Santa Cruz de Rosales

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Santa Cruz de Rosales
Villa
Mexico States blank map.svg
Red pog.svg
Santa Cruz de Rosales
Location in Mexico
Coordinates: 28°12′N105°33′W / 28.200°N 105.550°W / 28.200; -105.550 Coordinates: 28°12′N105°33′W / 28.200°N 105.550°W / 28.200; -105.550
CountryFlag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
State Chihuahua
Municipality Rosales
Elevation 1,170 m (3,840 ft)
Population (2010)
  Total 5,570
Time zone Central Standard Time (UTC-6)
  Summer (DST) Central Daylight Time (UTC-5)

Santa Cruz de Rosales is a town and seat of the municipality of Rosales, in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua. As of 2010, the town had a population of 5,570, [1] up from 5,377 as of 2005 [2]

Town settlement that is bigger than a village but smaller than a city

A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary considerably between different parts of the world.

Chihuahua (state) State of Mexico

Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua, is one of the 31 states of Mexico. It is located in Northwestern Mexico and is bordered by the states of Sonora to the west, Sinaloa to the southwest, Durango to the south, and Coahuila to the east. To the north and northeast, it has a long border with the U.S. adjacent to the U.S. states of New Mexico and Texas. Its capital city is Chihuahua City.

Contents

History

The Rosales region, formed by the middle and lower reaches of the San Pedro River, was evangelized during the seventeenth century by Franciscans who settled among the indigenous Conchos and founded the Misión de San Pedro de Conchos in the mid-17th century. In 1714, the Franciscans planted a new mission with the name of Santa Cruz de Tapacolmes on the eastern side of the Río San Pedro and west of what is today the city of Delicias. The mission remained at that place until 1753, when it was relocated to its current place on the western side of the Río San Pedro, to improve defensibility from native attacks. The grounds where the new settlement was founded were donated by Sergeant Major Juan Antonio Trasviña y Retes and Nueva Vizcaya governor Manuel de San Juan y Santa Cruz. The settlement received the epithet of Tapacolmes by the Indians that Trasviña y Retes brought from the Ojinaga region to populate the settlement.

The San Pedro River (Chihuahua) is a river of Mexico. It is a tributary of the Rio Conchos, which in turn flows into the Rio Grande.

Nueva Vizcaya was the first province in the north of New Spain to be explored and settled by the Spanish. It consisted mostly of the area which is today the states of Chihuahua and Durango in Mexico.

Ojinaga Town in Chihuahua, Mexico

Ojinaga is a town and seat of the municipality of Ojinaga, in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua. As of 2015, the town had a total population of 28,040. It is a rural bordertown on the U.S.-Mexico border, with the city of Presidio, Texas, directly opposite, on the U.S. side of the border. Ojinaga is situated where the Río Conchos drains into the Río Grande, an area called La Junta de los Rios. Presidio and Ojinaga are connected by the Presidio-Ojinaga International Bridge.

Santa Cruz de Tapacolmes became an important population center of the region. It was first a subdivision of the township of Chihuahua. In 1820, with the reinstatement of the Constitution of Cadiz, it was designated the seat of the new Municipalidad de Tapacolmes and a town hall was constructed. On July 12, 1831 a decree of the Congress of Chihuahua gave it the status of Villa and the town and municipality was renamed Santa Cruz de Rosales in honor of the insurgent revolutionary hero Víctor Rosales. The name was soon simplified by the locals to Rosales.

Víctor Rosales Mexican rebel

Víctor Rosales;, was a Mexican military officer born in Zacatecas, in the central Viceroyalty of New Spain. Rosales was a field marshal in the Mexican War of Independence.

In 1848, after the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in February, the state of Chihuahua was again invaded by the US army under General Sterling Price, claiming the existence of a state of war between the two countries and rejecting the explanations of Governor Ángel Trías Álvarez, who had participated in signing the peace treaty. Trias then retreated with his Chihuahua government to Rosales, where on March 16, 1848 Price's forces attacked the Mexican garrison under what has come to be known as the Battle of Santa Cruz de Rosales. The Mexicans resisted under the command of Trías until they were exhausted, at which point they had to surrender. After Price's superiors in the US learned of the action, Price was recalled back to El Paso with his forces and reprimanded for his insubordinate and unauthorized behavior.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo peace treaty that concludes Mexican-American War of 1846-1848

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, officially titled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, is the peace treaty signed on February 2, 1848, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican–American War (1846–1848). The treaty came into force on July 4, 1848.

