Shahid

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Wounds of war in Syria. "Mercy for the martyrs" (Arabic: lrHm@ lshhd
, alrahmat lishuhada), Bab Tuma gate, Damascus, 2013. bb twm.jpg
Wounds of war in Syria. "Mercy for the martyrs" (Arabic : الرحمة لشهداء, alrahmat lishuhada), Bab Tuma gate, Damascus, 2013.

Shahid, or Shaheed (Arabic : شهيدšahīd, plural: شُهَدَاءšuhadāʾ ; female: šahīda), originates from the Quranic Arabic word meaning "witness" and is also used to denote a martyr in Islam. [1]

Contents

The word shahid in Arabic means "witness". Its development closely parallels that of Greek martys (Greek : μάρτυς – "witness", in the New Testament also "martyr"), the origin of the term martyr. Shahid occurs frequently in the Quran in the generic sense "witness", but only once in the sense "martyr; one who dies for his faith"; this latter sense acquires wider use in the hadiths. [2] [3]

The term is commonly used as a posthumous title for those who are considered to have accepted or even consciously sought out their own death in order to bear witness to their Islamic beliefs. [4] Like the English word martyr, in the 20th century, the word shahid has come to have both religious and non-religious connotations, and has often been used to describe those who have died for non-religious ideological causes. [5] This suggests that there is no single fixed and immutable concept of martyrdom in the Muslim world. [6]

Quranic references

A shahid is considered one whose place in Paradise is promised according to these verses in the Quran:

The Quran, chapter 3 (Al Imran), verse 169–170: [7]

Think not of those who are slain in Allah's way as dead. Nay, they live, finding their sustenance in the presence of their Lord; They rejoice in the bounty provided by Allah. And with regard to those left behind, who have not yet joined them (in their bliss), the (Martyrs) glory in the fact that on them is no fear, nor have they (cause to) grieve.
translated by Abdullah Yusuf Ali

The Quran, chapter 9 (At-Tawba), verse 111: [8]

Allah hath purchased of the believers their persons and their goods; for theirs (in return) is the garden (of Paradise): they fight in His cause, and slay and are slain: a promise binding on Him in truth, through the Law, the Gospel, and the Qur´an: and who is more faithful to his covenant than Allah? then rejoice in the bargain which ye have concluded: that is the achievement supreme.
translated by Abdullah Yusuf Ali

The Quranic passage that follows is the source of the concept of Muslim martyrs being promised Paradise:

The Quran, chapter 22 (Al-Hajj), verse 58–59: [9]

Those who leave their homes in the cause of Allah, and are then slain or die,- On them will Allah bestow verily a goodly Provision: Truly Allah is He Who bestows the best provision. Verily He will admit them to a place with which they shall be well pleased: for Allah is All-Knowing, Most Forbearing.
translated by Abdullah Yusuf Ali

Hadiths

The importance of faith is highlighted in the following hadith:

It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Who seeks martyrdom with sincerity shall get its reward, though he may not achieve it.

Collected by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, "Sahih Muslim" [10]

It is thus not the outcome that determines the placement in Heaven but rather the intention.

Nonetheless, Paradise for a shahid is a popular concept in the Islamic tradition according to Hadith, and the attainment of this title is honorific.

The prophet Muhammad is reported to have said these words about martyrdom:

By Him in Whose Hands my life is! I would love to be martyred in Allah's Cause and then get resurrected and then get martyred, and then get resurrected again and then get martyred and then get resurrected again and then get martyred.

The Prophet said, "Nobody who enters Paradise likes to go back to the world even if he got everything on the Earth, except a Mujahid who wishes to return to the world so that he may be martyred ten times because of the dignity he receives (from Allah).

Several hadith also indicate the nature of a shahid's life in Paradise. Shahids are thought to attain the highest level of Paradise, the Paradise of al-Firdous.

Haritha was martyred on the day (of the battle) of Badr, and he was a young boy then. His mother came to the Prophet and said, "O Allah's Apostle! You know how dear Haritha is to me. If he is in Paradise, I shall remain patient, and hope for reward from Allah, but if it is not so, then you shall see what I do?" He said, "May Allah be merciful to you! Have you lost your senses? Do you think there is only one Paradise? There are many Paradises and your son is in the (most superior) Paradise of Al-Firdaus.

