Battle of Bergen (1799)

Last updated
Battle of Bergen
Part of French Revolutionary Wars
Battle bergen.jpg
Date19 September 1799
Location Bergen, Batavian Republic aka Netherlands
Result Franco-Dutch victory
Belligerents
Flag of France.svg France
Flag of the navy of the Batavian Republic.svg  Batavian Republic
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg  Great Britain
Flag of Russia (1696-1917).svg  Russia
Commanders and leaders
Flag of France.svg Guillaume Marie Anne Brune
Flag of the navy of the Batavian Republic.svg Herman Willem Daendels
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
Flag of Russia (1696-1917).svg Johann Hermann von Fersen
Strength
22,000 30,000
Casualties and losses
Unknown killed and wounded, 3,000 taken prisoner, 16 guns captured Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg 117 killed, 410 wounded, 490 missing
Flag of Russia.svg 1,785 killed, 1,225 wounded

The Battle of Bergen, also called the Battle of Bergen-Binnen, was fought on 19 September 1799, and resulted in a French-Dutch victory under General Brune and General Daendels against the Russians and British under the Duke of York who had landed in North Holland. The battlefield is marked by the Russisch Monument (1902).

French First Republic republic governing France, 1792-1804

In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic, was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon, although the form of the government changed several times. This period was characterized by the fall of the monarchy, the establishment of the National Convention and the Reign of Terror, the Thermidorian Reaction and the founding of the Directory, and, finally, the creation of the Consulate and Napoleon's rise to power.

Batavian Republic former country (1795-1806)

The Batavian Republic was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. It was proclaimed on 19 January 1795, and ended on 5 June 1806, with the accession of Louis I to the throne of Holland. From October 1801 onward, it was known as the Batavian Commonwealth. Both names refer to the Germanic tribe of the Batavi, representing both the Dutch ancestry and their ancient quest for liberty in their nationalistic lore.

Herman Willem Daendels Dutch politician

Herman Willem Daendels was a Dutch politician who served as the 36th Governor General of the Dutch East Indies between 1808 and 1811.

Contents

Order of battle

The Duke of York landed on 15 September, and assumed the command of the army, which now amounted to about 30,000 men with 1,200 light cavalry. On 19 September the forces, under the Duke of York, formed in four columns, moved forward from Schagerbrug.

Schagerbrug Town in North Holland, Netherlands

Schagerbrug is a town in the Dutch province of North Holland. It is part of the municipality of Schagen, and was the main town of the former municipality of Zijpe. It lies about 2 km northeast of the town of Schagen.

At this period the Allies possessed a superiority of force with which it was decided to strike a decisive blow as early as possible. The Dutch, numbering 12,000, were in a strong position around Langedijk, somewhat in advance of the French, who, by drawing in all detachments, had raised their field strength to 10,000 men, who were positioned in Alkmaar, Bergen, Schoorl, and Egmond aan Zee.

Langedijk Municipality in North Holland, Netherlands

Langedijkpronunciation  is a municipality in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland and the region of West-Frisia. Langedijk received city rights in 1415.

Alkmaar City and municipality in North Holland, Netherlands

Alkmaar[ˈɑl(ə)kmaːr](listen) is a city and municipality in the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland. Alkmaar is well known for its traditional cheese market. For tourists, it is a popular cultural destination.

Bergen, North Holland Municipality in North Holland, Netherlands

Bergen is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. Its North Sea beaches make it a popular destination for tourists. In 2001, the municipality was formed from a merger of the former municipalities of Egmond, Schoorl, and the smaller community of Bergen proper that had existed since 1811.

Anglo-Russian Forces

Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Left Column - LTG Sir Ralph Abercromby
DivisionBrigadeRegiments and Others
4th Brigade


   MG Sir John Moore

6th Brigade


   MG the Earl of Cavan

7th Brigade


   MG the Earl of Chatham

Reserve


   Col. MacDonald

Cavalry
Right Column - Johann Hermann von Fersen
DivisionBrigadeRegiments and Others

1st Division
     LTG Jerepsoff

1st Brigade


   Col. Count Fersen

  • Jerepsoff Musketeer Regiment (1 battalion)
  • Fersen Musketeer Regiment (2 battalions)
2nd Brigade


   Col. Dublanski

  • Combined Grenadiers (3 battalions)

