The city clock tower
|Foundation||April 30, 1933|
|• Municipal president|| Eliseo Compeán Fernández |
|Elevation||1,415 m (4,642 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC−7 (Pacific (US Mountain))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−6 (Pacific)|
Delicias (Spanish for Delights) is a city in the Mexican state of Chihuahua and serves as the seat of the municipality of the same name. It is located southeast of the state capital, Chihuahua. Delicias was declared an official municipality of the state of Chihuahua on January 7, 1935. Delicias is a small industrial city and a major agricultural center located in the Conchos River Valley. As of 2015, the city of Delicias had a population of 148,045 inhabitants,while the metropolitan area had a population of 223,993 inhabitants. It was founded on 30 April 1933, making it one of Mexico's youngest cities. The municipality of Delicias is one of the smallest in the state in terms of size area.
Chihuahua, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Chihuahua, is one of the 31 states of Mexico. It is located in Northwestern Mexico and is bordered by the states of Sonora to the west, Sinaloa to the southwest, Durango to the south, and Coahuila to the east. To the north and northeast, it has a long border with the U.S. adjacent to the U.S. states of New Mexico and Texas. Its capital city is Chihuahua City.
Prehistoric artifacts have been found in the Conchos River Valley that show evidence that indigenous people lived in the area for centuries before European settlers arrived in the area. Several indigenous mummies were found in the valley and are on display in the Museum of Paleontology in Delicias.
The area of present-day Delicias began to attract settlers in 1884 when the Central Mexican Railroad Company built a railroad station to fulfill the transportation demands for agricultural products from the Old Delicias Hacienda. In 1888, German settlers arrived in the area and built Hacienda Polvorosa; they began to prepare food items, brew beer, and produce steel instruments. However, the German settlers were forced to leave after continuous persecution by the Villistas. The Old Delicias Hacienda and Hacienda Polvorosa were the beginnings of the Delicias settlement. Later Hacienda Polvorosa was renamed El Hotel del Norte; this is now a popular museum in town. During the next few decades, the surrounding area began to grow and many small municipalities like Rosales, Meoqui, and Saucillo began to sprout. In 1932, the Chihuahua State Congress recognized this area as an important agricultural region, and named it Region 5. The city of Delicias was founded in 1933 after the Mexican Revolution and was officially declared a municipality on January 7, 1935.
The Mexican Revolution, also known as the Mexican Civil War, was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution. Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 31-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict ousted Díaz from power; a new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency.
In 1939 cotton in the Conchos River Valley helped build a foundation for a small industrial sector in Delicias. Cotton Gins and American Petroleum Refineries were built to provide services and products needed to fuel the agriculture sector. The Francisco I. Madero Dam was built, which increased crop yields and grew the population in the valley. During the 1940s, Cotton became such a dominant cash crop that by 1943 it replaced many vineyards in the surrounding area. Cotton continued to be the dominant crop of the Conchos River Valley until 1953, when the price of cotton plunged and forced many farmers in the area to diversify the agriculture economy.
Francisco Indalesio Madero González was a Mexican revolutionary, writer and statesman who served as the 33rd president of Mexico from 1911 until shortly before his assassination in 1913. He was an advocate for social justice and democracy. Madero was notable for challenging Mexican President Porfirio Díaz for the presidency in 1910 and being instrumental in sparking the Mexican Revolution.
The modern layout of Delicias was designed by Carlos G. Blake and was approved by the National Commission of Irrigation on September 30, 1960. The Chihuahua State Congress recognized Delicias as a city on October 29, 1960. That same year, a geological study on the Conchos River was conducted in Region 5 in attempts to build the largest dam in the state of Chihuahua. By 1960, Delicias was the fourth most populous city in the state of Chihuahua (after Juarez, Chihuahua and Cuauhtemoc City).
Delicias continued to grow in population and as a successful agricultural center. Delicias had an agricultural based economy until 1980 when important exporting maquiladoras moved to the city which helped increase the manufacturing sector. By 1990, Delicias was home to seven maquiladoras, making it one of the most important municipalities of the state of Chihuahua.
A maquiladora ([makilaˈðoɾa]), or maquila, is a company that allows factories to be largely duty free and tariff-free. These factories take raw materials and assemble, manufacture, or process them and export the finished product. These factories and systems are present throughout Latin America, including Mexico, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. Specific programs and laws have made Mexico’s maquila industry grow rapidly.