Furthermore, Samura narrated:

The Prophet said, "Last night two men came to me (in a dream) and made me ascend a tree and then admitted me into a better and superior house, better of which I have never seen. One of them said, 'this house is the house of martyrs.'

There are at least five different kinds of martyrs according to hadith.

Allah's Apostle said, "Five are regarded as martyrs: They are those who die because of plague, abdominal disease, drowning or a falling building etc., and the martyrs in Allah's cause.

One who dies protecting his property is also considered a martyr according to Hadith:

I heard the Prophet saying, "Whoever is killed while protecting his property then he is a martyr.

While the Qur'an does not indicate much about martyrs' death and funeral, the hadith provides some information on this topic. For example, martyrs are to be buried two in one grave in their blood, without being washed or having a funeral prayer held for them. The following Hadith highlight this:

The Prophet collected every two martyrs of Uhud in one piece of cloth, then he would ask, "Which of them had (knew) more of the Quran?" When one of them was pointed out for him, he would put that one first in the grave and say, "I will be a witness on these on the Day of Resurrection." He ordered them to be buried with their blood on their bodies and they were neither washed nor was a funeral prayer offered for them.

Death in warfare

Early modern usage

In the course of the eighteenth century, there were several wars of independence within the colonial territories of the Muslim World. Many of the soldiers who died during these conflicts were given the title shahid upon their burial. [18]

Twentieth-century conceptions

Malcolm X, who was assassinated in 1965, is considered[ by whom? ] to be one of the most prominent martyrs of the twentieth century.

During the Islamic Revolution (1978/79) and the subsequent Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988) the cult of the martyr in Iran has had a lasting impact on the dynamics of revolution and war. [19] The soldiers, clergy, and other individuals who died during the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran were regarded as martyrs and have often been buried in special martyrs' cemeteries. In the 1980–88 Iran–Iraq War, commanders of both the Sunni Iraqi and the Shi'ite Iranian forces in particular commonly used martyrdom as a source of motivation for their fellow combatants. Tens of thousands of Iranian youths—many motivated by the religiously-based ideas of Ayatollah Khomeini and the Islamic Revolution—volunteered to serve in the armed forces during the conflict, sometimes participating in human wave attacks against the Iraqis. Those who died in battle were considered martyrs. [18]

During the Bosnian war, the term was used among troops of the Bosniak Muslim Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina [20]

Twenty-first century jihadism

In contemporary jihadism, it has become common for Islamic militants to portray themselves as martyrs; especially the perpetrators of suicide bombings typically record "martyrdom videos" to inspire emulation in others.

Militants responsible for terrorism in the Gaza Strip and West Bank of Palestine have referred to their suicide bombers as martyrs. Whether suicide bombings are a valid practice of jihad has been disputed, as the Qur'an explicitly prohibits suicide. [21]

In a martyrdom video from 18 January 2000, titled "19 martyrs", the hijackers in the September 11 attacks justify their beliefs and profess their last will and testament. [22]

Afghans in the Taliban heartland claim Osama bin Laden to be al-Qaeda's "number one martyr". [23]

Islamic extremists have used the term "shahid" in their efforts to make "legitimate the use of violence, warfare, and terrorism" against Western groups of "unbelievers". [24]

ISIL regularly described those were killed in either attacks, operations, suicide attacks and who fell victim to airstrikes "martyrs".[ citation needed ]

As a consequence, the most prevalent use of the term in western media is with respect to Islamic terrorism. Nerina Rustjomi has argued, "Americans" have used a skewed perception of the Islamic "shahid" and "houri" to depict Islam as "a religion characterized by sensuality, violence, and irrationality". [25]

Other uses

A Muslim who is killed defending his or her property is considered a martyr. [16] In Pakistan the word "shahid" is used to denote martyrs who have died in the way of Islam or in the defence of Pakistan.

