboina and renamed Residentie Molukken. In 1935 the Residentie was renamed Gouvernement Molukken until the creation of Gouvernement Groote Oost in 1938, in which Gouvernement Molukken became residentie again. Under Dutch colonialism, West New Guinea is separated into two afdeeling, Afdeeling Nieuw-Guinea, and Afdeeling Zuid Nieuw-Guinea. [11]

In 1949 after the Round Table conference, Netherlands kept part of its colony with the West New Guinea region known as Dutch New Guinea. The Dutch planned to settle most of its mixed population from Dutch East Indies in West New Guinea. When that plan failed, the Dutch had planned to withdraw by 1970 and began "Papuanization" to prepare for independence. [12] In February 1961, the Dutch organised elections for the New Guinea Council a Papuan representative body to advise the Governor. [12] [13] The Council appointed a National Committee to prepare a political manifesto for the future state. [12] [13] On 1 December 1961, an inauguration ceremony was held for the Morning Star flag raised outside the Council building in the presence of the Governor, also the national anthem "Hai Tanahku Papua", the birds of paradise coat of arms, motto and the name of Papua Barat (West Papua) for the proposed new state. [12] [13] The Dutch had accepted the Manifesto except the denomination of the flag recognizing it as a territorial flag not a national flag. [13]

The Dutch continued the formation of a council on October 19, 1961 which drafted the Manifesto for Independence and Self-Government, the national flag (the Morning Star Flag), the national stamp, the birds of paradise coat of arms, motto and the name of Papua Barat (West Papua), chose "Hai Tanahku Papua" as the national anthem, and asked people to be recognized as Papuans. The Dutch recognized this flag and song on November 18, 1961 and these regulations came into force on December 1, 1961. [12] [13] The Dutch stated that they had accepted the Manifesto except for the denomination of the flag recognizing it as a territorial flag, not a national flag. [13]

On 1 July 1971, Brigadier General Seth Jafeth Rumkorem, a former member of Indonesian military cadet and son of an Indonesian military officer, defected and became the leader of the militant independence movement Free Papua Movement (Indonesian : Organisasi Papua Merdeka, (OPM)), proclaimed unilaterally West Papua as an independent democratic republic. [14] The Morning Star flag was declared as a national flag. [13]

On 14 December 1988, Dr. Thomas Wainggai unilaterally proclaimed the Republic of West Melanesia using the Melanesian identity of the West Papuan people the name. [15] [16] The West Melanesia flag featured 14 stars with three colored bars of black, red and white. [15]

On 19 October 2011, Forkorus Yaboisembut, the head of the West Papua National Authority (WPNA), proclaimed the Federal Republic of West Papua (Indonesian : Negara Republik Federal Papua Barat, (NRFPB)) with the Mambruk pigeon as the symbol of state. [17]

In December 2014, all West Papuan independence movement groups were united under a single umbrella organization the United Liberation Movement for West Papua (ULMWP). The organization is chaired by Benny Wenda. [18] [19] In July 2019, the ULMWP claimed to have earlier in May united all West Papuan military factions under the one command forming the West Papua Army, including the West Papua National Liberation Army (TPNPB), that would be under "the political leadership of the ULMWP". [20] The TPNPB released a statement in response denying that it had merged and called for a retraction and apology and said it had withdrawn from the ULMWP following a ULMWP summit in Vanuatu in 2017. [21] [22] On 1 December 2020, the ULMWP announced it was forming a provisional government for the Republic of West Papua with a provisional constitution and with Benny Wenda as interim president. [23] [24]

See also

Related Research Articles

North Maluku Province of Indonesia

North Maluku is a province of Indonesia. It covers the northern part of the Maluku Islands, bordering the Pacific Ocean to the north, the Halmahera Sea to the east, the Molucca Sea to the west, and the Seram Sea to the south. The provincial capital is Sofifi on the largest island of Halmahera, while the largest city is the island city of Ternate. The population of North Maluku was 1,038,087 in the 2010 census, making it one of the least-populous provinces in Indonesia, but by the 2020 Census the population had risen to 1,282,937.

Maluku (province) Province of Indonesia

Maluku is a province of Indonesia. It comprises the central and southern regions of the Maluku Islands. The main city and capital of Maluku province is Ambon on the small Ambon Island. The land area is 62,946 km2, and the total population of this province at the 2010 census was 1,533,506 people, rising to 1,848,923 at the 2020 Census. Maluku is located in Eastern Indonesia. It is directly adjacent to North Maluku and West Papua in the north, Central Sulawesi, and Southeast Sulawesi in the west, Banda Sea, East Timor and East Nusa Tenggara in the south and Arafura Sea and Papua in the east.

Tidore City in Maluku Islands, Indonesia

Tidore is a city, island, and archipelago in the Maluku Islands of eastern Indonesia, west of the larger island of Halmahera. Part of North Maluku Province, the city includes the island of Tidore together with a large part of Halmahera Island to its east. In the pre-colonial era, the Sultanate of Tidore was a major regional political and economic power, and a fierce rival of nearby Ternate, just to the north.

