Thoressa sitala

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Tamil ace
Thoressa sitala - Nilgiri Plain Ace - Tamil Ace - on the leaves of Ligustrum perrottetii - Nilgiri Privet- at Paithalmala (20) (cropped).jpg
At Paithalmala
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Hesperiidae
Genus: Thoressa
Species:T. sitala
Binomial name
Thoressa sitala
(de Nicéville, 1885)

Thoressa sitala, the Tamil ace [1] or Sitala ace, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae found in south India. [2] < [1] [3] [4] [5]

Butterfly A group of insects in the order Lepidoptera

Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths. Adult butterflies have large, often brightly coloured wings, and conspicuous, fluttering flight. The group comprises the large superfamily Papilionoidea, which contains at least one former group, the skippers and the most recent analyses suggest it also contains the moth-butterflies. Butterfly fossils date to the Paleocene, which was about 56 million years ago.

South India Group of Southern Indian states

South India is the area including the five Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana, as well as the three union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area. Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south. The geography of the region is diverse with two mountain ranges–the Western and Eastern Ghats, bordering the plateau heartland. Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Tungabhadra and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Trivandrum, Coimbatore Visakhapatnam, Madurai and Kochi are the largest urban areas.

Contents

Description

Male. Upperside blackish-brown. Forewing with two small sub-apical spots, the lower a little the larger, two small spots within the cell near its end, placed inwards obliquely, close to its upper and lower margins; and two small discal spots in the median intersspaces also inwardly obliquely, and well separated from each other, all the spots ochreous-white and semi-diaphanous. Hindwing without markings, the middle portion of the wing with some long, ochreous hairs. Cilia of both wings ochreous, with brown patches at the vein ends in the forewing only. Underside. Forewing with more than the lower half of the wing blackish-brown; the apical and costal portions broadly ferruginous-ochreous; the spots as on the upperside. Hindwing uniformly ferruginous-ochreous, two whitish dots in the median inter spaces, sometimes very obscure, two obscure ochreous spots close together between them and the anal angle, very obscure and often not traceable. Antennae black, dotted with white on the underside, the apical half of the club ferruginous, the basal half white beneath; palpi, head and body and the legs blackish-brown; palpi beneath and the pectus grey.


Female like the male, the spots on the forewing larger, an extra spot on the middle of the sub-median vein, in a line with the two discal spots.

Life cycle

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References

  1. 1 2 Varshney, R.; Smetacek, P. A Synoptic Catalogue of the Butterflies of India (2015 ed.). New Delhi: Butterfly Research Centre, Bhimtal and Indinov Publishing. p. 12.
  2. Kehimkar, Isaac (2016). Butterflies of India (2016 ed.). Mumbai: Bombay Natural History Society. p. 144. ISBN   9789384678012.
  3. E. Y., Watson (1891). Hesperiidae Indicae : being a reprint of descriptions of the Hesperiidae of India, Burma, and Ceylon. Madras: Vest and Company. p. 75.
  4. W. H., Evans (1949). A Catalogue of the Hesperiidae from Europe, Asia, and Australia in the British Museum. London: British Museum (Natural History). Department of Entomology. p. 257.
  5. 1 2 PD-icon.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a work now in the public domain : Swinhoe, Charles (1912–1913). Lepidoptera Indica. Vol. X. London: Lovell Reeve and Co. p. 277.