|Thyreophora cynophila (Plate by Jacob Sturm )|
Thyreophora cynophila, commonly known as the bone skipperis a species of fly, once thought to be the first fly to be driven to extinction by humans, but rediscovered in 2009. It has a bright orange head, and is associated with animal carcasses where the bones are broken open.
Thyreophora cynophila was originally described by Georg Wolfgang Franz Panzer in 1798, under the name Musca cynophila. He described it in German as Hundefliege ("dog-fly"), having found it on the carcass of a dog in Mannheim. 10 millimetres (0.39 in) long, and the head is bright orange in colour, while the body and legs are metallic blue; the wings bear a pair of black spots. In 1803, Johann Wilhelm Meigen transferred the species to a new genus, Thyreophora, which means "shield-bearer", in reference to the enlarged scutellum in the male. (The name Thyreophora is also used for a dinosaur suborder.) Later reports extended the species' geographical range to include France and Austria, and some reported that the fly had a luminous head.The animal is nearly
The species was not recorded in the wild after 1850, and was long considered to be extinct.Reasons suggested for its disappearance include changes in livestock management, and the loss of predatory megafauna; in either case, the scarcity of large carcasses with partly crushed bones, which would allow the insects to reach the medullary cavity and the bone marrow, denied the fly its likely breeding habitat.
In late 2009, an amateur photographer took a photograph of a fly that he did not recognise in the Sierra de Cebollera natural park in La Rioja (Spain), and sought help in identifying from entomologists. After initially assuming that the species must be tropical, one of them realised the fly's identity. The team found live specimens at the same natural park in early 2010 and published their discovery in August 2010. The authors speculated that one reason the fly had gone unrecorded for 160 years is because it feeds on large rotting carcasses, mainly at night and in the winter; locations and times at which entomologists are unlikely to collect specimens.The species has been found on 11 different sites in the Iberian Mountains in La Rioja located between 900 and 1,400 m.a.s.l. covering an area of approximately 76,500 hectares.
Forensic entomology is the scientific study of the invasion of the succession pattern of arthropods with their developmental stages of different species found on the decomposed cadavers during legal investigations. It is the application and study of insect and other arthropod biology to criminal matters. It also involves the application of the study of arthropods, including insects, arachnids, centipedes, millipedes, and crustaceans to criminal or legal cases. It is primarily associated with death investigations; however, it may also be used to detect drugs and poisons, determine the location of an incident, and find the presence and time of the infliction of wounds. Forensic entomology can be divided into three subfields: urban, stored-product and medico-legal/medico-criminal entomology.
Sarcophagidae are a family of flies commonly known as flesh flies. They differ from most flies in that they are ovoviviparous, opportunistically depositing hatched or hatching maggots instead of eggs on carrion, dung, decaying material, or open wounds of mammals, hence their common name. Some flesh fly larvae are internal parasites of other insects such as Orthoptera, and some, in particular the Miltogramminae, are kleptoparasites of solitary Hymenoptera. The adults mostly feed on fluids from animal bodies, nectar, sweet foods, fluids from animal waste and other organic substances. Juveniles need protein to develop and may be laid on carrion, dung or sweet plant foods.
In paleontology, a Lazarus taxon is a taxon that disappears for one or more periods from the fossil record, only to appear again later. Likewise in conservation biology and ecology, it can refer to species or populations that were thought to be extinct, and are rediscovered. The term Lazarus taxon was coined by Karl W. Flessa & David Jablonski in 1983 and was then expanded by Jablonski in 1986. Wignall and Benton defined Lazarus taxa as, 'At times of biotic crisis many taxa go extinct, but others only temporarily disappeared from the fossil record, often for intervals measured in millions of years, before reappearing unchanged'. Earlier work also supports the concept though without using the name Lazarus taxon, like work by Christopher R. C. Paul.