2nd Division
     LTG Ivan Essen

1st Brigade


   MG Alexander Sedmoratsky

  • Sedmoratzky Musketeer Regiment (2 battalions)
  • Combined Grenadiers (1 battalion)
2nd Brigade


   Col. L. d'Arbanov (d'Arbénief)

  • d'Arbanov Musketeer Regiment (2 battalions)
  • Combined Grenadiers (1 battalion)

3rd Division
     MG Ivan Emme

  • Emme Infantry Regiment (2 battalions)
  • Combined Grenadiers (2 battalions)
9th Brigade


   MG Robert Manners

Advance Guard


   Gen. Southoff

  • St. Petersburg Grenadier Regiment (1 battalion)
Artillery
  • Kaptzevitch Artillery Regiment
Cavalry
  • Gladki & Shladoff Hussar Regiments (4 squadrons)
  • Don & Ural Cossacks (6 squadrons) [1]
Unbrigaded
Left-Centre Column - LTG Sir James Pulteney
DivisionBrigadeRegiments and Others
3rd Brigade


   MG Sir Eyre Coote

5th Brigade


   MG George Don

Cavalry
Right-Centre Column - LTG David Dundas
DivisionBrigadeRegiments and Others
1st Guards Brigade


   MG Sir D'Oyley

2nd Guards Brigade


   MG Harry Burrard

8th Brigade


   MG H.R.H. Prince William

Cavalry

Battle plan and terrain

The British and Russian commanders noticed that the Republicans had left their right uncovered, and a very strong position unoccupied. This would have been difficult to correct if the attack on that flank had been vigorously carried out. They had also left Amsterdam undefended on the only side by which it was accessible.

Amsterdam Capital of the Netherlands

Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area. The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, which is Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of approximately 8.1 million.

The plan of operations was as follows: The left column was to turn the enemy's right, on the Zuiderzee; the right was to drive the enemy from the heights of Camperduin, and to seize Bergen; the right-centre had to force the position at Warmenhuizen and Schoorldam, and to cooperate with the right column; while the left-centre had to obtain possession of Oudkarspel, on the main road leading to Alkmaar.

Zuiderzee

The Zuiderzee was a shallow bay of the North Sea in the northwest of the Netherlands, extending about 100 km inland and at most 50 km wide, with an overall depth of about 4 to 5 metres (13–16 feet) and a coastline of about 300 km. It covered 5,000 km2 (1,900 sq mi). Its name means "southern sea" in Dutch, indicating that the name originates in Friesland, to the north of the Zuiderzee. In the 20th century the majority of the Zuiderzee was closed off from the North Sea by the construction of the Afsluitdijk, leaving the mouth of the inlet to become part of the Wadden Sea. The salt water inlet changed into a fresh water lake now called the IJsselmeer after the river that drains into it, and by means of drainage and polders, an area of some 1,500 km2 (580 sq mi) was reclaimed as land. This land eventually became the province of Flevoland, with a population of nearly 400,000 (2011).

Camperduin Place in North Holland, Netherlands

Camperduin (Kamperduin) is a small village in the Dutch province of North Holland. It is a part of the municipality of Bergen, and lies about 12 km northwest of Alkmaar.

Warmenhuizen Town in North Holland, Netherlands

Warmenhuizen is a town in the Dutch province of North Holland. It is a part of the municipality of Schagen, and lies about 8 km northwest of Heerhugowaard.

The enemy's left was advantageously posted on the high sand hills which extend from the sea, in front of Petten, to the town of Bergen. The ground over which the centre columns had to move was intersected every three or four hundred yards by broad, deep, wet ditches and canals. The bridges across the few roads leading to the points of attack were destroyed, and obstacles had been carefully arranged.

Petten Town in North Holland, Netherlands

Petten is a town in the Dutch province of North Holland. It is a part of the municipality of Schagen, and lies about 15 km northwest of Alkmaar, on the North Sea. The population is ca. 1900.

Action

Sir Ralph Abercromby Sir-ralph-abercromby.jpg
Sir Ralph Abercromby

Contrary to all reasonable expectations, the force under Sir Ralph Abercromby took no direct part in this action; consequently the allied troops engaged amounted to no more than between 15,000 and 18,000 men. The corps under Sir Ralph Abercromby began their march on the evening of 18 September, but his advance was delayed by the bad state of the roads, and he arrived at Hoorn many hours later than was expected. The objectives that would have been gained by this column would have had a material effect on the result of the whole expedition, and could only be attempted while the Duke of York possessed the superior force.

