Thoressa astigmata

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Southern spotted ace
Thoressa astigmata by V K Chandrasekharan.jpg
Scientific classification
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T. astigmata
Binomial name
Thoressa astigmata
(Swinhoe, 1890)

Thoressa astigmata, the southern spotted ace, [1] is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae. [2] [1] It is endemic to Western ghats and found in Kerala and Karnataka. [1] [3] [4]

Butterfly A group of insects in the order Lepidoptera

Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths. Adult butterflies have large, often brightly coloured wings, and conspicuous, fluttering flight. The group comprises the large superfamily Papilionoidea, which contains at least one former group, the skippers, and the most recent analyses suggest it also contains the moth-butterflies. Butterfly fossils date to the Paleocene, which was about 56 million years ago.

Skipper (butterfly) family of insects

Skippers are a family, Hesperiidae, of the Lepidoptera. Being diurnal, they are generally called butterflies. They were previously placed in a separate superfamily, Hesperioidea; however, the most recent taxonomy places the family in the superfamily Papilionoidea. They are named for their quick, darting flight habits. Most have the antenna tip modified into a narrow hook-like projection. More than 3500 species of skippers are recognized, and they occur worldwide, but with the greatest diversity in the Neotropical regions of Central and South America.

Kerala State in southern India

Kerala is a state on the southwestern Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi), Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area. It is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population. It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.

Contents

Description

Male. Upperside blackish-brown. Forewing with some dull ochreous hairs on the basal portion and seven semi-hyaline white spots; three small ones, subapical, in a curve, the uppermost spot very minute; two larger conjoined spots across the cell towards its end ; two discal spots, one in each of the median interspaces, near their bases, the lower one usually double the size of the other and quadrate. Hindwing mostly covered with dull ochreous hairs, but without any markings. Cilia of forewing brown, becoming pale towards the anal angle of the hiudwing, whitish with grey marks opposite the vein ends. Underside as dark as it is on the upperside. Forewing with spots as above, and a very indistinct series of sub-marginal spots from the apex becoming quite obsolete hindwards. Hindwing with a rounded series of six or seven white dots in the upper disc and a double whitish mark above the anal angle. Antennae black spotted with white on the underside, the club white beneath, tip red, palpi, head and body blackish-brown, palpi beneath and pectus greyish, legs dull ferruginous. Female like the male.

Life history

The larva has been recorded on Ochlandra talbotii and Ochlandra travancorica . [5]

<i>Ochlandra travancorica</i> species of plant

Ochlandra travancorica, also called as elephant grass is a species of bamboo, endemic to the Western Ghats, India. It is naturalised in the West Indies.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 Varshney, R.; Smetacek, P. A Synoptic Catalogue of the Butterflies of India (2015 ed.). New Delhi: Butterfly Research Centre, Bhimtal and Indinov Publishing. p. 43.
  2. Markku Savela's website on Lepidoptera Page on genus Thoressa.
  3. W. H., Evans (1949). A Catalogue of the Hesperiidae from Europe, Asia, and Australia in the British Museum. London: British Museum (Natural History). Department of Entomology. p. 253.
  4. 1 2 PD-icon.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a work now in the public domain : Swinhoe, Charles (1912–1913). Lepidoptera Indica. Vol. X. London: Lovell Reeve and Co. p. 284.CS1 maint: Date format (link)
  5. Ravikanthachari Nitin; V.C. Balakrishnan; Paresh V. Churi; S. Kalesh; Satya Prakash; Krushnamegh Kunte (2018-04-10). "Larval host plants of the butterflies of the Western Ghats, India". Journal of Threatened Taxa. 10 (4): 11495–11550. doi:10.11609/jott.3104.10.4.11495-11550 via JoTT.