Second Battle of Novi (1799)

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Second Battle of Novi (1799)
Date24 October 1799
Location
Novi Ligure, present-day Italy
Result French victory
Belligerents
Flag of France.svg Republican France
Flag of Poland.svg Polish Legions
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg Habsburg Monarchy
Commanders and leaders
Flag of France.svg L. Gouvion Saint-Cyr
Flag of Poland.svg Jan Dąbrowski
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg Andreas Karaczay
Strength
Flag of France.svg 12,000 Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg 5,000
Casualties and losses
1,200 1,300, 4 guns

The Second Battle of Novi or Battle of Bosco (24 October 1799) saw a Republican French corps under General of Division Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr face a division of Habsburg Austrian soldiers led by Feldmarschall-Leutnant Andreas Karaczay. For several hours the Austrians defended themselves stoutly, relying on their superior cavalry and artillery. By the end of the day the French and allied Poles routed the Austrians from their positions in this War of the Second Coalition action. Novi Ligure is south of Alessandria, Italy.

Andreas Karaczay

Andreas Karaczay de Vályeszáka or Andreas Karaiczay de Wallje Szaka or András Karacsaj de Válje-Szaka served in the Austrian army beginning in the Seven Years' War. In 1788–90, he fought in the Austro-Turkish War at Khotyn, Valea Seacă, Focșani, and Rymnik. In 1789 he was promoted to general officer, appointed Proprietor (Inhaber) of an Austrian cavalry regiment, and became a friend to the famous Russian General Alexander Suvorov. He fought in the French Revolutionary Wars until 1795 when he retired because of "war fatigue". Suvorov recalled him to action in 1799 when he fought at the Trebbia, Alessandria, and Novi. He led the Austrians at Second Novi. After being badly wounded at Stockach in 1800, he retired from his military offices in 1801.

Polish Legions (Napoleonic period)

The Polish Legions in the Napoleonic period, were several Polish military units that served with the French Army, mainly from 1797 to 1803, although some units continued to serve until 1815.

War of the Second Coalition Attempt to contain or eliminate Revolutionary France

The War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802) was the second war on revolutionary France by the European monarchies, led by Britain, Austria and Russia, and including the Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Naples, various German monarchies and Sweden. Their goal was to contain the expansion of the French Republic and to restore the monarchy in France. They failed to overthrow the revolutionary regime and French territorial gains since 1793 were confirmed. In the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801, France held all of its previous gains and obtained new lands in Tuscany, Italy, while Austria was granted Venetia and the Dalmatian coast. Britain and France signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, bringing an interval of peace in Europe that lasted for 14 months. By May 1803 Britain and France were again at war and in 1805 Britain assembled the Third Coalition to resume the war against France.

A string of defeats, culminating with the Battle of Novi on 15 August 1799 left the French Army of Italy clinging to Genoa, Cuneo and the crests of the Ligurian Alps. An Austrian threat to Genoa was met with Saint-Cyr's strong thrust north through Novi against Karaczay's division at Bosco Marengo. Farther west, Jean Étienne Championnet with the main body of the Army of Italy clashed with Michael von Melas's Austrians at Genola on 4 November.

Battle of Novi (1799) battle

The Battle of Novi saw a combined army of Habsburg Austrians and Imperial Russians under Field Marshal Alexander Suvorov attack a Republican French army under General Barthélemy Catherine Joubert. After a prolonged and bloody struggle, the Austro-Russians broke through the French defenses and drove their enemies into a disorderly retreat. Joubert was killed while French division commanders Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon and Emmanuel Grouchy were captured. Novi Ligure is in the province of Piedmont in Italy a distance of 58 kilometres (36 mi) north of Genoa. The battle occurred during the War of the Second Coalition which was part of the French Revolutionary Wars.

Army of Italy (France) field army of the French Revolutionary Army

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Genoa Comune in Liguria, Italy

Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, which in 2015 became the Metropolitan City of Genoa, counted 855,834 resident persons. Over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera.

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References

Christopher Duffy is a British military historian.

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Coordinates: 44°45′42″N8°47′26″E / 44.76167°N 8.79056°E / 44.76167; 8.79056

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

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