Thyonicola dogieli

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Thyonicola dogieli
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked):clade Caenogastropoda
Superfamily: Eulimoidea
Family: Eulimidae
Genus: Thyonicola
Species:T. dogieli
Binomial name
Thyonicola dogieli
(A. V. Ivanov, 1945) [1]
Synonyms [1]

Parenteroxenos dogieliA. V. Ivanov, 1945

Thyonicola dogieli is a parasitic species of gastropod mollusc in the family Eulimidae. It parasitises sea cucumbers in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

Parasitism Interaction between two organisms living together in more or less intimate association in a relationship in which association is disadvantageous or destructive to one of the organisms

In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life. The entomologist E. O. Wilson has characterised parasites as "predators that eat prey in units of less than one". Parasites include protozoans such as the agents of malaria, sleeping sickness, and amoebic dysentery; animals such as hookworms, lice, mosquitoes, and vampire bats; fungi such as honey fungus and the agents of ringworm; and plants such as mistletoe, dodder, and the broomrapes. There are six major parasitic strategies of exploitation of animal hosts, namely parasitic castration, directly transmitted parasitism, trophically transmitted parasitism, vector-transmitted parasitism, parasitoidism, and micropredation.

Gastropoda class of molluscs

The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda. This class comprises snails and slugs from saltwater, from freshwater, and from the land. There are many thousands of species of sea snails and slugs, as well as freshwater snails, freshwater limpets, and land snails and slugs.

Mollusca Large phylum of invertebrate animals

Mollusca is the second largest phylum of invertebrate animals. The members are known as molluscs or mollusks. Around 85,000 extant species of molluscs are recognized. The number of fossil species is estimated between 60,000 and 100,000 additional species.



This slender elongated mollusc does not have a shell and takes the form of a long tube, coiled like a spring, or tied in knots, and filled with eggs. [2] [3] It holds the record as the longest gastropod mollusc in the world, one individual having been found to be 128 cm (50 in) long when uncoiled. [4]


Thyonicola dogieli is a parasite of sea cucumbers such as Cucumaria miniata . [2] It inhabits the gut of the sea cucumber, being attached at the anterior end. It has no digestive tract and absorbs nutrients through its cuticle. It is a hermaphrodite; the testis is located near the anterior end and the ovary near the posterior end (this enables the sperm to be carried to the eggs amid the flow of the contents of the host's gut). The body is filled with maturing eggs enclosed in cocoons. When the veliger larvae, which have miniature coiled shells and operculums, are sufficiently developed, the cocoons are released into the sea cucumber's gut and pass out into the sea with its faeces. [3]

<i>Cucumaria miniata</i> species of echinoderm

Cucumaria miniata is commonly known as the orange sea cucumber or red sea cucumber due to its striking color. This northeast Pacific species is often found wedged in between rocks or crevices at the coast or on docks and can generally be identified by its orange bushy tentacles protruding above the substrate.

Hermaphrodite organism with both male and female reproductive organs

In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes. Many taxonomic groups of animals do not have separate sexes. In these groups, hermaphroditism is a normal condition, enabling a form of sexual reproduction in which either partner can act as the "female" or "male." For example, the great majority of tunicates, pulmonate snails, opisthobranch snails, earthworms and slugs are hermaphrodites. Hermaphroditism is also found in some fish species and to a lesser degree in other vertebrates. Most plants are also hermaphrodites.


A veliger is the planktonic larva of many kinds of sea snails and freshwater snails, as well as most bivalve molluscs (clams) and tusk shells.

On encountering sea water the cocoons burst open and the free-living larvae are liberated. They are about 0.1 mm (0.004 in) long, and unless swallowed by a sea cucumber, they will soon die, However, any that are ingested undergo metamorphosis in the host's gut, lose their shell and mantle and burrow into the wall of the gut with the aid of a glandular secretion. As the juvenile mollusc grows, its posterior end pushes its way into the sea cucumber's body cavity, and the gonads develop, the interior of the mollusc becoming a brood pouch. [3] [5]

Metamorphosis profound change in body structure during the postembryonic development of an organism

Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation. Metamorphosis is iodothyronine-induced and an ancestral feature of all chordates. Some insects, fishes, amphibians, mollusks, crustaceans, cnidarians, echinoderms, and tunicates undergo metamorphosis, which is often accompanied by a change of nutrition source or behavior. Animals that go through metamorphosis are called metamorphoses. Animals can be divided into species that undergo complete metamorphosis ("holometaboly"), incomplete metamorphosis ("hemimetaboly"), or no metamorphosis ("ametaboly").

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Acanthocephala phylum of parasitic worms

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Sea cucumber class of echinoderms

Sea cucumbers are echinoderms from the class Holothuroidea. They are marine animals with a leathery skin and an elongated body containing a single, branched gonad. Sea cucumbers are found on the sea floor worldwide. The number of holothurian species worldwide is about 1,717 with the greatest number being in the Asia Pacific region. Many of these are gathered for human consumption and some species are cultivated in aquaculture systems. The harvested product is variously referred to as trepang, namako, bêche-de-mer or balate. Sea cucumbers serve a useful role in the marine ecosystem as they help recycle nutrients, breaking down detritus and other organic matter after which bacteria can continue the degradation process.

Trematoda class of worms

Trematoda is a class within the phylum Platyhelminthes. It includes two groups of parasitic flatworms, known as flukes.

Digenea subclass of worms

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The Aspidogastrea is a small group of flukes comprising about 80 species. It is a subclass of the trematoda, and sister group to the Digenea. Species range in length from approximately one millimeter to several centimeters. They are parasites of freshwater and marine molluscs and vertebrates. Maturation may occur in the mollusc or vertebrate host. None of the species has any economic importance, but the group is of very great interest to biologists because it has several characters which appear to be archaic.

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<i>Ascaridia galli</i> species of a parasitic roundworm

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<i>Trivia monacha</i> species of mollusc

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Leech subclass of worms

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Cyclotorna monocentra is a moth of the family Cyclotornidae. It is found in Australia.

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<i>Holothuria leucospilota</i> species of echinoderm

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<i>Berghia stephanieae</i> species of mollusc

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Thyonicola americana is a species of parasitic sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Eulimidae. It infests the sea cucumbers Eupentacta quinquesemita and Eupentacta pseudoquinquesemita in Puget Sound and other parts of the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

<i>Eupentacta quinquesemita</i> species of echinoderm

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<i>Australamphilina elongata</i> species of worm

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  1. 1 2 Bouchet, Philippe (2010). "Thyonicola dogieli (A. V. Ivanov, 1945)". World Register of Marine Species . Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  2. 1 2 Lambert, Philip (1997). Sea Cucumbers of British Columbia, Southeast Alaska and Puget Sound. UBC Press. p. 60. ISBN   978-0-7748-0607-7.
  3. 1 2 3 Cheng, Thomas C. (2012). General Parasitology. Elsevier Science. pp. 741–742. ISBN   978-0-323-14010-2.
  4. Carwardine, Mark (2008). Animal Records. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. p. 245. ISBN   978-1-4027-5623-8.
  5. Combes, Claude (2005). The Art of Being a Parasite. University of Chicago Press. pp. 25–28. ISBN   978-0-226-11438-5.