Sterling Price American politician

Sterling "Old Pap" Price was an American lawyer, planter, soldier, and politician from the U.S. state of Missouri, who served as the 11th Governor of the state from 1853 to 1857. He also served as a United States Army brigadier general during the Mexican–American War, and a Confederate Army major general in the American Civil War. Price is best known for his victories in New Mexico and Chihuahua during the Mexican conflict, and for his losses at the Battles of Pea Ridge and Westport during the Civil War–the latter being the culmination of his ill-fated Missouri Campaign of 1864.

The Battle of Santa Cruz de Rosales was an engagement of the Mexican–American War that took place after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo had been signed.

In 1862, on his retreat to the north of Mexico in the face of the invasion of Mexico by the French forces of Napoleon III, President Benito Juárez arrived at Rosales, who was received with a banquet and dance in his honor. During the celebration, Juárez agreed to dance to the second song played during the festivities, a polka called "La Escobita" which was to his great liking. When he later moved to the city of Chihuahua, he had chance to hear the piece again but, as he did not know its name, he called the song La Segunda de Rosales, a name that acquired popular roots and how it is still known to this day. [3]

Second French intervention in Mexico invasion of Mexico, launched in late 1861, by the Second French Empire

The Second French Intervention in Mexico was an invasion of Mexico, launched in late 1861, by the Second French Empire (1852–70). Initially supported by Britain and Spain, the French intervention in Mexico was a consequence of President Benito Juárez's two-year moratorium, on 17 July 1861, of loan-interest payments to French, British and Spanish creditors.

Benito Juárez President of Mexico during XIX century

Benito Pablo Juárez García was a Mexican lawyer and president of Mexico, of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca.

Towards the end of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the importance of Rosales in the region declined to the benefit of the nearby Villa of Meoqui, where the central railway passed through. But in the second half of the 20th century, the region received a great boost. In the 1940s, the federal government built the Francisco I. Madero Dam, better known as the Las Vírgenes Dam, just five kilometers upstream from Rosales and which, together with other flood control structures recently built, created Irrigation District 05, today one of the most productive agricultural zones in the state of Chihuahua. (The Municipality of Delicias, formed in 1935 from parts of the Santa Cruz de Rosales and the Meoqui municipalities, became the greatest beneficiary of this water project.) [4]

On January 22, 1992, a new decree of the Congress of Chihuahua restored the original name of Santa Cruz de Rosales to the community.

Location and Demographics

Santa Cruz de Rosales is located in the central area of the state of Chihuahua and in the valley formed by the San Pedro River, one of the main rivers in the state and a tributary of the Conchos River. The town is located in the northern margin of the municipality of Rosales at the geographical coordinates 28°11′13″N105°33′16″W / 28.18694°N 105.55444°W / 28.18694; -105.55444 and sits at an altitude of 1,180 meters above sea level. Two state roads connect Santa Cruz de Rosales with its closest neighbors, Meoqui and Delicias, which are 25 and 15 kilometers away respectively. The road that joins Santa Cruz de Rosales to Meoqui also connects it with Congregación Ortíz, the second most populated town in the municipality.

According to the results of the Population and Housing Census conducted by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography in 2010, the total population of Santa Cruz de Rosales is 5,570 inhabitants, with 2,746 men and 2,824 women. [3] This makes it the 27th-largest municipality in Chihuahua by population.

See also

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References

  1. "Rosales". Catálogo de Localidades. Secretaría de Desarrollo Social (SEDESOL). Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  2. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. Principales resultados por localidad 2005 (ITER). Retrieved on October 25, 2008
  3. 1 2 Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática. "Archivo histórico de localidades" . Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  4. "Enciclopedia de los Municipios y Delegaciones de México (State of Chihuahua, Rosales and Delicias Municipalities)" . Retrieved 12 Aug 2018.