Thornhill, Enoch Mgijima

Last updated
For the settlement in Kouga Local Municipality, see Thornhill, Kouga.

Thornhill Village Thornhill Mountain.jpg
Thornhill Village
Thornhill
South Africa Eastern Cape location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Thornhill
South Africa adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Thornhill
Coordinates: 31°58′44″S26°35′28″E / 31.979°S 26.591°E / -31.979; 26.591 Coordinates: 31°58′44″S26°35′28″E / 31.979°S 26.591°E / -31.979; 26.591
Country South Africa
Province Eastern Cape
District Chris Hani
Municipality Enoch Mgijima
Area
[1]
  Total8.26 km2 (3.19 sq mi)
Population
 (2011) [1]
  Total5,288
  Density640/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
Racial makeup (2011)
[1]
   Black African 99.5%
   Indian/Asian 0.1%
  Other0.3%
First languages (2011)
[1]
   Xhosa 95.3%
   Sotho 1.7%
  Other2.9%
Time zone UTC+2 (SAST)
Postal code (street)
5365
PO box
6375
Area code 045

Thornhill is a rural village in Enoch Mgijima Local Municipality under the Chris Hani District Municipality in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Under the previous political dispensation (till 1994) it fell in the Ciskei homeland. Thornbill is the biggest village in the [Ntabethemba].

Enoch Mgijima Local Municipality Local municipality in Eastern Cape, South Africa

Enoch Mgijima Local Municipality is a local municipality of South Africa. It was established after the August 2016 local elections by the merging of Tsolwana, Inkwanca, Lukhanji local municipalities.

Chris Hani District Municipality District municipality in Eastern Cape, South Africa

Chris Hani is a landlocked district situated in the centre of the Eastern Cape and is made up of eight local municipalities. Most of the communities live in rural areas. The landscape ranges from moist uplands and grassland hills to the arid Karoo scrubland.

Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa. Its capital is Bhisho, but its two largest cities are Port Elizabeth and East London. It was formed in 1994 out of the Xhosa homelands or bantustans of Transkei and Ciskei, together with the eastern portion of the Cape Province. It is the landing place and home of the 1820 Settlers. The central and eastern part of the province is the traditional home of the Xhosa people.

Contents

History

From 1976, around 30 000-50 000 people moved from 23 villages in Sterkspruit and Herschel to an empty piece of land known as Thornhill. Three reasons have been given for the exodus. The first reason was that the then leader of Ciskei, Lennox Sebe, who was involved in a power struggle with Justice Mabandla lured the people of Herschel to consolidate his political power in Ciskei. By promising the local leader more privileges in Ciskei, he was able to draw people to the area. [2]

Ciskei former bantustan in South Africa

Ciskei was a nominally independent state – a Bantustan – in the south east of South Africa. It covered an area of 7,700 square kilometres (3,000 sq mi), almost entirely surrounded by what was then the Cape Province, and possessed a small coastline along the shore of the Indian Ocean.

The second reason that has been brought forward is the application of the Citizenship Act of 1970 “which assigned all African South Africans citizenship in one of the bantustans, whether or not they had ever lived there or had any ties to them”. This act was aimed at resettling Black people outside what was called White South Africa. [3]

The third reason is that there was land scarcity, soil erosion and overpopulation in Herschel. Before the people of Herschel moved to Thornhill, they were promised land, houses, schools and clinics by Mr Uys, the South African Deputy Secretary of Bantu Administration and Education. However, when they arrived in Thornhill by the thousands, the only thing they found were tents that couldn't even cater for all of them. The conditions were tough in the first few months. There was a lack of shelter for the refugees and livestock died because of the lack of feed. In January 1977 it was reported that 10 babies died. Nevertheless, the people remained in Thornhill. [4] The conditions at Thornhill were described in a 1983 article by the New York Times, with the paper reporting that 50% of children were said to have died before the age of 5. [5]

Land restitution

In 2013, the South African Deputy Minister of Rural Development and Land Reform, Pamela Tshwete, awarded more than R390 million to 3 043 households in compensation to the people of the Ntabethemba village. During Phase 1 of the process, R137 345 350.59 was released and each of the 1 071 households received an amount of R128 240.29, while the 1972 claims in the second phase were finalised and paid in 2014. The claimants, currently residing in Ntabethemba, live in the following villages: Merino Walk, Thornhill, Mitford, Bacle's Farm, Tendergate, Tembalethu, Rocklands, Zola, Phakamisa, Ikhwezi and Cangca village in Seymour. [3]

Education

The following schools serve the village and surrounding areas:

Inyathi High School

Thornvale Primary School

Nonzwakazi Primary

Mthombo-wesizwe Primary School

Hlalethembeni Primary School

Economy

Located between Queenstown and Tarkastad, Thornhill relies on both towns for administrative and public services. Both towns provide a source of employment for the people of Thornhill.