Delicias is located at 28º11’35" N Latitude and 105º28’18" W Longitude, 1,170 metres (3,840 ft) above sea level. Delicias lies in the rich Conchos River Valley and Meoqui to the north and Saucillo to the south and Rosales to the west. The Conchos River flows north on the west side of Delicias. About 30 miles south of Delicias, La Boquilla Reservoir holds back the Conchos River that begins in the highest parts of the heartland of the Sierra Madre Occidental. La Boquilla Reservoir, the largest dam in the state of Chihuahua, provides sustainable water supply to the valley along federal highway 45 including Delicias and the surrounding towns. In September 2008, La Boquilla Reservoir reached its maximum capacity. The western side of Delicias is dominated by the edge of the Sierra Madre Occidental mountain range that runs northwest to southeast. Southeast of the city the Sierra del Diablo mountain range runs southwest to northeast. Northeast of the city the dominant solonchaks and extreme arid conditions do not allow the land to be used for agriculture, but in the rest of the surrounding plains and mountains rich soils are found.
The Sierra Madre Occidental is a major mountain range system of the North American Cordillera, that runs northwest–southeast through northwestern and western Mexico, and along the Gulf of California. The Sierra Madre is part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges (cordillera) that consists of an almost continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western 'backbone' of North America, Central America, South America and West Antarctica.
Delicias has a semi-arid climate (Köppen BWh), receiving only 334.2 millimetres (13.2 in) of rainfall per year. On average, Delicias observes 42 days of rain and a seven-month frost free period each year with a relative humidity of 45%. The prevalent winds come from the southwest. In the winter, days are mild and nights are cold with frequent frosts from November to February, while snowfall occurs once or twice a year. During spring, strong winds are common due to the last cold fronts from the north. In the summer months, days are hot and nights are warm with moderate rainfall by major thunderstorms.
|Climate data for Delicias, Chihuahua|
|Record high °C (°F)||32.0|
|Average high °C (°F)||19.2|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||10.5|
|Average low °C (°F)||1.9|
|Record low °C (°F)||−9.0|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||9.2|
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||1.8||0.9||0.8||1.2||2.0||5.0||7.6||8.6||7.3||3.7||1.3||1.6||41.8|
|Source: Servicio Meteorológico National|
Agriculture is so important to the municipality that it is known informally as the 'breadbasket' of the state, especially apiaries (the area produces a kind of honey known throughout northern Mexico). Delicias has a very diversified agriculture economy; the major crops include: pecans, chile, cotton, tomato, onion, and peanuts. Delicias is one of the most important dairy production areas in Mexico; the city hosts many modern dairy processors and dairy product manufactures. Delicias is home to Alpura, the second largest dairy in Mexico.
The economy is also dependent upon manufacturing, in the form of maquiladores . Delicias is also a major producer of wooden furniture with a national and international market. Delicias has major open air farm markets (Morelos Farm Market and Juarez Farm Market) and a shopping district located in North 3rd. Street (clothing, shoes, home goods, etc., known as "La Tercera". For decades the highschool and college students gathered in "La Tercera" as a social hangout. Delicias also has corporate chain franchised like Sam´s, Soriana, Wal-Mart, Alsuper, Office Depot.
Delicias is home to a campus of the Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, which forms part of the state university system, the Instituto Tecnológico de Delicias (Technological Institute of Delicias) and a number of art, linguistic and technical secondary schools such as CEUN, Colegio La Roca, Preparatoria Federal por Cooperacion Activo 2030 Albert Einstein, Carson College, the Lincoln Institute, Sokhôl Dance School, the Madison School, Henry Ford Institute, the Michigan English Institute and the Culture House.
The Teatro de Delicias (Municipal Theatre) is known for its murals by Aarón Piña Mora, one of Mexico's renowned muralists and painters, it also built in reference to the "Las Virgenes" Dam located about 10 kilometers from delicias.
The Rio Grande is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico. The Rio Grande begins in south-central Colorado in the United States and flows to the Gulf of Mexico. Along the way, it forms part of the Mexico–United States border. According to the International Boundary and Water Commission, its total length was 1,896 miles (3,051 km) in the late 1980s, though course shifts occasionally result in length changes. Depending on how it is measured, the Rio Grande is either the fourth- or fifth-longest river system in North America.
Durango, officially Free and Sovereign State of Durango, is a state in northwest Mexico. With a population of 1,632,934, Durango has Mexico's second-lowest population density, after Baja California Sur. The city of Victoria de Durango is the state's capital, named after the first president of Mexico, Guadalupe Victoria.
Mexicali is the capital city of the Mexican state of Baja California and seat of the Municipality of Mexicali. The City of Mexicali has a population of 689,775, according to the 2010 census, while the population of the entire metropolitan area reaches 996,826; making the city and metropolitan area the second most populous in Baja California.
Santa Rosalía de Camargo, originally called Santa Rosalía, and now known as "Ciudad Camargo", is a city in the eastern part of the Mexican state of Chihuahua, located at the confluence of the Rio Parral and the Rio Conchos in the Allende Valley. It serves as the municipal seat of Camargo municipality and also serves as an important agricultural and livestock center for the area. Ciudad Camargo was originally founded in 1740 and refounded in 1792.
