|Tian Mingjian incident|
|Date||20 September 1994 |
|Weapons||Type 81 assault rifle|
|Deaths||24 - 29 (including the perpetrator) (17 civilians and multiple soldiers and police officers)|
|Injured||30 - 80|
The Tian Mingjian incident (also known in Chinese as the Jian'guo Gate mass shooting) was an act of mass murder that occurred in Beijing, China on 20 September 1994, when People's Liberation Army officer First Lieutenant Tian Mingjian (Chinese: 田明建) first killed his officer and several other soldiers at his military base in Tongxian County and afterwards drove towards Jianguomen, where he continued his shooting spree and indiscriminately fired at people in the streets. 17 civilians, including an Iranian diplomat and his son, along with up to 11 soldiers and policemen were killed before Tian was finally shot dead by a police sniper.
Tian Mingjian (born in 1964) was a first lieutenant stationed at an army base in Tongxian County, a suburb of Beijing. He had been in the military for over ten years, originally as a sharpshooter and was highly skilled in the military technology field. He was once promoted to regimental staff officer for military affairs. At the time of the shooting he served in this position in the 12th Regiment of the 3rd Guard Division of PLA Beijing Garrison.
It was reported that Tian had a quarrel with his superiors because they had forced his wife to have an abortion when she was pregnant with their second child, in accordance with China's One-child policy. Tian already had a daughter, but he came from the rural area in Henan Province, where strong traditional values emphasize siring a male child. Thus Tian secretly planned on having a son until someone in the army revealed his plan and the birth control officer forced his wife to have an abortion. By this time his wife was already seven months pregnant and died during the operation along with the unborn fetus (later discovered to be a boy).
On 20 September Tian armed himself with a Type 81 assault rifle and killed the regimental political commissar on the drill ground. He also killed three other military officials who were trying to stop him and injured at least ten more before fleeing the military base. While his fellow soldiers were ordered to change into civilian clothing in order to not disturb the public when searching for the deserter, Tian hijacked a jeep and headed towards Beijing. Other reports stated he boarded a bus.
At 7:20 a.m., when approaching a red light in Jianguomen, the driver crashed his vehicle into a tree and tried to escape. Tian killed him, jumped out of the car and started to shoot people at random while making his way towards the embassy district. He thus killed 17 civilians, including Iranian diplomat Yousef Mohammadi Pishknari and his 9-year-old son, while another of Pishknari's sons and his daughter were wounded.
By then thousands of police were rushing to the scene and desperately tried to apprehend the gunman, but were unable to do so, since Tian was an experienced and excellent marksman. Police finally besieged Tian at Yabao Road and engaged in a gun battle with him, in which an undisclosed number of officers were killed, and a number of passers-by hit by bullets. Also a bus got caught in the line of fire, when the driver in panic stopped his vehicle, resulting in more casualties. Eventually heavy police fire forced Tian to flee into a dead end, where he was killed by a sniper.
The exact number of casualties remains unknown, though in the immediate aftermath 14 people were reported dead, and 72 others wounded, many of them so severely that doctors expected the death toll to rise to 40 or 50.The newspaper Lien Ho Pao reported on 7 December the same year that 15 people were killed, among them six servicemen, and 60 others were wounded.
When Canadian television began to report live about the shooting at the embassy district, satellite transmission was immediately turned off by the Chinese government and further reporting, including on-site interviews, were prohibited.
Shortly after the shooting, the Beijing Garrison Command (BGC) was ordered by the Central Military Commission to conduct a thorough review of the incident. The investigation was organized by the People's Liberation Army's General Staff Headquarters and the General Political Department and headed by Zhang Zhen, then vice chairman of the Central Military Commission.
Due to the investigation the commander of the Beijing Military Region, Lieutenant General Li Laizhu, and its political commissar, Lieutenant General Gu Shanqing, were given serious warnings as a disciplinary sanction and serious demerits within the party. It also resulted in the dismissal and demeriting of BGC commander Major General Liu Fengjun and BGC political commissar Major General Yang Huichuan, who were then replaced by He Daoquan and Zhang Baokang.Additionally the commander and political commissar of the Third Guards Division, as well as the commander of the 12th Regiment and all battalion commanders and instructors under his command, were dismissed while several military officials of the Political Department of the Beijing Military Region, and the Beijing Garrison Headquarters and Political Department were punished. In total, about 60 military officials were punished, demerited, or dismissed as a consequence of the shooting.
Furthermore, the Third Guards Division of the Beijing Garrison was transferred from Beijing to a remote border post, and a general order was issued to the entire army by the Central Military Commission Headquarters to strictly carry out weaponry management system and to strengthen ideological work.
Others have been awarded for their handling of the shooting, among them an official who directed Tian's interception and the sharpshooter who killed the gunman.
Xie Fuzhi was a Chinese Communist Party military commander, political commissar, and national security specialist. He was born in 1909 in Hong'an County, Hubei and died in Beijing in 1972. Xie was known for his efficiency and his loyalty to Mao Zedong, and during the Cultural Revolution he played a key role in hunting down the Chairman's enemies in his capacity as Minister of Public Security from 1959 to 1972.
The Beijing Military Region was one of seven military regions for the Chinese People's Liberation Army. From the mid 1980s to 2017, it had administration of all military affairs within Beijing city, Tianjin city, Hebei province, Shanxi province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The Region is mainly responsible for defending the People's Republic of China from Mongolia and Russia, and also protects the capital of China, and had the largest number of military personnel of any of the seven regions active from 1985-2017. The Region has now been disbanded and superseded by the Central Theater Command.