Queenstown, Eastern Cape Place in Eastern Cape, South Africa

Komani, formerly Queenstown, is a town in the middle of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, roughly halfway between the smaller towns of Cathcart and Sterkstroom. It is currently the commercial, administrative and educational centre of the surrounding farming district.

Tarkastad Place in Eastern Cape, South Africa

Tarkastad is a Karoo semi-urban settlement situated on the banks Tarka River in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Tarkastad is on a plain to the north of the Winterberg mountain range on the R61 between Cradock and Queenstown and only three hours from Port Elizabeth. The name Tarkastad is believed to come from the Khoi-Khoi word Traka or the Celtic word Tarka and the Afrikaans word Stad. The fact that the town is overlooked by Martha and Mary; two peaks which look like two women resting after a hard day's work, also lends to the name.

Demographics

The following statistics describing Thornhill are from the 2011 census. [6]

GenderPopulation%
Male238345.06
Female290554.94
RacePopulation%
Coloured 20.04
Black African 526099.47
White 20.04
Indian or Asian 60.11
Other180.34
First language Population%
Afrikaans 140.26
isiXhosa 504395.37
English 450.85
Sesotho 901.70
Setswana 190.13
isiZulu 110.21
isiNdebele 70.13
Xitsonga 20.04
Sepedi 100.19
Other240.45

Related Research Articles

Stellenbosch Local Municipality Local municipality in Western Cape, South Africa

Stellenbosch Local Municipality is the local municipality that governs the towns of Stellenbosch, Franschhoek and Pniel, and the surrounding rural areas, in the Western Cape province of South Africa. It covers an area of 831 square kilometres (321 sq mi) and, as of 2011, had a population of 155,733 people in 43,420 households. It falls within the Cape Winelands District Municipality.

Mdantsane township

Mdantsane is a South African urban township situated 15 km away from East London and 37 km away from King William's Town in the Eastern Cape province. The name Mdantsane was derived from a stream that ran from the Nahoon River down to the Buffalo River. Some believe the stream was called Dontsane. Soon after the stream was named, a “white farm” which was at the entrance of Mdantsane [now known as Zone 1] was also named after the stream Dontsane or Umdanzani. The township is part of the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality in the Eastern Cape. The Mdantsane township is a second largest urban settlement in South Africa, by population. It is host to some of the best High Schools that produced some of the famous politicians today such Nosiviwe Mapisa Nqakula Dali Mpofu Mandla Makhuphula and Ntombazana Gertrude Botha. Mdantsane is also known as home of boxing with boxing legends such as Happy-Boy Mgxaji Mzimasi MnguniWelcome Ncita and the late light weigh WBC champion Luxolo Galada and promoters such as Siphato Handi

Palézieux Former municipality of Switzerland in Vaud

Palézieux is a village and former municipality in the district of Lavaux-Oron in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Since 2012 it forms part of the municipality of Oron.

Glogovac or Drenas, is a town and municipality located in the Pristina District in central Kosovo. According to the 2011 census, the town of Drenas had 6,143 inhabitants, while the municipality had 58,531 inhabitants. Based on the population estimates from the Kosovo Agency of Statistics in 2016, the municipality has 60,909 inhabitants.

Bettwil Place in Aargau, Switzerland

Bettwil is a municipality in the district of Muri in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland.

Whittlesea, Eastern Cape Place in Eastern Cape, South Africa

Whittlesea is a semi-rural town situated in the Hewu district, 37 km south of Queenstown, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The town is made up townships of Ekuphumleni, Bhede, Extension 4, Extension 5 and Sada. The town falls under the Enoch Mgijima Local Municipality which is under the Chris Hani District Municipality. Surrounding Whittlesea are 36 villages which make up the Hewu district.

Kou-Kamma Local Municipality Local municipality in Eastern Cape, South Africa

The Kou-Kamma Municipality is a local municipality in South Africa. It is situated in the southwest corner of the Sarah Baartman District Municipality along the Indian Ocean coastline, in the southwestern sector of South Africa's Eastern Cape Province. To the west lies the Western Cape Province. Kou-Kamma also borders the Baviaans Local Municipality in the north and the Kouga Local Municipality to the east. The geographical area of the Municipality is 12,540 square kilometres. Its name is a blend of the names of the Kouga (Kou-) and Tsitsikamma (-Kamma) mountains, which in turn were named after the rivers Kouga and Tsitsikamma.

