|Southern spotted ace|
Thoressa astigmata, the southern spotted ace,is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae. It is endemic to Western ghats and found in Kerala and Karnataka.
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths. Adult butterflies have large, often brightly coloured wings, and conspicuous, fluttering flight. The group comprises the large superfamily Papilionoidea, which contains at least one former group, the skippers, and the most recent analyses suggest it also contains the moth-butterflies. Butterfly fossils date to the Paleocene, which was about 56 million years ago.
Skippers are a family, Hesperiidae, of the Lepidoptera. Being diurnal, they are generally called butterflies. They were previously placed in a separate superfamily, Hesperioidea; however, the most recent taxonomy places the family in the superfamily Papilionoidea. They are named for their quick, darting flight habits. Most have the antenna tip modified into a narrow hook-like projection. More than 3500 species of skippers are recognized, and they occur worldwide, but with the greatest diversity in the Neotropical regions of Central and South America.
Kerala is a state on the southwestern Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi), Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area. It is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population. It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.
Male. Upperside blackish-brown. Forewing with some dull ochreous hairs on the basal portion and seven semi-hyaline white spots; three small ones, subapical, in a curve, the uppermost spot very minute; two larger conjoined spots across the cell towards its end ; two discal spots, one in each of the median interspaces, near their bases, the lower one usually double the size of the other and quadrate. Hindwing mostly covered with dull ochreous hairs, but without any markings. Cilia of forewing brown, becoming pale towards the anal angle of the hiudwing, whitish with grey marks opposite the vein ends. Underside as dark as it is on the upperside. Forewing with spots as above, and a very indistinct series of sub-marginal spots from the apex becoming quite obsolete hindwards. Hindwing with a rounded series of six or seven white dots in the upper disc and a double whitish mark above the anal angle. Antennae black spotted with white on the underside, the club white beneath, tip red, palpi, head and body blackish-brown, palpi beneath and pectus greyish, legs dull ferruginous. Female like the male.
The larva has been recorded on Ochlandra talbotii and Ochlandra travancorica .
Ochlandra travancorica, also called as elephant grass is a species of bamboo, endemic to the Western Ghats, India. It is naturalised in the West Indies.
Hasora badra, the common awl, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae, which is found in India.
Aeromachus dubius, the dingy scrub-hopper, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae. It ranges from India to China, including Malaya, Assam, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam, Hainan and Yunnan.
Aeromachus pygmaeus, the pygmy scrub-hopper is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae. The species range is Nilgiris, Wynaad, Coorg, Kanara, Assam to Burma and Thailand.
Caltoris canaraica, the Kanara swift, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae.
Halpe homolea, the Indian ace or Ceylon ace, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae.
Halpe porus, or Moore's ace, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae, found in India.
Matapa aria, the common redeye, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae found in India.
Pelopidas conjuncta, the conjoined swift, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae found in India.
Quedara basiflava, the yellow-base flitter or golden flitter, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae and is endemic to India's Western Ghats.
Sovia hyrtacus, the bicolour ace or white-branded ace, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae. It is found in Western Ghats from Goa to Kerala.
Suastus minuta, the small palm bob, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae. It is found in the Indomalayan realm - south India, Sikkim to Burma, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Laos, Hainan, Vietnam and Malaya.
Taractrocera ceramas, commonly known as the Tamil grass dart, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae. It is found from the Western Ghats to Mumbai, in the hills of southern India, in northeast India to northern Burma and in south-eastern China.
Taractrocera maevius, the common grass dart, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae found in India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar.
Telicota colon, commonly known as the pale palm dart or common palm dart, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae found in India to Australia.
Thoressa evershedi, the Evershed's ace, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae.W. H. Evans described it from Palni Hills in 1910 and named it after Evershed as he was the first person to collect it.
Thoressa sitala, the Tamil ace or Sitala ace, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae found in south India.<
Celaenorrhinus ruficornis, the Tamil spotted flat, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae which is found in India and Java.
Spialia galba, the Indian skipper or Indian grizzled skipper, is a hesperiid butterfly which is found in South Asia and parts of Southeast Asia.
Arhopala amantes, the large oakblue, is a species of lycaenid or blue butterfly found in Asia.
Celaenorrhinus putra, Bengal spotted flat, is a butterfly in the family Hesperiidae. It is found in India to south-east Asia.
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