Villa Guerrero Municipality is located in the north of the state of Jalisco, México, between 103°22′30″ and 103°50′00″ longitude west and 21°54′00″ and 22°10′00″ latitude north, at an altitude of 1,767 metres (5,797 ft) above sea level. The municipality covers an area of 1,092 square kilometres (422 sq mi).
Tijuana Municipality is a municipality in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its municipal seat is located in the city of Tijuana. According to the 2010 census, the municipality had a population of 1,559,683 inhabitants, of whom 1,300,983, or 83.4%, lived in the city of Tijuana. The municipality maintained its position as 3rd most populated nationally as of 2015 census, only behind Ecatepec de Morelos and Iztapalapa. Juan Manuel Gastélum of the PAN is the current municipal president. The municipality comprises the largest part of the Tijuana metropolitan area.
The Río Conchos is a large river in the Mexican state of Chihuahua. It joins the Río Bravo del Norte at the town of Ojinaga, Chihuahua.
The Comarca Lagunera or La Comarca de la Laguna is a region of northern Mexico occupying large portions of the states of Durango and Coahuila, with rich soils produced by periodic flooding of the Nazas and Aguanaval rivers. Neither river drains into either the Pacific Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico, but rather they created a series of inland lakes. The region was developed for large-scale irrigated cotton agriculture. During the Mexican Revolution, the region was the site of fierce fighting. Following the military phase of the Revolution, the region was part of the agrarian reform under President Lázaro Cárdenas. The dam named for Cárdenas now controls flooding of the rivers, but the groundwater resources are no longer recharged as a result. It is the 8th largest metropolitan area in Mexico.
Cañitas de Felipe Pescador is one of the 58 municipalities in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. It is located in the northern part of Zacatecas and is bounded by the municipalities of Río Grande, Villa de Cos, and Fresnillo. The municipality covers a total surface area of 482 square kilometres (186 sq mi).
Ojinaga is a town and seat of the municipality of Ojinaga, in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua. As of 2015, the town had a total population of 28,040. It is a rural bordertown on the U.S.-Mexico border, with the city of Presidio, Texas, directly opposite, on the U.S. side of the border. Ojinaga is situated where the Río Conchos drains into the Río Grande, an area called La Junta de los Rios. Presidio and Ojinaga are connected by the Presidio-Ojinaga International Bridge.
San Francisco de Conchos is one of the 67 municipalities of Chihuahua, in northern Mexico. The municipal seat lies at San Francisco de Conchos. The municipality covers an area of 1,169.1 km².
Meoqui is one of the 67 municipalities of Chihuahua, in northern Mexico. The municipal seat lies at Pedro Meoqui. The municipality covers an area of 370 km², making it one of the smallest in the state but one of the most densely populated.
San Francisco de Conchos is a town and seat of the municipality of San Francisco de Conchos, in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua. As of 2010, the town of San Francisco de Conchos had a population of 644, up from 596 as of 2005.
Pedro Meoqui is a city Named after General Pedro Meoqui and is the seat of the municipality of Meoqui, in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua. As of 2010, the municipality had a total population of 22,574, up from 21,306 as of 2005.
Santa Cruz de Rosales is a town and seat of the municipality of Rosales, in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua. As of 2010, the town had a population of 5,570, up from 5,377 as of 2005
Saucillo is one of the 67 municipalities of Chihuahua, in northern Mexico. The municipal seat lies at Saucillo. The municipality covers an area of 2,116.16 km².
The Fifth Federal Electoral District of Chihuahua(V Distrito Electoral Federal de Chihuahua) is one of the 300 Electoral Districts into which Mexico is divided for the purpose of elections to the federal Chamber of Deputies and one of nine such districts in the state of Chihuahua.
Acatlán is a town and municipality located in the Mexican state of Hidalgo, about ten km northwest of the city of Tulancingo and 147 km from Mexico City. The main landmark is the San Miguel monastery which was built in the 16th century. It is partially in ruins but there have been efforts since the 1980s to restore it. Acatlán comes from a Nahuatl phrase which means “near the reeds”.
La Boquilla Dam is a masonry arch-gravity dam on the Rio Conchos in Chihuahua, Mexico. It was built in 1910 to provide hydroelectricity, irrigation and flood control, and forms Toronto Lake with a capacity of 2.903 cubic kilometres (2,354,000 acre⋅ft). The dam and the nearby town of Boquilla de Conchos are named for the abrupt narrowing of the Conchos valley where the dam was built: boquilla means "nozzle" or "mouth".