Dimbaza Place in Eastern Cape, South Africa

Dimbaza is a town in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, located in the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, 20 kilometres (12 mi) about 11 km northwest of King William's Town on the R63 road to Alice, Eastern Cape and Fort Beaufort. As of 2011, it had a population of 21,783.

Keiskammahoek Place in Eastern Cape, South Africa

Keiskammahoek is a town in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. From 1981 until the end of apartheid, the town was part of the Ciskei bantustan.

Kouga Local Municipality Local municipality in Eastern Cape, South Africa

The Kouga Local Municipality is located in the Eastern Cape of South Africa, approximately 80 km west of Port Elizabeth, and forms part of the Sarah Baartman District Municipality. Its territory includes the coastal zone between the Van Stadens River in the east and the Tsitsikamma River in the west, and stretches inland towards the Baviaanskloof Mountains in the north.

//Khara Hais Local Municipality Local municipality in Northern Cape, South Africa

//Khara Hais Local Municipality is a local municipality in the Northern Cape province of South Africa. It falls within the ZF Mgcawu District Municipality and governs the town of Upington and surrounding rural areas. As of 2011 it the municipality has a population of approximately 93,500 people, and covers an area of 21,780 square kilometres (8,410 sq mi). The unusual spelling of the name comes from the original transcription of the Khwe language name, where the click consonant became "//".

Rural Municipality of Mountain View No. 318 Rural municipality in Saskatchewan, Canada

Mountain View No. 318 is a rural municipality in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The municipality is located in Census Division 12 which is a part of SARM Division 6. The seat of the municipality is located in the hamlet of Herschel. The RM is also home to Ancient Echoes Interpretive Centre.

Inkwanca Local Municipality Former local municipality in Eastern Cape, South Africa

Inkwanca Local Municipality was a local municipality that forms part of the Chris Hani District Municipality in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Inkwanca is an isiXhosa name meaning cold. The municipal area is the coldest area in the country and the lowest temperatures are recorded in the area every year. After municipal elections on 3 August 2016 it was merged into the larger Enoch Mgijima Local Municipality.

Tsolwana Local Municipality Former local municipality in Eastern Cape, South Africa

Tsolwana Local Municipality was an administrative area in the Chris Hani District of the Eastern Cape in South Africa. Tsolwana is an isiXhosa name which means "something with a sharp ending or a tip", referring the mountains around the whole area. After municipal elections on 3 August 2016 it was merged into the larger Enoch Mgijima Local Municipality.

Lesseyton Place in Eastern Cape, South Africa

Lesseyton is a town in Enoch Mgijima Local Municipality in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, located 14 km northwest of Queenstown. Almost all residents are Xhosa speakers. Lesseyton has two schools: Lesseyton Primary School and Ndlovukazi Public High School.

Sada, Eastern Cape Place in Eastern Cape, South Africa

Sada is a semi-rural settlement, situated 3 km away from Whittlesea, 30 km north of Seymour and 40 km south of Queenstown, Eastern Cape Province. The word Sada means "finally" or "at last" in isiXhosa because the first settlers struggled to find a place before they settled in the area in 1964.

Bulhoek massacre

The Ntabelanga Massacre commonly known as Bulhoek massacre occurred on 24 May 1921, in the South African village of Ntabelanga in the then Cape Province. After a dispute over land in Ntabelanga, dating back to 1920, an 800-strong police force from the Union of South Africa and led by Colonel Johan Davey and General Koos van der Venter gathered at Ingxingwa Ye Nkunzini, in the Bulhoek valley, and Ingxingwa ka Stivini, Steven's Valley. At the same time 500 men known as the "Israelites", armed with spears and knobkerries, and led by Enoch Mgijima, gathered in an open field, ready to defend their families and community. After failed final negotiations between the two parties, a battle ensued. The 20-minute battle, which left an estimated 163 Israelites dead, 129 wounded and 95 taken as prisoners, became known as the Bulhoek Massacre.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Main Place Thornhill". Census 2011.
  2. "The Implications of Freedom: The changing role of land sector NGOs in a transforming South Africa (Politics and Economics in Africa) (v. 6)". Wiebe Nauta. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  3. 1 2 "Deputy Minister hands over R390 million Restitution Award in Thornhill, Tarkastad". South African Government. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  4. Wiebe Nauta (2004). The Implications of Freedom: The Changing Role of Land Sector NGOs in a Transforming South Africa. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 121–. ISBN   978-3-8258-7798-9.
  5. Lelyveld, Joseph. "MISERY IN A SOUTH AFRICAN 'HOMELAND'".
  6. "Thornhill census". Adrian Firth.

See also