Women

A woman is considered "shahida" (شَهِيدَةšahīdah) if she dies during the fulfillment of a religious commandment. A woman can also be considered a martyr if she dies during childbirth. [26] There are examples of women fighting in war such as Nusaybah bint Ka'ab. The first martyr (male or female) in Islam was Sumayyah bint Khayyat, who was executed for her conversion to Islam. She died after Abu Jahl, an anti-Muslim leader of the Quraysh stabbed her in the abdomen. [27] Though her name is not common in the modern Muslim dialogue, ancient Islamic literature makes note of the events at the end of her life. [28]

Other Religions

Over a period of time, the word "shahid" began to be used by non-Muslims such as Arab Christians to denote their own martyrs. So the word is still used by Christians in Arab-speaking countries, including the names of churches. Examples are the Forty Martyrs Cathedral (Arabic : كنيسة الأربعين شهيد) in Aleppo, Syria and the Saint George the Martyr Cathedral (Arabic : كنيسة القدّيس الشهيد مار جرجس) [29] in Damascus.

In South Asia, Hindus adopted the word "shahid" as a synonym to the Sanskrit word "hutātmā" (हुतात्मा in Devanagari and হুতাত্মা in Bengali; हुत् and হুত্ hut = sacrificing, आत्मा and আত্মা ātmā = soul, thus hutātmā = sacrificing soul / martyr), to denote Hindu martyrs. The Sikhs also adopted the word to denote their martyrs; [30] examples include shahid Bhai Mati Das and shahid Bhagat Singh.

Sikhism

The word shahid (Punjabi : ਸ਼ਹੀਦ) is also found in Sikhism, a religion founded by Guru Nanak in the northwest part of the Indian subcontinent (now Pakistan and India). It means a martyr. [31] [32] [33]

The term was borrowed from the Islamic culture in Punjab when Sikhism was founded, and before the start of the British Raj it referred to the Sikh people who met death at the hands of Muslims. [31] Another related term is shahid-ganj, which means a "place of martyrdom". [31] [34]

The most discussed shahid in Sikhism have been two of their Gurus, namely Guru Arjan and Guru Tegh Bahadur for defying Islamic rulers and refusing to convert to Islam. [33] Guru Arjan was arrested under the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and asked to convert to Islam. [35] [36] He refused, was tortured and executed in 1606 CE. [35] [37] Historical records and the Sikh tradition are unclear whether Guru Arjan was executed by drowning or died during torture. [35] [38] His martyrdom, that is becoming a shahid, is considered a watershed event in the history of Sikhism. [35] [39]

Guru Tegh Bahadur's martyrdom resulted from refusing to convert and for resisting the forced conversions of Hindus in Kashmir to Islam because he believed in freedom of conscience and human rights. [40] He was publicly beheaded in 1675 on the orders of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Delhi. [41] [42] Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi marks the shahid-ganj, or place of execution of the Guru. [43]

The Sikh have other major pilgrimage sites, such as the shahid-ganj in Sirhind, where two sons of Guru Gobind Singh were buried alive by Mughal Empire army in retaliation of their father's resistance. In Muktsar, near a lake is a shahid-ganj dedicated to forty men who died defending Guru Gobind Singh. [34]