The family Mormotomyiidae contains only one known species, Mormotomyia hirsuta, commonly known as the frightful hairy fly or terrible hairy fly, which is found in Kenya. The fly was first described by English entomologist Ernest Edward Austen, and specimens have been collected from one location on a mountain in the Ukasi Hill, in a cleft where a bat roost is located; this may possibly be the most restricted geographic distribution for any fly family. The larvae have been collected from bat guano. Adult flies are believed to feed on bodily secretions of bats. The fly measures about 1 cm long, with hairy legs, and, due to its nonfunctional wings and tiny eyes, looks more like a spider than a fly. Specimens have been collected only three times, in 1933, 1948, and 2010. Tested members of the population showed higher levels of genetic variation than would be expected for such a restricted range, suggesting additional undiscovered populations exist and gene flow occurs between them and the known population in Ukasi Hill.
Cynomya mortuorum belongs to the order Diptera, sometimes referred to as "true flies". In English, the only common name occasionally used is "fly of the dead". It has a bluish-green appearance, similar to other Calliphoridae and is found in multiple geographic locations with a preference for colder regions. Belonging to the family Calliphoridae, it has been shown to have forensically relevant implications due to its appearance on carrion. Current research is being done to determine C. mortuorum's level of importance and usage within forensic entomology.
Ameles decolor is a species of praying mantis native to the west Mediterranean.
Macrothele calpeiana, commonly known as the Gibraltar funnel-web spider or Spanish funnel-web spider, is one of the largest and most fierce-looking spiders in Europe. Macrothele calpeiana is the only spider species protected under European Union legislation.
Prejanopterus is an extinct genus of pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Lower Cretaceous layers of the Leza Formation of La Rioja, Spain.
Vetufebrus is an extinct genus of haemospororida in the family Plasmodiidae. At the time of its description the new genus comprised a single species Vetufebrus ovatus known from a single Miocene Dominican amber fossil found on Hispaniola. V. ovatus was vectored by Enischnomyia stegosoma, the first fossil steblid bat fly described from a fossil, and the only member of the subfamily Nycterophiliinae described from Hispaniola. V. ovatus is the first instance of a Streblidae bat fly as a host for a malarial parasite.
Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) violetae, the Andalusian anomalous blue, is a species of butterfly in the family Lycaenidae. It is found in the south and south-east of Spain. Adults are on wing from July to August.
A vulture restaurant is a site where carrion is deposited for endangered vultures to feed on. Vulture restaurants can also be called feeding sites, feeding schemes, and vulture safe zones.
Mexican amber, also known as Chiapas Amber is amber found in Mexico, created during the late Oligocene and Early Miocene epochs of the Cenozoic Era in southwestern North America. As with other ambers, a wide variety of taxa have been found as inclusions including insects and other arthropods, as well as plant fragments and epiphyllous fungi.
Cardiophorus is a genus of click beetles.
Deuteraphorura is a genus of springtails belonging to the family Onychiuridae. There are 83 species in the genus.
Enischnomyia is an extinct genus of bat fly in the family Streblidae. At the time of its description the new genus comprised a single species, Enischnomyia stegosoma, known from a single Miocene fossil found on Hispaniola. E. stegosoma was the first fossil steblid bat fly described from a fossil, and the only member of the subfamily Nycterophiliinae described from Hispaniola. The species is host for the plasmodiid Vetufebrus ovatus preserved in its salivary glands and midgut.
Orophus is a small genus of katydids native to Mexico, Central America, and South America.
Microselia is a genus of flies in the family Phoridae.
Colemania sphenarioides also known as the Jola or Deccan grasshopper is a species of wingless grasshopper in the monotypic genus Colemania which is endemic to peninsular India. It sometimes causes damage to crops of sorghum. The genus is named after Leslie Coleman, who, along with K. Kunhikannan obtained the type specimens of the species from Honnali and studied the species in southern India. It was described by the Spanish entomologist Ignacio Bolívar.
Dieter Enkerlin Schallenmüller was a Mexican biologist, entomologist, and professor who pioneered the use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Latin America. In 2001, Enkerlin posthumously received the National Plant Protection Award from the Mexican Government for his outstanding contributions to protecting plant resources in Mexico.