The battle was commenced by Russian forces, which had by 8 am, September 19, obtained possession of Bergen. In vain did they expect support from their British allies, which had not even lined up for the battle, because the British and Russian commanders had neglected to synchronize their clocks. As a result, Russian forces were rapidly encircled by the French, Hermann was made prisoner and his second-in-command Jerepsoff killed, [2] while their troops were forced back through Bergen to Schoorl, which they also had to abandon.

This village was retaken by Major-General Manners’ Brigade, which was then reinforced by two battalions of Russians, by Major-General D’Oyley's Brigade of Guards, and by the 35th Regiment, under Prince William. The action was renewed by these troops, who in their turn repulsed the enemy; but a lack of ammunition and the exhausted state of the corps engaged in that part of the field obliged them to retire on Petten and the Zijpe Canal.

The column under Lieutenant-General Dundas attacked the village of Warmenhuizen at dawn, where the enemy, with a large force of artillery, was strongly positioned. Three battalions of Russians, under Major-General Sedmoratsky, moving from Krabbendam, gallantly stormed the left of the village, with the 1st Regiment of Guards entering it on the right at the same time. The Grenadier battalion of Guards, the 3rd Regiment of Guards and the 2nd battalion 5th Regiment which had been previously detached to march upon Schoorldam to keep up the communication with Sir James Pulteney, were joined by the remainder of the column, which, after taking Warmenhuizen, had been reinforced by the 1st battalion 5th Regiment, and the whole moved forward and seized the village. They held it under artillery fire until the conclusion of the action.

The left-centre column, though opposed by the bulk of the Batavian army, under General Daendels, had overcome all opposition and taken possession of Oudkarspel, thus securing the direct line of advance on Alkmaar. Sir Ralph Abercromby had equally well accomplished his task by capturing the town of Hoorn, on the coast of the Zuiderzee, and placing himself in a favourable position for completing the turning movement. However, in consequence of the partial failure on the right, it was considered necessary to recall all the troops and re-occupy the former position.

The strength of the column which attacked Bergen would have been more than sufficient if it had been employed correctly. This column was numerically superior to the enemy, but it moved in mass in an intersected country, did not cover its flanks, and its operations having, contrary to order, been commenced long before daylight, its fire was probably more destructive to itself than to the enemy. That the other columns were not too weak for their tasks is shown by their having taken and held, until recalled, the points against which they had been directed.

Losses

The losses on both sides were considerable:

British: 6 officers, 2 sergeants, 109 rank-and-file killed; 43 officers, 20 sergeants, 2 drummers, 345 rank-and-file, wounded; 22 sergeants, 5 drummers, 463 rank-and-file, missing.
Russians: 1,741 non-commissioned officers, rank-and-file, and 44 officers, killed or captured. 1,225, including 49 officers, wounded.
Republicans: 3,000 prisoners, including 60 officers. 16 guns taken.

Aftermath

The newly appointed Russian Commander-in-Chief, Mikhail Kutuzov, who was rushing from St. Petersburg to assume command of Russian forces, learned about the debacle at Hamburg and, deeming the campaign to be doomed, promptly returned to Russia.

The Republicans re-occupied all the positions from which they had been driven, and their general line of defence was now covered on the right by inundations, the only roads across which were covered by field works. The space between Alkmaar and the Zuiderzee was thus rendered defensible by small numbers, and Amsterdam was secured on the land side. The remainder of the army, which had been reinforced, was concentrated between the Langedijk and the sea, and the post of Oudkarspel was strengthened by additional works, and by inundations. Schoorldam and Koedijk were also fortified. The next major engagement took place at Castricum on 6 October.

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References

  1. Gachot, E., Les Campagnes de 1799, Jourdan en Allemagne et Brune en Hollande 1906, Paris, Perrin et Cie.
  2. Mémoires historiques sur la campagne du général en chef Brune en Batavie, du 5 fructidor an 7, au 9 frimaire an 8

Bibliography

The above text is an extract from an article compiled by the British Army's Intelligence branch of the Quartermaster-General's department in 1884.

Coordinates: 52°40′12″N4°42′00″E / 52.6700°N 4.7000°E / 52.6700; 4.7000