Thoridae is a family of cleaner shrimp, also known as broken-back shrimp or anemone shrimp.
Family is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as being the "walnut family".
Cleaner shrimp is a common name for a number of swimming decapod crustaceans, that clean other organisms of parasites. They belong to any of three families, Hippolytidae, Palaemonidae, and Stenopodidae . The last of these families is more closely related to lobsters and crabs than it is to the remaining families. The term "cleaner shrimp" is sometimes used more specifically for the family Hippolytidae and the genus Lysmata.
There are 36 recognised genera in the family:
Lebbeus is a genus of shrimp in the family Thoridae. It includes a species whose name was auctioned in 2009 to raise funds for conservation; Luc Longley won with a bid of A$3,600, and named the shrimp Lebbeus clarehanna. The following species are included:
Saron is a small genus of caridean prawns from the family Thoridae, which were formerly classified as part of the Hipploytidae, the cleaner shrimps. Some species are kept in the marine aquarium trade. These are common on the reefs of the Indo-Pacific region and it is though that there may be many more species yet to be described due to the high variability in colour observed.
Thor is a genus of shrimp, containing the following species:
Morphological and genetic studies show that Thoridae is distinct from Hippolytidae.
Hippolytidae is a family of cleaner shrimp, also known as broken-back shrimp or anemone shrimp. The term "broken-back shrimp" also applies to the genus Hippolyte in particular and "cleaner shrimp" is sometimes applied exclusively to Lysmata amboinensis.
The Decapoda or decapods are an order of crustaceans within the class Malacostraca, including many familiar groups, such as crayfish, crabs, lobsters, prawns, and shrimp. Most decapods are scavengers. The order is estimated to contain nearly 15,000 species in around 2,700 genera, with around 3,300 fossil species. Nearly half of these species are crabs, with the shrimp and Anomura including hermit crabs, porcelain crabs, squat lobsters making up the bulk of the remainder. The earliest fossil decapod is the Devonian Palaeopalaemon.
The Stenopodidea is a small group of decapod crustaceans. Often confused with shrimp or prawns, they are neither, but belong in a group closer to the reptant decapods, such as lobsters and crabs. They may be easily recognised by their third pereiopod, which is greatly enlarged. In the lobsters and crabs, it is the first pereiopod that is much bigger than the others. There are 71 extant species currently recognised, divided into 12 genera. Three fossil species are also recognised, each belonging to a separate genus. The earliest fossil assigned to the Stenopodidea is Devonostenopus pennsylvaniensis from the Devonian. Until D. pennsylvaniensis was discovered, the oldest known member of the group was Jilinicaris chinensis from the Late Cretaceous.
Alpheidae is a family of caridean snapping shrimp characterized by having asymmetrical claws, the larger of which is typically capable of producing a loud snapping sound. Other common names for animals in the group are pistolshrimp or alpheid shrimp.
Penaeidae is a family of marine crustacean in the suborder Dendrobranchiata, which are often referred to as penaeid shrimp or penaeid prawns. The Penaeidae contain many species of economic importance, such as the tiger prawn, whiteleg shrimp, Atlantic white shrimp, and Indian prawn. Many prawns are the subject of commercial fishery, and farming, both in marine settings, and in freshwater farms. Lateral line-like sense organs on the antennae have been reported in some species of th Penaeidae. At 210 metres per second (760 km/h), the myelinated giant interneurons of pelagic penaeid shrimp have the world record for impulse conduction speed in any animal.
Palaemonidae is a family of shrimp in the order Decapoda. Two subfamilies are distinguished: Palaemoninae and Pontoniinae. Palaemoninae are mainly carnivores that eat small invertebrates and can be found in any aquatic habitat except the deep sea. The most significant genus is Macrobrachium, which contains commercially fished species. Pontoniinae inhabit coral reefs, where they associate with certain invertebrates such as sponges, cnidarians, mollusks and echinoderms as cleaner shrimps, parasites, or commensals. They generally feed on detritus, though some are carnivores and hunt tiny animals.
Palaemon is a genus of caridean shrimp of the family Palaemonidae. The conventional circumscription of the genus Palaemon is probably paraphyletic. Molecular data suggest that Palaemonetes, as well as the genera Exopalaemon and Couteriella, are nested within Palaemon. Phylogenetic affinities in these groups correspond better with geographical origin than conventional genus assignments.
Palaemonoidea is a large superfamily of shrimp, containing nearly 1,000 species. The position of the family Typhlocarididae is unclear, although the monophyly of a group containing the remaining seven families is well supported.
Lysmata is a genus of shrimp in the infraorder Caridea, the caridean shrimp. The genus now belongs to the family Hippolytidae, but recent cladistic analysis suggests it should be included in its former family, Lysmatidae. Lysmata are popular ornamental shrimp in the marine aquarium trade for their bright color patterns, interesting behaviors, and ability to control certain aquarium pests such as sea anemones of the genus Aiptasia. They are known to command high prices on the pet market.
Alope is a genus of shrimp in the family Hippolytidae, comprising two species:
Birulia is a genus of shrimp. It is one of a group of genera that are usually treated as part of the family Hippolytidae, but have also been separated off as the family Thoridae.
Alpheoidea is a superfamily of shrimp containing the families Alpheidae, Barbouriidae, Hippolytidae and Ogyrididae.
Campylonotoidea is a superfamily of shrimp, containing the two families Campylonotidae and Bathypalaemonellidae. Fenner A. Chace considered it to be the sister group to the much larger superfamily Palaemonoidea, with which it shares the absence of endopods on the pereiopods, and the fact that the first pereiopod is thinner than the second. Using molecular phylogenetics, Bracken et al. proposed that Campylonotoidea may be closer to Atyoidea. There are sixteen described species in 3 genera; no fossils are known.
Sicyonia is a genus of prawns, placed in its own family, Sicyoniidae. It differs from other prawns in that the last three pairs of its pleopods are uniramous, rather than biramous as seen in all other prawns.
Crangon is a genus of shrimp.
Ogyrididae is a family of decapod crustaceans consisting of 10 species.
Lysmata ankeri is a species of saltwater shrimp first classified as Lysmata wurdemanni. It is found in shallow waters of the Atlantic Ocean, and can be distinguished by its coloration pattern.
Parhippolyte is a genus of cave dwelling decapod crustaceans, known as cave shrimps from the family Barbouriidae The type species Parhipplyte uvea was described in 1900 by the English carcinologist Lancelot Alexander Borradaile from specimens collected in the south western Pacific by Arthur Willey. As their vernacular name of cave shrimp suggests these species are generally found in marine caves as well as anchialine ponds and lagoons.
Lysmata californica, known generally as the red rock shrimp or lined shrimp, is a species of caridean shrimp in the family Hippolytidae. It is found in East Pacific.
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