Western New Guinea Region of eastern Indonesia on the island of New Guinea

Western New Guinea, also known as Papua, is the western portion of the island of New Guinea controlled by Indonesia since 1962. Since the island is alternatively named as Papua, the region is also called West Papua. Lying to the west of Papua New Guinea, it is the only Indonesian territory situated in Oceania. Considered to be a part of the Australian continent, the territory is mostly in the Southern Hemisphere and includes the Schouten and Raja Ampat archipelagoes. The region is predominantly covered with ancient rainforest where numerous traditional tribes live such as the Dani of the Baliem Valley although a large proportion of the population live in or near coastal areas with the largest city being Jayapura.

Morning Star flag Flag of Netherlands New Guinea and West Papua independence movement

The Morning Star flag was a flag used in a supplemental fashion on Netherlands New Guinea to the flag of the Netherlands. It was first raised on 1 December 1961 prior to the territory coming under administration of the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority (UNTEA) on 1 October 1962.

United Liberation Movement for West Papua West Papua independence umbrella organization

The United Liberation Movement for West Papua (ULMWP) unites the three main political independence movements seeking independence for Western New Guinea from Indonesia under a single umbrella organisation. The ULMWP was formed on 7 December 2014 in Vanuatu uniting the Federal Republic of West Papua (NRFPB), the West Papua National Coalition for Liberation (WPNCL) and the National Parliament of West Papua (NPWP).

Melanesian Spearhead Group

The Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG) is an intergovernmental organization, composed of the four Melanesian states of Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, and the Kanak and Socialist National Liberation Front of New Caledonia. In June 2015, Indonesia was recognized as an associate member.

Sultanate of Ternate Sultanate

The Sultanate of Ternate, previously also known as The Kingdom of Gapi is one of the oldest Muslim kingdoms in Indonesia besides Tidore, Jailolo, and Bacan. The Ternate kingdom was established by Momole Cico, the first leader of Ternate, with the title Baab Mashur Malamo, traditionally in 1257. It reached its Golden Age during the reign of Sultan Baabullah (1570–1583) and encompassed most of the eastern part of Indonesia and a part of southern Philippines. Ternate was a major producer of cloves and a regional power from the 15th to 17th centuries.

Sultanate of Tidore

Sultanate of Tidore was a sultanate in Southeast Asia, centered on Tidore in the Spice Islands. It was also known as Duko, its ruler carrying the title Kië ma-kolano. Tidore was a rival of the Sultanate of Ternate for control of the spice trade, and had an important historical role as binding the archipelagic civilizations of Indonesia to the Papuan world.

Sultanate of Bacan

The Sultanate of Bacan was a state in Maluku Islands, present-day Indonesia that arose with the expansion of the spice trade in late medieval times. It mainly consisted of the Bacan Islands but had periodical influence in Ceram and the Papuan Islands. It fell under the colonial influence of Portugal in the 16th century and the Dutch East India Company (VOC) after 1609. Bacan was one of the four kingdoms of Maluku together with Ternate, Tidore and Jailolo, but tended to be overshadowed by Ternate. After the independence of Indonesia in 1949, the governing functions of the sultan were gradually replaced by a modern administrative structure. However, the sultanate has been revived as a cultural entity in present times.

Benny Wenda West Papuan activist

Benny Wenda is a West Papuan independence leader and Chairman of the United Liberation Movement for West Papua (ULMWP). He is an international lobbyist for the independence of West Papua from Indonesia. He lives in exile in the United Kingdom. In 2003 he was granted political asylum by the British government following his escape from custody while on trial.

Ternate language

Ternate or Ternatese is a North Halmahera language of eastern Indonesia. It is spoken on the island of Ternate, and some neighboring areas in North Maluku, including Halmahera, Hiri, Kayoa and the Bacan Islands. Historically, it served as the primary language of the Sultanate of Ternate, famous for its role in the spice trade. A North Halmahera language, it is unlike most languages of Indonesia which belong to the Austronesian language family.

The North Halmahera languages are a family of languages spoken in the northern and eastern parts of the island of Halmahera and some neighboring islands in Indonesia. The southwestern part of the island is occupied by the unrelated South Halmahera languages, which are a subgroup of Austronesian. They may be most closely related to the languages of the Bird's Head region of West Papua, but this is not well-established.

West New Guinea dispute International conflict

The West New Guinea dispute (1950–1962), also known as the West Irian dispute, was a diplomatic and political conflict between the Netherlands and Indonesia over the territory of Netherlands New Guinea. While the Netherlands had ceded sovereignty to Indonesia on 27 December 1949 following an independence struggle, the Indonesian government had always claimed the Dutch-controlled half of New Guinea on the basis that it had belonged to the Dutch East Indies and that the new Republic of Indonesia was the legitimate successor to the former Dutch colony.

Ciri Leliatu or Sultan Jamaluddin was the first Sultan of Tidore in Maluku Islands, who reigned at a time when Islam made advances in this part of Indonesia because of contacts brought about by the increased trade in spices. He is also sometimes credited with the first Tidorese contacts with the Papuan Islands.