Yang Dezhi was a Chinese general and politician. He was senior military officer in the North China Field Army, a veteran of the Korean War and commander in China during the Sino–Vietnamese War.
The Dongshan Island Campaign was a battle fought on Dongshan Island, Fujian between the Nationalists and the Communists during the Chinese Civil War when the Nationalists unsuccessfully attempted to retake the island from the Communists. The campaign was the last and largest battle between the two sides after the Nationalists retreated to Taiwan. After this defeat, the Nationalists realized that it would never be practical to launch a large scale counterattack against the mainland on a similar scale again. Instead, the Nationalist strikes against mainland China were reduced to limited infiltration and skirmishes.
Qin Jiwei was a general of the People's Republic of China, Minister of National Defense and a member of the Chinese Communist Party Politburo.
Yang Baibing was a Chinese soldier. He was a senior general and political commissar in the Chinese People's Liberation Army and the younger half-brother of Yang Shangkun. Together, the two brothers effectively controlled the PLA from the early 1980s until the early 1990s.
Tian Xiusi is a retired Chinese general who served as Political Commissar of the People's Liberation Army Air Force. Previously, he was a standing committee member of the Chinese Communist Party Xinjiang committee and the political commissar of the Xinjiang Military District, as well as political commissar of the Chengdu Military Region. In July 2016, Tian was placed under investigation for "serious violations of discipline".
During the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre in Beijing, the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) played a decisive role in enforcing martial law, suppressing the demonstrations by force and upholding the authority of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The subject of the Tiananmen protests in general and the military's role in the crackdown remains forbidden from public discussion in China. The killings in Beijing continue to taint the legacies of the party elders, led by Deng Xiaoping, and weigh on the generation of leaders whose careers advanced as their more moderate colleagues were purged or sidelined at the time. Within China, the role of the military in 1989 remains a subject of private discussion within the ranks of the party leadership and PLA.
The Central Guard Unit, formerly known as the Central Guard Regiment is a unit of the People's Liberation Army Ground Force (PLAGF) of the People's Republic of China responsible for providing security at locations visited by or significant to senior members of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). It is a powerful political tool for the paramount leader as it can control access to, and conduct surveillance on, its charges.
The 28th Group Army was an army corps of the Chinese People's Liberation Army that existed from 1949 to 1998. From 1952 to 1971, the 28th Army was based in Putian, Fujian and belonged to the Fujian Military Region. From 1971 to 1998, this army corps belonged to the Beijing Military Region and was based in Shanxi Province, initially in Houma and then in Datong. At the time of its dissolution in 1998, the 28th Army was composed of the 82nd, 83rd and 205th Infantry Divisions, the 7th Armored Division, an artillery brigade, an anti-aircraft brigade, an engineer regiment, a communication regiment and a reconnaissance battalion. The army corps’ unit ID number was 51366.
The following lists events from 1994 in China.
Ma Faxiang was a Chinese vice admiral who served as Deputy Political Commissar of the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN). He came under investigation for corruption and committed suicide in November 2014.
Yu Zhongfu is a general of the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) of China. Having served in the PLAAF for more than 40 years, he was appointed Political Commissar of the PLAAF in July 2015. He was replaced by general Guo Puxiao in January 2022.
Wang Jianmin is a retired lieutenant general of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) of China. He served as Deputy Political Commissar of the Lanzhou Military Region and Political Commissar of the Xinjiang Military District.
Jiang Jianzeng is a retired lieutenant general of the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) of China. He served as commander of the Nanjing Military Region Air Force and the Beijing Military Region Air Force.
Wang Yufa is a lieutenant general in the People's Liberation Army Air Force of China. He served as deputy political commissar of the Guangzhou Military Region and political commissar of its Air Force. On September 30, 2015, it was announced that he was being investigated for corruption and his case was handed over to military prosecutors.
Zhang Tingfa was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and a major general of the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF). He served as Political Commissar and Commander of the PLAAF, and was a member of the Central Military Commission (CMC). He also served two terms as a member of the Politburo of the Chinese Communist Party, before retiring in 1985. He fought in the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Chinese Civil War, and the Korean War, and commanded the Chinese Air Force during the Sino-Vietnamese War.
Lai Chuanzhu (simplified Chinese: 赖传珠; traditional Chinese: 賴傳珠; pinyin: Lài Chuánzhū; 3 April 1910 – 24 December 1965) or Peng Ying (鹏英) was a general of the People's Liberation Army from Gan County, Jiangxi.
Fan Xiaojun is a general of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF). He had been Political Commissar of the Northern Theater Command since April 2017, and formerly served as Director of the Political Department of the PLAAF.
Chen Geng was a Chinese military officer who served as a senior general in the People's Liberation Army. Enlisting in a warlord's army at the age of 13, Chen Geng joined the Chinese Communist Party in 1922 and was accepted into Whampoa Military Academy in 1924. He approached Chiang Kai-shek and even saved his life by preventing him from committing suicide. He served as a Communist spy in the National Revolutionary Army for 6 years. After being discovered, he joined the Communist base in Jiangxi and participated in the Long March. He fought the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War and then the Nationalists during the Chinese Civil War. Once victory was obtained, he went to Vietnam to help Hồ Chí Minh against the French during the First Indochina War and then participated in the Korean War with the People's Volunteer Army. He became a senior general in 1955. He then founded an academy of military technologies but died before finalizing the ballistic missile and nuclear weapons programs.