See also

References and footnotes

  1. Khalid Zaheer (November 22, 2013). "Definition of a shaheed". Dawn. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
  2. "The word shahid (plural shahada) has the meaning of "martyr" and is closely related in its development to the Greek martyrios in that it means both a witness and a martyr [...] in the latter sense only once is it attested (3:141)." David Cook, Oxford Bibliographies
  3. "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, μάρτυ^ς". www.perseus.tufts.edu.
  4. Gölz, "Martyrdom and the Struggle for Power. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Martyrdom in the Modern Middle East.", Behemoth 12, no. 1 (2019): 2–13, 5.
  5. Habib, Sandy (2017). "Dying for a Cause Other Than God: Exploring the Non-religious Meanings of Martyr and Shahīd". Australian Journal of Linguistics. 37 (3): 314. doi:10.1080/07268602.2017.1298395.
  6. Gölz, "Martyrdom and the Struggle for Power. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Martyrdom in the Modern Middle East.", Behemoth 12, no. 1 (2019): 2–13, 11.
  7. The Qur'an. Center for Muslim–Jewish Engagement, University of Southern California. 2008. Archived from the original on 18 June 2017.
  8. The Qur'an. Center for Muslim–Jewish Engagement, University of Southern California. 2008. Archived from the original on 18 June 2017.
  9. The Qur'an. Center for Muslim–Jewish Engagement, University of Southern California. 2008. Archived from the original on 18 June 2017.
  10. Sahih Muslim , 020:4694
  11. Sahih al-Bukhari , 4:52:54
  12. Sahih al-Bukhari , 4:52:72
  13. Sahih al-Bukhari , 5:59:318
  14. Sahih al-Bukhari , 4:52:49
  15. Sahih al-Bukhari , 4:52:82
  16. 1 2 Sahih al-Bukhari , 3:43:660
  17. Sahih al-Bukhari , 2:23:427
  18. 1 2 "Martyrdom". In The Islamic World: Past and Present. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. 5 December 2012.
  19. Gölz, "Martyrdom and Masculinity in Warring Iran. The Karbala Paradigm, the Heroic, and the Personal Dimensions of War.", Behemoth 12, no. 1 (2019): 35–51, 35.
  20. "'Arab brothers' come to aid of Bosnian forces: Muslim fighters are". The Independent. 4 December 1992.
  21. Cook, David 2004. "The Implications of 'Martyrdom Operations' for Contemporary Islam". Journal of Religious Ethics, Vol. 32, No. 1, 129–151.
  22. Popkin, Jim, and NBC News. "Video Showing Atta, Bin Laden Is Unearthed". MSNBC.com. MSNBC Digital Network, 1 October 2006. Web. accessed 5 December 2012.
  23. ""Afghans Describe Bin Laden as Al Qaeda's "No 1 Martyr""". Reuters.com. Reuters. 2 May 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
  24. Esposito, John L. (2011). Islam: The Straight Path. Oxford University Press, ISBN   9780195396003 (237)
  25. Campbell, Robert A. (2010). Women, War, & Hypocrites: Studying the Qur'an. Cape Breton University Press. ISBN   978-1-897009-53-6 (167–170)
  26. Lumbard, Joseph E.B. (2004) Islam, Fundamentalism, and the Betrayal of Tradition. World Wisdom Publishing, ISBN   0941532607 (30)
  27. Cook, David (2007). Martyrdom in Islam. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   0521615518.
  28. Cook, David (2007). Martyrdom in Islam. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   0521615518. p. 14.
  29. Arabic : متري هاجي اثناسيو, 2005، اديرة وكنائس دمشق وريفها : (بحث ميداني توثيقي تاريخي اثري), pp. 57–58.
  30. Mahmood, Cynthia Keppley (1 January 2011). Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues with Sikh Militants. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN   978-0812200171 . Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  31. 1 2 3 W. H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow. p. 185. ISBN   978-0-8108-6344-6.
  32. H. S. Singha (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism (over 1000 Entries). Hemkunt Press. p. 182. ISBN   978-81-7010-301-1.
  33. 1 2 Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 55–58. ISBN   978-0-19-106276-6.
  34. 1 2 H. S. Singha (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism (over 1000 Entries). Hemkunt Press. p. 183. ISBN   978-81-7010-301-1.
  35. 1 2 3 4 Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, Journal of Philosophical Society, 12(1), pages 29–62
  36. Kulathungam, Lyman (2012). Quest : Christ amidst the quest. Wipf. pp. 175–177. ISBN   978-1-61097-515-5.
  37. Jahangir, Emperor of Hindustan (1999). The Jahangirnama: Memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India. Translated by Thackston, Wheeler M. Oxford University Press. p. 59. ISBN   978-0-19-512718-8.
  38. Louis E. Fenech, Martyrdom in the Sikh Tradition, Oxford University Press, pp. 118-121
  39. WH McLeod (1989). The Sikhs: History, Religion, and Society . Columbia University Press. pp.  26–51. ISBN   978-0231068154.
  40. Pashaura Singh and Louis Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh studies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 236–445. ISBN   978-0-19-969930-8. This second martyrdom helped to make 'human rights and freedom of conscience' central to its identity." and "This is the reputed place where several Kashmiri pandits came seeking protection from Auranzeb's army.
  41. Seiple, Chris (2013). The Routledge handbooks of religion and security. New York: Routledge. p. 96. ISBN   978-0-415-66744-9.
  42. "Religions - Sikhism: Guru Tegh Bahadur". BBC.
  43. H. S. Singha (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism (over 1000 Entries). Hemkunt Press. p. 169. ISBN   978-81-7010-301-1.

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