Saifuddin of Tidore Sultan of Tidore

Sultan Saifuddin, also known as Golofino was the eleventh Sultan of Tidore in Maluku islands. Reigning from 1657 to 1687, he left Tidore's old alliance with the Spanish Empire and made treaties with the Dutch East India Company (VOC), which now became hegemonic in Maluku for the next century. Tidore was forced to extirpate the clove trees in its territory and thus ceased to be a spice Sultanate. In spite of this, Saifuddin and his successors were able to preserve a degree of independence due to the trade in products from the Papuan Islands and New Guinea.

Sultan Zainal Abidin was the twentieth Sultan of Tidore in Maluku Islands. He inherited the anti-Dutch movement that had been built up by his brother Nuku, succeeding him as ruler in 1805. However, he was not capable of resisting renewed attacks by the Dutch colonial power and was forced to flee from Tidore Island in 1806. In the following years he tried using allied populations in Halmahera and Papua to fight the Dutch, with limited success, until his demise in 1810. He was the last independent Sultan of Tidore, since his successors were firmly under British or Dutch control.

Zainal Abidin Syah Sultan of Tidore

Sultan Zainal Abidin Alting Syah was the 26th Sultan of Tidore in Maluku Islands, reigning from 1947 to 1967. He was also the appointed Governor of Irian Barat in 1956-1962 before the actual inclusion of Irian Barat in Indonesia, serving official Indonesian claims against Dutch colonial rule.

Kingdom of Kaimana

The Kingdom of Kaimana, or Kingdom of Sran is one of the oldest Muslim kingdoms in West Papua (province). The kingdom was established by Imaga, with the title Rat Sran Nati Pattimuni, traditionally in 1309.

References

  1. "West Papua independence leaders declare 'government-in-waiting'". The Guardian. 30 November 2020. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  2. Namita Singh (1 Dec 2020). ""Benny Wenda proclaimed provisional (in waiting) government"". Independent.co.uk. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  3. "Provisional government of west papua". federalstatesofwestpapua. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  4. "Fiery debate over West Papua at UN General Assembly". Radio New Zealand 2017. 27 September 2017. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  5. "Indonesia hits back at Melanesian leaders on West Papua". Radio New Zealand. 27 September 2017. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  6. Manning, Selwyn (22 June 2010). "Vanuatu to seek observer status for West Papua at MSG and PIF leaders summits". Pacific Scoop. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  7. "Indonesia; Vanuatu: Vanuatu Parliament Passes Resolution on West Papua Independence | Global Legal Monitor". www.loc.gov. Buchanan, Kelly. 2010-07-21. Retrieved 2018-05-02.CS1 maint: others (link)
  8. "Vanuatu to seek UN General Assembly support for ICJ opinion on Indonesia's Papua". Radio New Zealand. 2010-06-21. Retrieved 2018-05-02.
  9. "Pacific.scoop.co.nz » Vanuatu to seek observer status for West Papua at MSG and PIF leaders summits". pacific.scoop.co.nz. Retrieved 2018-05-02.
  10. Simmons (ed.). Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization Yearbook 1995. Kluwer Law International. pp. 1–3. ISBN   90-411-0223-X.
  11. Rollings, Leslie (2010). The West Papua Dilemma (Thesis). University of Wollongong. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 Saltford, John (2003). The United Nations and the Indonesian takeover of West Papua, 1962-1969 : the anatomy of betrayal (PDF). London ; New York: Routledge Curzon. ISBN   0203221877. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 October 2017.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Tanggahma, Leonie (1 December 2012). "A History of the Morning Star Flag of West Papua". West Papua Media. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  14. "West Papua". Unrepresented Nations and People Organization (UNPO). 15 October 2014. Archived from the original on 22 October 2017.
  15. 1 2 King, Peter (2004). West Papua & Indonesia since Suharto: independence, autonomy or chaos?. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press. ISBN   9780868406763.
  16. "Human Rights in Papua 2010/2011" (PDF). Papua land of peace - faith based network on West Papua. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2017.
  17. "Government". Federal State Republic of West Papua. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  18. Ligo, Godwin (10 December 2014). "West Papuans unite under new umbrella group". Vanuatu Daily Post. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
  19. Chivers, Danny (10 May 2017). "Morning Star Rising". New Internationalist. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017.
  20. "West Papuan military factions form unified 'West Papua Army' in historic declaration". United Liberation Movement for West Papua (Press release). 1 July 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  21. Davidson, Helen (3 July 2019). "West Papuan independence group says it is 'ready to take over country'". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  22. "OPM Bongkar Siasat Benny Wenda di ULMWP Rebut Tanah Papua". CNN Indonesia (in Indonesian). 4 December 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  23. "'Provisional Government' of West Papua announced, Indonesian rule rejected". United Liberation Movement for West Papua (Press release). 1 December 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  24. Doherty, Ben (1 December 2020). "West Papua Independence Leaders Declare 'Government-in-Waiting'". The Guardian . Retrieved 1 December 2020.

Further reading